Cloud computing virtualization


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Cloud computing virtualization

  1. 1.  Introduction The Cloud Ecosystem Virtualization Virtual Infrastructure Management Virtual Infrastructure Manager (OpenNebula) Conclusion Question/Answer Session References
  2. 2.  What is cloud computing? In General, › A simple metaphor for the internet, based on the symbol used to represent the worlwide network in computer network diagrams In technical terms › Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g. networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.[*] * The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing by Peter Mell, Timothy Grance, Sep 2011
  3. 3.  Characteristics of Cloud model › On-demand self-service › Broad Network Access › Resource pooling › Rapid elasticity › Measured services
  4. 4.  Architectural Layers of Cloud Computing › Software as a service (SaaS)  Offers a complete application as a service on demand  A single instance of software runs on cloud and provides service to multiple end users or organizations  Examples are Google apps, etc. › Platform as a service (PaaS)  Encapsulates a layer of software and provides it as service which is used to build higher-level services  Consumers creates the software using tools and libraries from the provider  Consumer controls deployment and configuration settings  Provider provides networks, servers and storage  Example, Google Apps Engine
  5. 5.  Architectural Layers of Cloud Computing (cont) › Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)  Most basic cloud service model  Provider provides computers (physical or a virtual machine), storage, firewalls, and networks  Provider provides these facilities on demand  Consumer is responsible for maintaining application software and operating system  Cloud provider bill the consumer on the basis of amount of resources allocated and consumed
  6. 6.  Cloud Computing Infrastructure Model › Public Clouds  Run by third parties  Resources like applications and storage is available to general public over internet for free or on a pay-per- usage model › Private Clouds  Build for exclusive use of one client  Provides utmost control over data, security and QoS  Provides access to external resources through web services › Hybrid Clouds  Hybrid cloud uses local infrastructure with cloud computing capacity from public cloud
  7. 7.  Cloud ecosystem consists of : 1. Cloud Consumers 2. Cloud Management  Used for controlling and monitoring of virtualized resources  Contains cloud toolkits like, Amazon EC2, Globus Nimbus and Eucalyptus 3. Virtual Infrastructure Management  Used for schedule and manage virtual machines across multiple hosts  It contains tools like OpenNebula, Vmware vSphere for infrastructure management 4. Virtual Machine Manager  Xen, KVM, Vmware etc
  8. 8.  What is virtualization? › Virtualization is the creation of virtual (instead of actual ) version of something, such as an operating system, a server, a storage device or network resources.[*] * Definition from
  9. 9.  Types of Virtualization 1. Server Virtualization 2. Storage Virtualization 3. Network I/O virtualization
  10. 10.  Server Virtualization › There are three popular approaches to server virtualization 1. Virtual Machine Model  Based on host/guest pradigm  Each guest runs on a virtual imitation of hardware layer  Guest operating systems runs without modification  Guest requires real computing resources therefore it uses a virtual machine monitor (VMM) to coordinate instructions to cpu  Examples are VMware and Microsoft Virtual server
  11. 11.  Server Virtualization (cont) 2. Paravirtual machine Model  Based on host/guest model  Uses VMM  VMM can access and modify the guest operating system code. This modification is called Porting  Paravirtual machines are capable of running multiple operating systems  Examples are, Xen and UML
  12. 12.  Server Virtualization (cont) 3. Virtualization at operating system layer  Host runs a single OS kernel as its core and exports operating system functionality to each of the guest  Guest must use the same operating system as the host  Different distributions of same system are allowed  Common binaries and libraries of host are shared in this model, allowing thousands of guest to host at the same time  Examples are, OpenVZ and Linux-Vserver
  13. 13.  Storage Virtualization › Pooling of physical storage from multiple network storage devices into single storage device › Storage pool is managed from a central console › Used in Storage Area Network (SAN) › Storage virtualization helps in backup, archiving and recovery more easily and in less time
  14. 14.  Network I/O Virtualization › Virtual machines are logical computing entities on a physical computers › VMs are realized on top of virtualization software layer that presents abstraction of the underlying physical resources › Network I/O virtualization provides multiple VMs to share common bandwidth and network links
  15. 15.  Network I/O virtualization (cont) › Network bridging  Network bridging is the first step in network virtualization
  16. 16.  Network I/O virtualization (cont) › To address the complexity and performance issues following hardware and software oriented approaches are used 1. NIC Bonding Software oriented Hardware 1. Virtual Machine Device Queues (VMDq) oriented 2. Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV)
