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TERMINATING
THEORY & PRODUCTS
cause serious injury or death. Installation should be performed by
personnel familiar with good safety practice in handlin...
CLASS 1 TERMINATION
(IEEE Standard 48)
• Electric Stress Control
for the Cable Shield Terminus
• External Leakage Insulati...
I. STRESS CONTROL
Semi-conducting Shield Layer
For the Cable Shield Terminus
NO STRESS CONTROL
Traditional
GEOMETRIC STRESS CONE
DIELECTRIC (HIGH-K) STRESS CONTROL
High-K (high dielectric constant) material is used
to reduce stress at the shield disco...
HI-K STRESS CONTROL
EXAMPLE: Snell’s Law of Refraction
TRADITIONAL
STRESS CONE
TERMINATION
HIGH-K
STRESS CONTROL
TERMINATION
II. EXTERNAL LEAKAGE INSULATION
Between Conductor & Ground
THE
INSULATOR
FLASHOVER PROTECTION TRACKING PROTECTION
BIL per ...
TRACKING
• MOISTURE
- Humidity
- Fog
- Condensation
- Mist
- Snow
- Rain
• CONTAMINATION
- Dust
- Chemicals
- Salt
- Other...
DISCHARGE
FORMATION Surface Resistance
Reduced When Wet
DRY BANDS
ELECTRICAL
DISCHARGES
(Generated in
Dry Band Areas)
(Are...
Ways To
CONTROL TRACKING
3. Track Resistant Materials
- Porcelain
- Silicone Rubber
- Inorganic Fillers in EVA (Heat Shrin...
Advantages of Silicone Rubber as
INSULATOR MATERIAL
4. Silicone is Mostly Inorganic --
(No Conducting Carbon Path)
3. Sili...
Examples
HYDROPHOBIC & HYDROPHILIC
SILICONE RUBBER PORCELAIN
Hydrophilic
(Surface “Wets”)
Hydrophobic
(Water “Balls-up”)
HYDROPHOBIC
VS
HYDROPHILIC
HYDROPHOBIC HYDROPHILIC
Contact Angle
Energy from leakage current can cause
insulator surfaces ...
Recovery of Contact Angle for
SILICONE RUBBER TERMINATIONS
Recovery of Contact Angle
24 Hrs. (Recovered)
90 Deg. Recovery
...
SILICONE RUBBER INSULATOR
Coated with ASTM D-2132 Contaminant
Surface remains “Hydrophobic”
EPDM INSULATOR
UV Damage
SUMMARY and CONCLUSIONS
• Silicone Insulators are superior to EPDM, EVA and
porcelain insulators
• Silicone is more hydrop...
III. SEAL
To the External Environment
Top Seal
Bottom Seal
Potting
Compound(Conductor Seal)
(Jacket Seal)
SEALING
with
TAPE
POTTING
with
RESIN
SEALING
with
HEAT SHRINK
SEALING
with
COLD SHRINK
HEAT SHRINK TERMINATION
Example of
HEAT SHRINK TERMINATION
Raychem HVT
Heat Shrink Termination
INSTALLATION
(2)
Stress Control
Tube
(1)
Stress Relief
Material
(Semi-con Step
Filler)
(Special To...
(4)
Jacket
Seal
(3)
Top Seal
(6)
Separate
Insulator
Skirts
(5)
Separate
Insulator
Tube
Allow Tube
To Cool
Before
Proceeding
Shrink
Evenly
With no
Tilt ...
COMPLETED
TERMINATION(S)
Outdoor Termination
(with skirts)
Indoor Termination
(same, but without skirts)
COLD SHRINK TERMINATION
Examples of Silicone Rubber
COLD SHRINK TERMINATIONS
Joslyn JPT &
Plymouth/Bishop ColdTerm
3M™ QT-II Termination 3M™ QT-II...
Examples of Silicone Rubber
COLD APPLIED (Shrink) TERMINATIONS
Raychem TFT
Twist & slide off of
holdout tube onto cable
“H...
Typical Cold Shrink Termination
INSTALLATION
Apply mastic
seal around jacket
& neutral wires
Apply silicone
grease to fill...
Install termination
by removing
supporting core
Complete top seal
with application
of silicone rubber
tape
COMPLETED
TERMINATION(S)
Outdoor Termination
(With Skirts)
Indoor Termination
(Tubular, without Skirts)
BENEFITS of COLD SHRINK
• Environmentally Stable Materials
• Broad Application Range
• Live Seal
• Good Interfacial Pressu...
