16th century


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16th century

  1. 1. Charles and his sister with their Castilian mother, Joanna I , The Mad.
  2. 2. Carlos V with his beautiful wife Isabel of Portugal . They loved each other. Great Tiziano made this portraits. As well as the couple, Carlos and Isabel were ...... Isabel was considered the most ........ Queen of Spain.
  3. 3. CARLOS V ( first part of the 16 th century) An Emperor who inspired enthusiasm ! Portrait of Charles V on horseback by Anthony van Dyck
  4. 4. Carlos V at Mülberg battle by Tiziano
  5. 5. Carlos V at Yuste Monastery ( Cáceres ) by Tiziano
  6. 6. CARLOS INHERITED A VAST EMPIRE What an impressive inheritance! Charles V’s family tree
  8. 10. Carlos V’s coat of arms <ul><li>Activity: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the meaning of every element and the origin of every one. </li></ul><ul><li>List different buildings in Baeza that have this coat of arms. </li></ul>
  9. 11. THE REVOLT OF THE COMUNEROS <ul><li>The big mistakes of young Carlos : </li></ul><ul><li>He was a “ guiri ” & “ niñato ” (brat). </li></ul><ul><li>He gave the most important government positions to foreigners . </li></ul><ul><li>He spent Castilian money on becoming Holy Roman Emperor. </li></ul>Young Carlos I in 1516 Were Castilian cities satisfied with their new king?
  10. 12. Young Carlos So, Castilian cities were furious with young Carlos and they started the Revolt of the Comuneros . Cities which took part in the Revolt of the Comuneros
  11. 13. Juan de Padilla, leader of the Community chosen by Toledo. Monument to Juan Bravo in Segovia Francisco Maldonado’s monument in Salamanca <ul><li>Main leaders: Bravo , Padilla & Maldonado . </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>The Comuneros were defeated in Villalar (Valladolid) in 1521. </li></ul>The Battle of Villalar (Valladolid), 1521
  13. 15. The gate of Jaén and the arch of Villalar, Baeza Was Baeza a Comunera city?
  14. 16. <ul><li>The main Comuneros, Bravo, Padilla & Maldonado were executed. </li></ul>
  15. 17. María Pacheco received the news about the execution of her husband, Juan de Padilla . She continued the fight. Finally, María Pacheco was defeated and went to Portugal. She was really courageous.
  16. 18. Each February 3 since 1988 has been celebrated by the Castile and León Community in Villalar (Valladolid). The celebration highlights the roles of Juan de Padilla and María Pacheco , and is done in memory of the rebellion in 1521, the last event of the war A floral offering at Villalar , on Castile and León Day , April 23, 2006
  17. 19. Carlos V by Tiziano, 1532-1533 <ul><li>After the Revolt of The Comuneros young Carlos learnt the lesson! He became Spanish, a good Spanish king </li></ul>
  18. 20. The government of this vast empire was so difficult! <ul><li>His empire was made up of many different territories , with their own laws and institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos V did not have absolute power. </li></ul><ul><li>The court was </li></ul><ul><li>itinerant . </li></ul><ul><li>Each territory had </li></ul><ul><li>a viceroy or governor . </li></ul><ul><li>Castile financed </li></ul><ul><li>his very expensive </li></ul><ul><li>foreign policy. </li></ul>How on earth could Carlos V rule territories that are so different?
  19. 21. Don Francisco de los Cobos What connection was there between this man and Carlos V ? Where was this man from?
  20. 22. BIG PROBLEMS IN THE EMPIRE <ul><li>1. France : Carlos V vs. François I Valois </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Ottoman Turks : Carlos V vs. Solimán The Magnificent </li></ul><ul><li>3. The worst problem: the German Protestants : impossible at all! </li></ul>
  21. 23. 1. France : Carlos V vs. François I Valois <ul><li>Both of them wanted to conquer Italian territories . </li></ul><ul><li>So, the relationship between France and Spain was very bad and violent . </li></ul><ul><li>There were 5 wars between them. </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos V won François I. </li></ul>
  22. 24. The battle of Pavía ( Italy). Who won?
  23. 25. Torre de los Lujanes, Madrid Carlos V visiting François I after the battle of Pavía <ul><li>Carlos V caught François I in Pavía ( Italy ) . </li></ul><ul><li>François I was in prison in Madrid. </li></ul>
  24. 26. 2. The Ottoman Turks : Carlos V vs. Solimán The Magnificent Vs. <ul><li>The Turks threatened Spanish possessions in the Mediterranean and the East of the Holy Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos V defended the Catholic religion against the Turks and the Lutherans. So, Carlos was a true Crusader. </li></ul><ul><li>Solimán The Magnificent, the Turk sultan, surrounded Vienna. Carlos V saved this city. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>Solimán supported the Barbarroja brothers, pirates who threatened our possessions in the North of Africa. </li></ul>After the Spanish victory in Tunisia, François I formed an alliance with Solimán . What do you think about this alliance?
