TRENDS AND ISSUES
IN EDUCATION FOR MATHEMATICAL
NAME NO MATRIK
ATINA HASANAH BINTI MOHD
NUR SHUHADA SURIA BINTI
FATIN AMIRA BINTI YUNUS D20121058529
GROUP : A
LECTURER : Dr. MOHD FAIZAL NIZAM LEE BIN
There is consensus that the education of children is one of the key vehicles
engendering the development of economies (UNESCO, 2009). However, the
distribution of resources and its consequent effects on rural-urban schooling
performance has remained a serious issue in most developing countries. Despite a
rising focus by governments to target rural areas for special assistance, rural-urban
disparities in education performance have remained a problem.
Malaysian education programmes have continued to emphasize increasingly
on accessibility, equity and quality, strengthening the delivery system, as well as
improving the achievement of rural students to reduce the performance gap between
rural and urban areas (Malaysia, 2003: 102). During the Eighth Malaysia Plan (2001-
2005), RM43.7 billion or 26% of the government development fund was allocated for
education and training. Of this, about RM7 billion or 16 per cent was for primary school
education and RM11 billion or a quarter was for secondary school education. On
average, the development expenditure for primary schools came to around RM440
per student per year as compared with RM1740 for secondary schools.
Many schools in the area of education in recent past seemed to have shifted
studies from the measures of individual to the measure of the environment. The reason
that could be adduced for this trend ranges from the accurate prediction which
measures of environment could bring to learning in order to possibly manipulate the
environment so as to bring about optimal conditions for learning. For quite some time,
a general perception of the comparative inferiority of rural schools has prevailed. This
view implies the existence of rural-urban differences in students’ academic
The general perception of rural urban differences also extends to many other
socially desirable outcomes, such as aptitude, intelligence and aspiration (De Young
and Lawrence, 1995; Herzog and Pittman, 1995). Until recently, there has been little
empirical evidence to challenge this view. Now, however, a growing body of work has
begun to examine how well students perform in and after graduation from rural
schools. Although the results are far from conclusive, they do suggest that some
generally held beliefs about rural student achievement need review, if not revision.
This concern about potential rural – urban differences in education outcomes is not
limited to one country, but rather it appears to be a global issue.
DIFFERENCES IN ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
At the rural areas, family is one of the factors that determine their child
performance. In this study, students in rural areas have low performance compared to
students in urban areas because it is relate to their parents education. Majority of
parents in rural areas are less educated than parents in urban areas. The family
background is the most important and weighty factor in determining the academic
performance of learners (Adell, 2002: 91). Survey found that, rural students felt no
pressure to attain good performance when their parents’ expectations towards
education were low. Parental encouragement has a positive influence towards their
child performance and at rural areas most of parents did not care about their child
academic performance. Some experts believe that parent expectations is the most
influential factor affecting youth decisions to pursue education
The first institution of a child where he learns is his home. A child passes most
of his time with his parents and learns from his parents and the environment provided
to him by his parents in home. Parents play a vital role in the education of their child,
whatever child’s age is, (either he read in college or in school). If parents pay attention
to their children, they make more scholastic achievements than those who are ignored.
If parents take care of following things, they can improve the education of their
Give more time to children.
Spare time in busy routine, for the children. If you keep on ignoring your
children, it will make them feel irresponsible and they will lose interest in study. Spend
time with your children as much as possible and discuss with them about their studies
daily. Ask them daily, what they read in school or college today. Help them in their
studies, if possible. Talk to them about the how can they improve. Make them aware
of the importance of study in their life. By this way, children start taking interest in their
studies and they do well in exam. If you do not give them time you cannot expect that
they well do well in their academics.
Provide them a supportive environment in home.
Home environment affects a student life a lot. Create a loving environment
having good relationships among all family members which has a good impact on the
mind of your children so that they can study well. If the environment of home stresses
children, they will not be able to concentrate on their studies. Create a supportive and
educational environment in home. Don’t do such activities which can absorb the
attention of your children while they study like turn off television when they study.
Provide them a quiet place for study where they can study with more concentration
and interest. Paste some charts or tables (having study material) on the walls of home.
Encourage your children.
Appreciate if they do well in exam and if they get less grades encourage them
for hard work. By appreciating them for their achievements in exam, they start to
struggle more to get more appreciation. Encouraging them if they fail or get less marks
enables them to stand again and start with new determination.
Make link with the school or college teachers of your children.
Visit their school college once a week and ask the relevant teacher about the
studies of your children. It will give you the idea about the study of your children. You
come to know about the weakness of your children and then try to improve accordingly.
If you ask the their teacher, your children will study whole heartedly
Discuss with your children about their problems.
Your children may have some problems which hinder their study. Ask your
children if they have some problems and try to solve their problem. Be friendly while
discussing with them about their problems so that they can discuss openly.
Keep watch on the activities of your children.
Have watch on the daily activities of your children and see they may not be
utilizing their energy and time in un-necessary activities. They may not be wasting time
in playing game or watching movies for a lot of time. Never suspect on your children
but have watch on their activities in a way so that they may not feel that you are
suspecting on them.