INTRODUCING: 3M™ QT-III Termination
IMPROVED SILICONE RUBBER
Cold Shrink Termination
• SMALLER SIZE - Easier mounting
• IMPROVED HIGH-K STRESS CONTROL - Impro...
3M™ QT-III Termination
Integrated 1-Piece Design
Silicone Sealing
Compound
High Dielectric Constant
Stress Relief Tube
Str...
SIZE COMPARISON: 15 KV CLASS
- Shorter cable
prep distance
- Accommodates
smaller space in
cabinets
- More versatile for
m...
INVERTED
3M™ QT-III Outdoor Termination
• SILICONE SEALING COMPOUND
No (inverted) bottom seal taping required
Eliminates s...
SUMMARY
“TECHNOLOGY AND THE HUMAN FACTOR”
• Cold Shrink Design for Easier Field Installation
• Factory Assembled Quality -...
Install 3M ™ QT-III Termination
TERMINATION WORKSHOP
3m termination
3m termination
3m termination
3m termination
3m termination
3m termination
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3m termination

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3m termination

  1. 1. TERMINATING THEORY & PRODUCTS
  2. 2. cause serious injury or death. Installation should be performed by personnel familiar with good safety practice in handling high voltage electrical equipment. De-energize and ground all electrical systems before installing product. Caution: Working around energized high-voltage systems may TERMINATING THEORY & PRODUCTS
  3. 3. CLASS 1 TERMINATION (IEEE Standard 48) • Electric Stress Control for the Cable Shield Terminus • External Leakage Insulation between H.V. Conductor and Ground (Tracking Protection) • A Seal to the External Environment
  4. 4. I. STRESS CONTROL Semi-conducting Shield Layer For the Cable Shield Terminus
  5. 5. NO STRESS CONTROL
  6. 6. Traditional GEOMETRIC STRESS CONE
  7. 7. DIELECTRIC (HIGH-K) STRESS CONTROL High-K (high dielectric constant) material is used to reduce stress at the shield discontinuity by field refraction due to different K values of two adjacent dielectric layers.
  8. 8. HI-K STRESS CONTROL
  9. 9. EXAMPLE: Snell’s Law of Refraction
  10. 10. TRADITIONAL STRESS CONE TERMINATION HIGH-K STRESS CONTROL TERMINATION
  11. 11. II. EXTERNAL LEAKAGE INSULATION Between Conductor & Ground THE INSULATOR FLASHOVER PROTECTION TRACKING PROTECTION BIL per (IEEE 48)
  12. 12. TRACKING • MOISTURE - Humidity - Fog - Condensation - Mist - Snow - Rain • CONTAMINATION - Dust - Chemicals - Salt - Other Airborne Particles • VOLTAGE - Surface Stress (V/mil) Three Conditions Must Exist:
  13. 13. DISCHARGE FORMATION Surface Resistance Reduced When Wet DRY BANDS ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES (Generated in Dry Band Areas) (Areas of Higher Surface Resistance) & Concentrated Voltage Gradient
  14. 14. Ways To CONTROL TRACKING 3. Track Resistant Materials - Porcelain - Silicone Rubber - Inorganic Fillers in EVA (Heat Shrink) - Inorganic Fillers in Rubber 2. Rain Shed (Insulator Skirts) 1. Increase Distance from HV to Ground
  15. 15. Advantages of Silicone Rubber as INSULATOR MATERIAL 4. Silicone is Mostly Inorganic -- (No Conducting Carbon Path) 3. Silicone is Inherently UV-Stable 2. Silicone Can Recover Its Hydrophobicity 1. Silicone is Hydrophobic 5. Silicone Has a Smooth Surface
  16. 16. Examples HYDROPHOBIC & HYDROPHILIC SILICONE RUBBER PORCELAIN Hydrophilic (Surface “Wets”) Hydrophobic (Water “Balls-up”)
  17. 17. HYDROPHOBIC VS HYDROPHILIC HYDROPHOBIC HYDROPHILIC Contact Angle Energy from leakage current can cause insulator surfaces to become hydrophilic Water “balls” up Surface “wets” out
  18. 18. Recovery of Contact Angle for SILICONE RUBBER TERMINATIONS Recovery of Contact Angle 24 Hrs. (Recovered) 90 Deg. Recovery (Based on study performed in cooperation with Arizona State University)
  19. 19. SILICONE RUBBER INSULATOR Coated with ASTM D-2132 Contaminant Surface remains “Hydrophobic”
  20. 20. EPDM INSULATOR UV Damage
