Birth and Early Years Date: March 5, 1133 Place: Le Mans, France Parents: Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou Matilda (the daughter of Henry I and granddaughter of William the Conqueror) Henry was well-educated by various scholars throughout the years in notable schools and by renowned tutors in both France and England. Geoffrey
Civil War: Stephen and Matilda Stephen was the nephew of Henry I’s daughter Matilda, Henry II’s mother. She was named heir by Henry I, and many nobles swore to make sure she received the throne upon his death. However, Stephen took the throne in December, 1135 with the support of the nobles, who desired a weak leader. Matilda invaded in 1139 and civil war The wife of Stephen, pleading for mercy ensued. at the feet of Matilda, Henry’s mother
Marriage and Inheritance Early 1151, Henry’s father died, leaving him his lands and title. In May, 1152, Henry wed Eleanor of Aquitaine, the ex-wife of Louis VII of France who was 11 years his senior. This doubled the amount of land he owned and dramatically increased his wealth. While the marriage was not a happy one, they did have eight children. Eleanor
Civil War: Stephen and Matilda (Continued) In 1942, Henry II came to England and left a year later. It was during this time that his father captured Normandy. In 1947 and 1949, Henry attempted to help with his mother’s efforts, but failed. In 1153, the Treaty of Wallingford was drawn out which stated that Henry II would receive the crown after Stephen’s death, which took placed only a year later in 1154. In 1154, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey as the King of England. Henry II’s Coronation
Thomas Becket In 1154, Thomas Becket was appointed the Chancellor of England and became a friend of Henry II’s. In 1162, Henry made Beckett the Archbishop of Canterbury in order to give himself more control over the Church courts. In 1163, Thomas Becket and Henry had a falling out over church law, and Becket was exiled to France. 6 years later, he came back, but after attempting to have an archbishop excommunicated, and Henry stated that he wished the man to be killed, which he was in his own cathedral by knights. Thomas Becket was canonized by the Pope in 1173 and Henry II was whipped monks as penance. The Killing of Thomas Beckett
Family Rebellion In 1173, Henry II’s wife encouraged her sons to stage the Revolt of 1173-74. Earlier, Henry II had had his son Henry (the Young King) crowned in order to ensure his ascension to the throne; however, the boy felt he had no real power so he rebelled with the help of Louis VII . Later in the year, his mother was arrested and the rebellion ended soon after with a treaty stating that Henry the Young King would inherit half of his father’s later that year and the rest would be divided between his two brothers, Richard I and John.
Family Rebellion (Continued) Henry the Young King and Richard also fought over territory, leading to Richard allying with his father against Henry, causing the latter to destroy much of Aquitaine. Henry II was forced to redistribute his land after the death of the Henry the Young King in 1183 and Richard I became the next in line for the throne. Geoffrey, another son of Henry II, died in 1186. In that same year, Richard I told his father he wished to marry Princess Alice of France, and he refused, causing a rift between them that resulted in Richard swearing allegiance to Phillip Augustus, the king of France and didn’t end until 15 years later when Richard and Phillip John also joined Richard.
Death On July 4, 1189, Richard and Phillip Augustus defeated Henry, forcing him to sign of treaty that named Richard as heir to the throne and approved his marriage to Alice, forced Henry to pay homage to Phillip, and gave castles to Phillip. Henry II died on July 6, 1189 of blood poisoning and was buried in Fontevraud Abbey. His last words were supposedly “”Shame, shame on a conquered King.” He was succeeded by Richard I, and later by John. Henry II’s Final Campaign
Accomplishments Gained Scotland and was paid homage by its king, William. First of the Plantagenet Kings He set the basis for English Common Law. Improved the Exchequer (money/tax portion of government) by keeping written financial accounts and issuing receipts and making nobles give money, not military service to the monarchy Implemented trial by jury because he considered church courts inadequate. The Lands of Henry II