Improve the study habits of your children.
Advise your children about how to develop study habits. Make your children
sleep in time and get up early in the morning. Make them sit for study if they do not,
so that they develop the study habit. Show them the tips for good study and
preparation for exam. Stop them from useless activities.
Your behavior while advising them
You should have balance in your love and strictness to your children. Have love
while advising your children for studies Have authoritative behavior while prohibiting
them from some things. Never beat them but strictly prohibit them from wasting time
or unnecessary activities or wrong manners etc so that can take it serious and follow
Many people emphasize the importance of good teachers, and many local,
state, and federal policies are designed to promote teacher quality. Research using
student scores on standardized tests confirms the common perception that some
teachers are more effective than others and also reveals that being taught by an
effective teacher has important consequences for student achievement.
It’s important to note that there are individual teachers who are highly effective
although they lack one or more of these qualities, just as there are ineffective teachers
who have all of them. But on average, the presence rather than absence of these
qualities is more likely to produce effective teaching.
An effective teacher loves to teach.
The single most important quality that every teacher should possess is a love and
passion for teaching young people. Unfortunately, there are teachers who do not love
what they do. This single factor can destroy a teacher’s effectiveness quicker than
anything else. Teachers who do not enjoy their job cannot possibly be effective day in
and day out. There are too many discouraging factors associated with teaching that is
difficult enough on a teacher who absolutely loves what they do, much less on one
who doesn’t have the drive, passion, or enthusiasm for it. On top of that, kids are
smarter than what we give them credit for. They will spot a fake sooner than anyone
and thus destroy any credibility that the teacher may have.
An effective teacher demonstrates a caring attitude.
Even teachers who love their job can struggle in this area, not because they don’t care,
but because they get caught up so much in the day to day routine of teaching that they
can forget that their students have lives outside of school. Taking the time to get to
know a student on a personal level takes a lot of time and dedication. There is also a
line that no teacher wants to cross where their relationship becomes too personal.
Elite teachers know how to balance this without crossing that line and once a student
believes the teacher truly cares for them, then there is no limit to what that student can
An effective teacher can relate to his or her students.
The best teachers work hard to figure out how to relate to each of their students.
Common interest can be hard to find, but exceptional teachers will find a way to
connect with their students even if they have to fake it. For instance, you may have a
student who is a Lego fanatic. You can relate to that student if you do something as
simple as ordering a Lego catalog and then going through it and discussing it with that
student. Even if you have no actual interest in Lego’s, the student will think you do and
thus naturally create a connection.
An effective teacher is willing to think outside the box.
There is no one set cookie cutter way to teach. A cookie cutter approach would likely
be boring for both teachers and students. What makes teaching so exciting is that kids
learn differently, and we have to find and utilize different strategies and differentiated
learning to reach every student. What works for one student, will not work for every
student. Teachers have to be willing to be creative and adaptive in their lessons,
thinking outside the box on a continual basis. If you try to teach every concept in the
same manner, there will be students who miss out on key factors because they aren’t
wired to learn that way.
An effective teacher is an excellent communicator.
To be the best possible teacher you must be an effective communicator. However, in
this area you are not just limited to being a skilled communicator to your students
although that is a must. You must also be a strong communicator with parents of your
students as well as your faculty/staff team within in your building. If you have a difficulty
communicating with any of these three groups, then you limit your overall effectiveness
as a teacher.
For students with special needs, participation in transition planning is critical.
Students must be willing to participate in planning for their future. Opportunities should
be provided for students to actively participate in transition planning meetings and
provide suggestions for identifying and accomplishing goals for the future.
As students mature, their input becomes essential to the decision-making
process. However, students would benefit from preparation prior to attending meetings
with school personnel and parents. The following suggestions may be helpful in
preparing students to actively participate:
Advise students of meetings early enough for them to work with family members
and teachers to formulate questions and statements of concerns or preferences
concerning issues that may be discussed.
Advise students of the purpose of the meeting, the general format of the
meeting, and those invited to attend and the reason for their attendance.
Advise students of the role they will be expected to play and the input that will
be sought (for example, why they cannot get their homework done; the type of
classroom they prefer; preferred leisure-time activities or club preferences;
personal vocational goals; living preferences).
If appropriate, provide students with information or questions that they may be
asked and provide them with the opportunity to prepare answers.
Provide communication skills training specific to the demands of the meeting,
including role-playing when appropriate.
Have discussions prior to the meeting to determine the student’s emotional
status and stress level and to assist the student in preparing emotionally for the
During the meeting, the student may need support and encouragement to
ensure and enhance active participation. Opportunities to participate can occur when
team members solicit input from the student. To assure that the student understands
the discussion, information or explanations should be included throughout the
meeting. Student participation should be encouraged during the meeting by
acknowledging their comments and recognizing that they should have a strong voice
in the activities that affect them. Participation is not only a right, but also an opportunity
to practice those skills that will be necessary for their independence as an adult.
