A performance study on the vm startup time in the cloud


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Amazon Web Service, EC2, Windows Azure, Rackspace, Spot Instances, VM Image, OS,

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A performance study on the vm startup time in the cloud

  1. 1. 1A Performance Study on the VM Startup Time in the Cloud Cloud 2012 (June 25, Honolulu, Hawaii) Ming Mao, Marty Humphrey CS Department, University of Virginia
  2. 2. Introduction2  One great advantage of the cloud is dynamic scalability, BUT…  Only meaningful when the compute resource is available in time  The fact is that acquired instances are NOT ready immediately  Why study the cloud VM startup time  Important to time sensitive applications  Important to resource auto-scaling mechanisms  Inconsistent definitions across cloud providers  To set up a reference for the community  To know the difference from two years ago
  3. 3. Experiment setup3 Type OS Image Location  AWS, Windows Azure, Amazon EC2 Rackspace m1.small Linux(Fedora) ami-48aa4921 us-east-1a m1.small Windows (Win Server 2008) us-east-1a  Oct 15th, 2011 – Feb 15th 2012 ami-fbf93092 Windows Azure  A client periodically collects the Small WebRole South instance startup information default WebRole app in Azure SDK Central US Small WorkerRole South  By different factors – time, default WorkerRole app in Azure SDK Central US Small VMRole South image size, machine type, Win Server 2008R2 Central US Rackspace location, etc. Type IV Linux (Fedora) flavor 71 N/A Type IV Windows (Win Server 2008R2) flavor 28 N/A VM Definition of VM startup time Linux VMs The first successful ssh login Windows VMs The first successful remote desktop connection WebRoles The first successful http request WorkerRoles The first successful logging
  4. 4. Results (1) – by time4 Cloud OS Average VM startup time EC2 Linux 96.9 seconds EC2 Windows 810.2 seconds Azure WebRole 374.8 seconds Azure WorkerRole 406.2 seconds Azure VMRole 356.6 seconds Rackspace Linux 44.2 seconds Rackspace Windows 429.2 seconds
  5. 5. Results (2) – by image size5 Cloud Average Data Transfer Rate between VM and Image Store EC2 10.9 MB/s Azure 1.1MB/s Rackspace 22.5 MB/s
  6. 6. Results (3) – by machine type6  Azure, Rackspace – the VM startup time goes longer as the instance type goes larger  EC2 – no significant differences among different instance types, except the micro ones
  7. 7. Results (4) – by location7  No significant differences among locations  EC2 - The newly established data center has a slightly slower startup performance and greater variance
  8. 8. Results (5) – multiple instances8  EC2 – VM startup time is relatively constant.  Azure – the last VM instance sometimes took significantly longer than the first one.  RS – does not support instance acquisition in batch
  9. 9. Results (6 - 1) – spot instances, by time9  Spot instances have a longer waiting time but similar VM startup performance compared to on-demand instances
  10. 10. Results (6 - 2) – spot instances, by vm type10  Similar to on-demand instances, the VM startup time shows no significant differences across different machine types
  11. 11. Results (6 - 3) – spot instances, by location11  The US east region shows longer spot instance acquisition time
  12. 12. Results (6 - 4) – spot instances, multiple instances12  Similar to on-demand instances, spot instances show constant performance across all the 16 machines acquired at the same time
  13. 13. Results (6 - 5) – spot instances, by real-time price13  No significant relations between the VM startup time and the real-time price
  14. 14. Result (7) – other facts14  Spot instances are not always cheaper than on- demand VMs  Acquisition requests are not always successfully served (unusable machines). Cloud Success Rate VM Release Time EC2 99.2% 3-8 seconds Azure 99.6% 8-21 seconds Rackspace 92.0% 3-8 seconds
  15. 15. Summary15  Summary  VM startup time is independent of time of the day.  EC2, Rackspace - Windows instances take 9 times longer than Linux instances. Azure - all three Role instances show similar performances.  Both the size of the OS image and the instance type can largely affect the VM startup time.  spot instances - longer VM startup time and greater variance  RS had a higher instance acquisition failure rate (8%) > EC2 (0.8%) & Azure (0.4%).  Azure – 200-second improvement and smaller variances; EC2 – performance does not change.
  16. 16. Questions16 Thank you!