  17. 17.  Network I/O virtualization (cont) › Nic Bonding  Software oriented approach  It groups multiple physical network links and provide the Network bandwidth as an aggregate logic to the VMs
  18. 18.  Network I/O virtualization (cont) › Virtual Machine Device Queues (VMDq)  Hardware oriented approach  It is implemented at chipset level  VMDq handles parallel queues of packets and routes them to appropriate VM  Network throughput can reach up to 9.5Gbps compared to 4Gbps without VMDq
  19. 19.  Network I/O Virtualization (cont) › Single Root I/O Virtualization (SR-IOV)  It is a feature of Peripheral component Interconnect (PCI)  Multiple VMs running on a single computer can share natively a single PCI device  This feature helps reducing overheads in resource sharing and overheads in controlling network I/O virtualization
  20. 20.  Network I/O Virtualization › Challenges 1. Each host has hundreds of VMs and VNICs which increases complexity and management of each host 2. Complexity of packet multiplexing. 3. The ever increasing line rate. A line rate of 10Gbps or more at host is expected which can add workload at the host cpu
  21. 21.  Network I/O virtualization (cont) › Virtual Switching with Intelligent NICs  Each NIC has its own packet processor  Offloads the processing work from CPU
  22. 22.  Provide a uniform and homogenous view of virtualized resources, regardless of virtualization platform Manage VMs lifecycle Setting up networks dynamically for group of VMs Managing storage requirements Support resource allocation to meet organization’s specific goals Adapt to organization’s changing resource needs
  23. 23.  OpenNebula › To control VM’s life cycle, the OpenNebula core orchestrates three different management areas: 1. Image and storage technologies  Virtual tools for preparing disk images for VMs 2. The network fabric  DHCP servers, firewalls and switches 3. Underlying hypervisors  For creating and controlling VMs
  24. 24.  OpenNebula (cont) › The OpenNebula core also supports service deployment  Services typically include set of interrelated components requiring several VMs › The core handles the delivery of context information  Web server’s IP address, digital certificates and software licenses
  25. 25.  OpenNebula (cont) › A separate scheduler component makes VM placement decisions  Creating and updating resource schedule and sending appropriate deployment command to OpenNebula core  The default scheduler provides a rank scheduling policy that places VMs on physical resources according to ranking algorithm that the administrator can configure  It relies on real time data from both the running VMs and available physical resources
  26. 26.  OpenNebula (cont) › OpenNebula can support a hybrid cloud model  Uses cloud drivers to interface with external clouds  It helps organizations supplement the local infrastructure with computing capacity from public cloud to meet peak demands  Includes EC2 driver which can submit requests to Amazon EC2 and Eucalyptus and also includes ElasticHosts driver
  27. 27. OpenNebula VI Engine Components
  28. 28.  The Haizea lease Manager › Open source resource lease manager › Can act as a VM scheduler for OpenNebula › Simulator to evaluate different scheduling strategies performance over time › Haizea provides resources to users on lease terms › Haizea supports advance reservation lease in which resources must be available at a specific time › Best effort lease in which resources are allocated as soon as possible › Immediate lease in which resources are provisioned when requested.
  29. 29. Comparison of tools providing VIM capabilitiesTool Provisioning Default Placement Policies Configurable Support For hybrid Cloud Remote Model Placement Interface Policies sAmazon Best Effort Proprietary Proprietary No EC2 WebEC2 services APIVMware Immediate Initial placement on CPU No Only when both the local vCloudvSphere load and dynamic and external cloud use API placement to balance vSphere average CPU or memory load and consolidate serversOpenNebul Best-effort Initial placement based on Support for any Driver-based architecture Noa 1.2 requirement/rank policies to static/dynamic allows interfacing with prioritize those resources placement multiple external clouds; more suitable for the virtual policy supports EC2-compatible machine (VM) using dynamic clouds and ElasticHosts information and dynamic placement to consolidate serversOpenNebul Immediate, Dynamic placement to VM placement Driver-based architecture Noa 1.2/ best-effort, implement AR leases strategies allows interfacing withHaizea and supporting multiple external clouds; advance queues and supports EC2-compatible reservation priorities clouds and ElasticHosts (AR)
  30. 30.  As private and hybrid IaaS clouds grows, the need for a diverse ecosystem of tools and technologies to create and manage clouds also grows Private and hybrid clouds will also face the challenge of efficiently managing finite resources Virtualization leads to better resource utilization Increase performance
  31. 31.  Network I/O virtualization for cloud computing, by Yan Lou, University of Massachusetts Lowell Virtual Infrastructure Management in Private and Hybrid Clouds, by Borja Sotomayor, Unv. Of Chicago, Ruben S. Montero and Ignacio M.Liorente, Universidad Complutense de Madrid and Ian Foster, Argonne National laboratory, Unv. Of Chicago Introduction to Cloud Computing Architecture, white paper, 1st Edition, June 2009, by Sun Microsystem NIST definition of Cloud Computing by Peter Mell and Timothy Grance, September 2011