  26. 28. Oruç Reis was Hayreddin Barbarossa's elder brother <ul><li>Carlos V had an important victory against the Barbarroja Brothers in Tunisia. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Solimán ordered the construction of this impressive mosque in Istanbul.
  28. 30. 3. The worst problem: the German Protestants : impossible at all! Vs.
  29. 31. 3. The worst problem: the German Protestants : impossible at all! Vs. <ul><li>Carlos V against the Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther was arrested, but he </li></ul><ul><li>escaped from prison and he was hidden </li></ul><ul><li>and protected by the German Princes. </li></ul><ul><li>b) The most of the German princes became protestants because they wanted to have the Church’s land and they did not want Carlos V as their Emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Emperor Carlos V didn ’ t accept that Germany was Protestant. He was its Catholic Emperor. </li></ul><ul><li>d) Carlos V tried several times to convince German princes to leave the Protestantism. </li></ul><ul><li>e) As he couldn ’ t convince them, Carlos V fought several times against the Protestants. </li></ul><ul><li>f) In 1547 Carlos V won in the battle of Mülberg. </li></ul><ul><li>g) Finally, Carlos V, disappointed and very tired because the German Princes did not leave their religious ideas , decided to give the German Empire to his brother Fernando </li></ul>
  30. 32. Carlos V was retired in the monastery of Yuste (Cáceres ). He felt exhausted and very sad . One day “ Jeronimín” was introduced to Carlos V. Who was this boy and how did the Emperor feel? We have in our high school this painting. Where is it? This man was so charming. I love him! I know , dear children , he is dead, but it doesn’t matter.
  31. 33. His life was fascinating!
  32. 34. King Felipe II (2 nd part of the 16 th century) A king who inspired respect His coat of arms was different to Carlos V’s coat. Why?
  33. 35. King Felipe II, the King “ prudente ”
  34. 36. THE IMPRESIVE EMPIRE OF FELIPE II What sentence is used to illustrate this gigantic empire? “ The sun never set over Felipe II’s empire”
  35. 37. FELIPE II’S OBJECTIVES AND HIS MAIN PROBLEMS <ul><li>Two main objectives: to preserve and to defend Catholicism . </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences: 1 st . Felipe II tried to suppress Protestantism . 2 nd. The Inquisition acted harshly against heretics. 3 rd Religious intolerance grew. 4 th .Many of wars in the Low Countries and against other European powers. </li></ul>His main problems: 1. War against France . San Quintín Battle, 1557 2. War against The Turks . Lepanto B. 1571 <ul><li>. </li></ul>3. War in the Low Countries : Impossible!! 4. War against England . The Invincible Armada, a disaster!
  36. 38. 1. War against France . San Quintín Battle, 1557 Explain the meaning of this typical Spanish expression: “Se va a armar la de San Quintín” Date 10 August 1557 Location Saint-Quentin , France Result Decisive Spanish victory
  37. 39. Henri II de France King Felipe II by Tiziano 1. War against France . San Quintín Battle, 1557 Vs.
  38. 40. Map of Manuel Fileberto de Saboya 's Dutch campaign.
  39. 41. Monastery o f El Escorial, Madrid. King Felipe II ordered its construction to celebrate ….
  40. 42. 2. War against The Turks . Lepanto Battle. 1571 <ul><li>The Turkish Empire was a great power, which threatened Spanish possessions in the Mediterranean. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain, the Pope and Venice formed an alliance to defeat the Turks at the Battle Of Lepanto in 1571. </li></ul>Recreation of the Battle of Lepanto (1571)
  41. 43. <ul><li>The battle took place in the Gulf of Lepanto (Greece). </li></ul><ul><li>The Ottoman Turks fought against the Holy League (the military alliance among Spain, Venice, Genoa, the Pope, etc.). </li></ul>The leader of the Holy League was Felipe II. Banner of the Holy League. 1571 Belligerents Holy League : Spanish Empire   Republic of Venice   Papal States   Republic of Genoa   Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta   Ottoman Empire
  42. 44. The Virgin helps Spanish Army in Lepanto <ul><li>Lepanto was a Crusade because the Christians fought against the Muslims. </li></ul>Our Army won in the Gulf of Lepanto (Greece).
  43. 45. Only 30 Turk galeras were saved
  44. 46. Who was the Commander of the Holy League?
  45. 47. The Holy League was commanded by Don Juan de Austria , the illegitimate son of Emperor Charles V and half brother of King Philip II of Spain
  46. 48. Lepanto was one of the biggest naval battles of the History. Who famous man fought in this battle and what happened to him?
  47. 49. 3. War in the Low Countries : Impossible!! <ul><li>Calvinism had spread the Low Countries, and Felipe II's religious policy provoked strong opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1566, the northern provinces rebelled against Felipe II and declared their independence under the name of the United Provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>A long war began, which lasted 80 years. </li></ul>Spanish soldiers (the famous Tercios ) fighting in the Low Countries.
