Phylum arthropoda visual bee

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Phylum arthropoda visual bee

  1. 1. Topics: 1. ARTHROPODA 2. ECHINODERMATA TREIA PE BENITO & JHODEL BILLOD
  2. 2. PHYLUM ARTHROPODA Gk. “arthros”– joint + “podos”– foot
  3. 3. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS • Common throughout marine, freshwater, terrestrial, and even aerial environments • Body usually segmented and jointed externally (divided into 3 major parts: head, thorax, abdomen) with appendages that are equipped for feeding, sensory reception, defense, and locomotion; with hardened exoskeleton containing chitin and molted at intervals
  4. 4. Complete digestive tract (mandible-chewing or proboscissucking) with a dorsal heart and a ventral nervous system Sensory organs include antennae and hairs, simple and compound eye Reproduces (mostly sexually), one to several larval stage
  5. 5. The muscle system is more or less assisted by hydraulics originated from the blood pressure created by the heart Respiration through gills, trachea, book lungs or body surface With open circulatory system. Haemolymph that contains haemocyanin, a copper-based oxygen-carrying protein
  6. 6. REPRESENTATIVE ORGANISMS: Ants, Butterfly, Grasshopper, Beetles, Lobsters, Spiders etc. SUBPHYLUM TRILOBITOMORPHA • CLASS TRILOBITA – Trilobites SUBPHYLUM CHELICERATA • CLASS ARACHNIDA – Spiders, Scorpions, Ticks • CLASS MEROSTOMATA – Horseshoe crabs • CLASS PYCNOGONIDA – Sea spiders
  7. 7. • CLASS CEPHALOCARIDA – Horseshoe shrimp • CLASS MAXILLOPODA – Barnacles, and Fish lice • CLASS MALACOSTRATA – Lobsters, Crabs, and Shrimps
  8. 8. SUBPHYLUM MARIAPODA • CLASS CHILOPODA – Centipedes • CLASS DIPLOPODA - Millipedes SUBPHYLUM HEXAPODA • CLASS INSECTA – Insects SUBPHYLUM CRUSTACEA • Class Branchiopoda – Brine shrimp
  9. 9. CLASS CRUSTACEA Lobsters, Crabs and Shrimps
  10. 10. CLASS INSECTA Ants, Beetles and Bugs
  11. 11. CLASS MEROSTOMATA Horseshoe crabs
  12. 12. MAJOR PARTS OF AN INSECT
  13. 13. • Insects that have piercing and sucking mouthparts are called BUGS while BEETLES are insects distinguished as those having forewings modified into hard wing cases that cover and protect the hind wings and abdomen!
  14. 14. CLASS ARACHNIDA Spiders, Ticks and Scorpions
  15. 15. CLASS CHILOPODA Centipedes
  16. 16. CLASS DIPLOPODA Millipedes
  17. 17. CLASS TRILOBITA Trilobites
  18. 18. Metamorphosis Metamorphosis refers to the stages in development of an insect. This stages are : eggs, larva, pupa, and adult
  19. 19. • Metamorphosis consisting of all these three stages is described as complete metamorphosis or holometabola.
  20. 20. HOLOMETABOLA
  21. 21. • Some insects undergo incomplete metamorphosis or hemimetabola when the larva stage is not conspicuous.
  22. 22. HEMIMETABOLA
  23. 23. • In other insects. The young that from the egg undergoes little or no structural changes, as they grow older. Such pattern of development is called ametabolab.
  24. 24. AMETABOLA
  25. 25. LIFE CYCLES OF SOME INSECTS
  26. 26. LIFE CYCLE OF A DRAGONFLY (CLASS INSECTA ORDER ODONATA)
  27. 27. LIFE CYCLE OF A FRUIT FLY (CLASS INSECTA ORDER DIPTERA)
  28. 28. LIFE CYCLE OF A BUTTERFLY (CLASS INSECTA ORDER LEPIDOPTERA)
  29. 29. LIFE CYCLE OF A GRASSHOPPER (CLASS INSECTA ORDER ORTHOPTERA)
  30. 30. PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA
  31. 31. • Echinoderms are chiefly marine invertebrates. They have bodies covered with spines. Their bodies are composed of calcuim
  32. 32. • They have a water vascular system , which function for locomotion, respiration, and feeding. The tips of the tube feet contain most of the organism’s sensory neurons. The tube feet are used to attach to objects, for protection, as well as to obtain food.
  33. 33. ● Sexual reproduction in echinoderms usually involves the release of gametes by separate males and females into the seawater. ●The radial adults develop by metamorphosis from bilateral larvae.
  34. 34. ● The radial appearance of most adult echinoderms is the result of a secondary adaptation to a sessile lifestyle. - Their larvae are clearly bilateral and even echinoderm adults are not truly radial in their anatomy.
  35. 35. ● All 7,000 or so species of echinoderms are marine. ● They are divided into six classes:      Asteroidea (sea stars) Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars) Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars) Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers)
  36. 36. CLASS ASTEROIDEA (SEA STARs) Example : Asterias forbesi
  37. 37. Class Main characteristics Asteroidea (Starfish@ sea star) •Five arms (sometimes more). • Bear tube feet, which act like a suction disc, part of water vascular system. • Mouth generally lower (oral) surface of body, anus on upper (aboral) surface.
  38. 38. CLASS HOLOTHUROIDEA (SEA CUCUMBER) Example : Holothuria floridana
  39. 39. Class Main characteristics Holothuroidea (Sea cucumber) • Elongated. • Lack spines. • Hard endoskeleton is reduced. • Five rows of tube feet, part of water vascular system. • Some of the tube feet around the mouth are developed as feeding tentacles.
  40. 40. CLASS CRINOIDEA E.g. Featherstar
  41. 41. Class Main characteristics Crinoidea (Sea Lilies) • Attached to the substratum by stalked. • As a group, they use their arms in suspension-feeding. • The arms circle the mouth.
  42. 42. • This is the oldest and most primitive of all classes of echinoderms. • The sea lily is attached to the substratum by a long stalk and thus sessile. • Sea lily is star-shaped, and posses long feather arms around the mouth (oral) which is on the upper side, and has no spine in its body wall.
  43. 43. CLASS ECHINOIDEA E.g Sea Urchin
  44. 44. Class Main characteristics Echinoidea (Sea urchin & sand dollars) • Have no arms. • Have 5rows of tube feet that function in slow movement. • Sea urchins are roughly spherical while san dollars are flattened & disc shape.
  45. 45. • Sea urchin has no arm, but has five bands of tube feet. • Its body is spherical, and is covered with long spines. • The plates of the endoskeleton are fused to form a rigid structure. • The mouth is on the oral surface, and the intestine is long and coiled.
  46. 46. Keyhole urchin's body is covered with skin, muscle tissue, and short, fine spines that are used for burrowing. Rows of tube feet extend through holes forming the five "petals" on the top side.
  47. 47. CLASS OPHIUROIDEA E.g. Ophiothrixsp
  48. 48. Class Main characteristics Ophiuroidea (Brittle star) • Distinct central discs, & the arms are long & flexible. • Their tube feet lack suckers & move by serpentine lashing of the arms.
  49. 49. Role of Echinodermata • Star fish- Threaten the coral reef. • Crown-of-thorns starfish (animal with venomous spines). • The only real predator of the dark starfish is the triton. But triton are being over-harvested, allowing the starfish to increase its numbers. • Because the main food of the crown-of-thorns starfish is coral, and the starfish population continues to grow, the coral reef ecosystem is being thrown out of balance.

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