HOW TO OVERCOME THE PROBLEM
Educational research has examined rural and urban differences in their
achievement. Many educators, researchers, legislators and the general public believe
that students from rural schools mostly receive an education that is inferior compared
to the students that live in urban areas. Students background also impact on their
performance where we can see that many of the students that lives in rural areas has
low academic achievement when we compared it with the students that lives in urban
areas. There are many factors that cause to the gap performance between students
in rural and urban areas. Students in urban schools get many excess compared to
students in rural schools. The National Education Association said that the low
performing youth are in public rural schools (Brown & Swanson, 2001).
The excellent performance of urban students is because of their better quality
in their education, availability of the information that they get from various sources like
mass media and electronic media, their educated families and peers groups which
help them for better performance. They have many advantages and facilities in their
education compared to rural students. Students in rural areas less exposed to the
outside world and also lack of knowledge about the currents issues that happen.
Education is proving to be effective instrument that can raise students’ self-belief,
forethought, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Students that lives in undeveloped
village must try to attain the best education for them and do not make their living
environment as one of the factors that be a barrier in their success. We also can see
that students in rural areas are much less likely to earn a college degree than students
of urban areas. The disparity is highest in rural areas where only 8 percent of rural
residents over age 25 have a college degree, compared with 16 percent of the
residents in urban areas (U. S. Bureau of the Census, 1999). So from these, we can
clarify that, there is a gap of performance between students that live in rural and urban
areas due to some factors.
The students itself should realize the importance of education in their future lives. If
they want a better life in the future they must study hard to get a good performance.
Usually students at rural area does not care about their education and most of them
dropout from schooling. This is because they do not have motivation in their study and
their parents also did not care about their performance. So in order to overcome the
gap performance between students in rural and urban areas, rural students should set
their mind that education is important to change their lives. When they have a mindset
that education is important, they will study hard in order to get a good achievement.
The teacher is an important force in school learning. Teachers also one of the sources
that can help in overcomes the problem of low performance among rural students.
Teachers can help in encouraging the students to study hard and help them to
complete most of their work at school during study time, where students can ask
teachers if they do not understand about the lesson. If they are doing work at home,
nobody can help them since their parents might not be able to assist because most of
parents in rural areas have less education. Teachers should encourage their students
to participate in many activities because it will give them the opportunity to build their
self-confident and positive self-esteem. Besides that, teacher also can create a caring
and supportive environment where students will feel more comfortable during their
learning. Good relationship between students and teacher also good in order to
improve students’ performance where when teachers are close with the students,
students will feel easy and not shy to ask anything that they do not understand.
PARENT AND ENVIRONMENT
While the teachers play their role at school, parents should play their roles at home.
Although parents in rural areas have no education, they can help their children
performance in terms of giving them moral supports and motivation to learn. Even they
cannot help in terms of provide resources to learn, they can give a support to their
child to study hard to change the fate of their family. Parents should realize how
important of education to their child and their future. Parents can always ask their child
about their learning progress and accompanied them during doing their work. They
also must always care about their child performance and monitor their progress.
District Education Office and the parties must prepare a report containing diagnosis
student achievement. Classroom organization plays an important role in attracting
students follow the teaching and learning of mathematics. Headmaster / Principal of
the school as an organization administrator must explain clearly the matters relating
to the Mathematics Panel like in structure and organization, its aims and objectives
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
Government has to play a role in improving educational outcomes for rural students.
Government should provide enough facilities to the schools that located in rural areas
same as the urban schools. Besides that, government also must provide a financial
support to the students that lives in rural areas where we know that most of them come
from low income families and not affordable to gain a better education and services.
Facilities that were provided must be fair and equal treatment should be given to rural
schools same like urban schools. In addition, best educators also should be placed in
rural schools because they can help students to improve their performance. Good
teachers will produce good students. Most important is government should ensure that
teachers are adequately qualified to teach the subject that allocated for them and they
can do their work properly. Education department also should visit all schools to
establish and verify their needs to ensure that resources are allocated in line with their
needs and status.
The study presented the differences of performances between students in rural and
urban areas. Rural and urban schools are characterized by its unique strength and
weaknesses. “Rural and urban schools are much the same when it comes to
resources and learning environments” (EQR, 2003, p.45). Yet there are many
variables that affect students’ achievement and those variables are directly related to
whether a school is considered a rural or an urban school. Some factors that contribute
to the gap performances between students in these two areas were determined and
also recommendations in order to overcome this problem were suggested. Although
some recommendations have been highlighted, solutions might not be easy for them.
The suggestions for improving the performance among rural students is that they must
understand their environment properly, and maintain their inner resources like self-efficacy
and self-esteem. From this study we can conclude that, there have differences
between student performance in rural and urban schools. Students that lives in urban
area will get high performance excel opportunities provided by their location. Urban
students have greater access to many resources and therefore have opportunities that
are not easily accessible to rural students. Besides that urban parents were more
professional and they realize the advantage of education. Parents of rural students
were less likely to expect their children to advance their education. From the
comparison of this study we can know what the differences between rural and urban
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