  21. 21. SUMMARY and CONCLUSIONS • Silicone Insulators are superior to EPDM, EVA and porcelain insulators • Silicone is more hydrophobic than other polymers or porcelain • Silicone has the ability to regenerate its hydrophobicity in the event that high-leakage current changes its state • Silicone Insulators are inherently stable to UV due to its high backbone bond energy • 3M™ Silicone Rubber Terminations - In use 30+ years with excellent results
  22. 22. III. SEAL To the External Environment Top Seal Bottom Seal Potting Compound(Conductor Seal) (Jacket Seal)
  23. 23. SEALING with TAPE
  24. 24. POTTING with RESIN
  25. 25. SEALING with HEAT SHRINK
  26. 26. SEALING with COLD SHRINK
  27. 27. HEAT SHRINK TERMINATION
  28. 28. Example of HEAT SHRINK TERMINATION Raychem HVT
  29. 29. Heat Shrink Termination INSTALLATION (2) Stress Control Tube (1) Stress Relief Material (Semi-con Step Filler) (Special Torch, “Bushy” Flame)
  30. 30. (4) Jacket Seal (3) Top Seal
  31. 31. (6) Separate Insulator Skirts (5) Separate Insulator Tube Allow Tube To Cool Before Proceeding Shrink Evenly With no Tilt or Sag
  32. 32. COMPLETED TERMINATION(S) Outdoor Termination (with skirts) Indoor Termination (same, but without skirts)
  33. 33. COLD SHRINK TERMINATION
  34. 34. Examples of Silicone Rubber COLD SHRINK TERMINATIONS Joslyn JPT & Plymouth/Bishop ColdTerm 3M™ QT-II Termination 3M™ QT-III Termination Plymouth Joslyn Silicone Tape Top Seal Silicone Tape Top Seal Pull Tabs Integrated 1-Piece Silicone Grease Silicone Grease
  35. 35. Examples of Silicone Rubber COLD APPLIED (Shrink) TERMINATIONS Raychem TFT Twist & slide off of holdout tube onto cable “Holdout” Tube Adjust into final position if necessary Use pull tabs to position over jacket VITAL STEP: Loosen termination by twisting until it moves on holdout
  36. 36. Typical Cold Shrink Termination INSTALLATION Apply mastic seal around jacket & neutral wires Apply silicone grease to fill semi-con step
  37. 37. Install termination by removing supporting core Complete top seal with application of silicone rubber tape
  38. 38. COMPLETED TERMINATION(S) Outdoor Termination (With Skirts) Indoor Termination (Tubular, without Skirts)
  39. 39. BENEFITS of COLD SHRINK • Environmentally Stable Materials • Broad Application Range • Live Seal • Good Interfacial Pressure • Low Installation Force • No Tools for Installation
  40. 40. INTRODUCING: 3M™ QT-III Termination
  41. 41. IMPROVED SILICONE RUBBER Cold Shrink Termination • SMALLER SIZE - Easier mounting • IMPROVED HIGH-K STRESS CONTROL - Improved corona, 60 Hz and impulse withstand performances • BUILT-IN SEMI-CON FILLER - No silicone grease • BUILT-IN TOP SEAL - Eliminates taping of top seal • IMPROVED SILICONE RUBBER - Improved Tracking Resistance
  42. 42. 3M™ QT-III Termination Integrated 1-Piece Design Silicone Sealing Compound High Dielectric Constant Stress Relief Tube Stress Control Compound Step Core Silicone Rubber Insulator
  43. 43. SIZE COMPARISON: 15 KV CLASS - Shorter cable prep distance - Accommodates smaller space in cabinets - More versatile for mounting 3M ™ QT- II Termination 3M ™ QT- III Termination
  44. 44. INVERTED 3M™ QT-III Outdoor Termination • SILICONE SEALING COMPOUND No (inverted) bottom seal taping required Eliminates silicone grease at semi-con cut-back step • HI-K SEALING COMPOUND BUILT-IN COMPOUNDS:
  45. 45. SUMMARY “TECHNOLOGY AND THE HUMAN FACTOR” • Cold Shrink Design for Easier Field Installation • Factory Assembled Quality - Reliability • Integrated 1-piece Designs • New Developments in Sealing Compounds • New Developments in Silicone Rubber Technology This New Generation of Polymeric Terminations Takes Advantage of:
  46. 46. Install 3M ™ QT-III Termination TERMINATION WORKSHOP

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