  48. 50. Spanish soldiers (the famous Tercios ) were very courageous <ul><li>Spanish TERCIOS fought against the Protestant rebels from the Low Countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The Calvinist people from the Low Countries rebelled against Felipe II. </li></ul>
  49. 51. <ul><li>Felipe II named different governors in the Low Countries. </li></ul>No. 1 : His illegitimate stepsister, Margarita de Parma , next to her adviser, Cardinal Granvela , developed a modern and centralist policy. No. 2 : El Duque de Alba . governed the Low Countries with a firm hand and established the Tribunal de los Tumultos
  50. 52. Felipe II named different governors in the Low Countries. No. 3 : Luis de Requesens tried to talk with Flemish ( flamencos ) noblemen, but he couldn’t avoid the war. No. 4 : His stepbrother Don Juan de Austria : couldn’t pacify the Low Countries because he died very young.
  51. 53. No. 5 : G reat general Alejandro Farnesio was an extraordinary diplomatic and General. He divided the rebels and controlled the provinces of the South. He died. No. 6 : Finally, his dearest daughte r Isabel Clara Eugenia was an excellent governor next to her husband El Archiduque Alberto de Austria . Felipe II named different governors in the Low Countries.
  52. 54. Felipe II named different governors in the Low Countries. No. 1 : Margarita de Parma No. 2 : El Duque de Alba . No. 3 : Luis de Requesens No. 4 : Don Juan de Austria : No. 5 : Alejandro Farnesio No. 6 : Isabel Clara Eugenia
  53. 55. 4. War against England . The Invincible Armada, a disaster! Queen Elisabeth I Tudor, the daughter of Henry VIII & Anne Boleyn Relations with England deteriorated when Elizabeth I became Queen. English support for the rebels in the Low Countries led Felipe II to send the Invincible Armada to fight against England. The powerful Spanish Armada was defeated in 1 588 “ The Invincible Armada”
  54. 56. Spanish boats “The Invincible Armada” are being destroyed by English Armada.
  55. 57. <ul><li>The Armada was commanded by experienced Don Álvaro de Bazán , but he died in February 1588. </li></ul><ul><li>The Duke of Medina Sidonia with no experience at sea, became the new commander. </li></ul><ul><li>Severe storms caused a big disaster for us! We lost! </li></ul><ul><li>When Felipe II knew the sad news, he said: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Yo no mandé mis naves a luchar contra los elementos ” </li></ul>
  56. 58. Elisabeth I supported the Protestants in the Low Countries and financed pirates to attack our boats in the Caribbean Sea. How bad!
  57. 59. <ul><li>All these wars were so expensive that they ruined the economy, and Felipe II was forced to declare bankruptcy ( bancarrota ) several times: </li></ul><ul><li>Felipe II did not have enough money to pay what he owed. So, his kingdom was declared insolvent three times . </li></ul>
  58. 60. Gossips! Felipe II had a crazy and dangerous kid: Prince Don Carlos Men became crazy because of this irresistible woman : Princess of Éboli
  59. 61. Antonio Pérez, the Prime Minister of Felipe II, was the Princess of Éboli’s love r. Felipe II accused him of killing Escobedo (secretary of D. Juan de Austria) and Antonio Pérez left Castile and took refuge in Aragón Juan de Lanuza , el Justicia Mayor de Aragón, was executed for helping Antonio Pérez
  60. 62. King Felipe II and his first wife , María Manuela de Portugal . Their son, Prince Carlos, was crazy Felipe II married 4 times!
  61. 63. Mary Tudor , his second wife. They did not have any children
  62. 64. Isabel de Valois , his third wife. Felipe II loved her, but she died. They had two intelligent girls: Isabel Clara Eugenia and Catalina Micaela . Felipe II adored them.
  63. 65. Isabel Clara Eugenia and Catalina Micaela . Felipe II was very proud of them.
  64. 66. Isabel Clara Eugenia was the most intelligent and deserved to be the new queen but in 16 th century women were discriminated
  65. 67. Ana de Austria , his last wife. They had one boy. He was the heir, future Felipe III. What a pity!
  66. 68. THE CONQUEST OF AMERICA Hérnan C ortés conquered the Aztec Empire. Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca Empire. <ul><li>Do you know.... </li></ul><ul><li>Who discover the Amazon rainforest? </li></ul><ul><li>Who conquered the Philippines? </li></ul>
  67. 69. ORGANISATION OF THE NEW WORLD EMPIRE The Spanish Empire in America <ul><li>The same Spanish laws were applied in America. </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos V created The Council of Indias to advise the king. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 viceroys were very powerful. </li></ul><ul><li>La Casa de la Contratación (Seville) organised the American trade. </li></ul>What is the meaning “Vales un Potosí”?
  68. 70. Llamas carrying silver in Potosí mines .
  69. 71. Reconstruction of a Spanish colony in the New World
  70. 72. THE IMPACT OF THE DISCOVERY OF AMERICA Spanish speaking countries Portuguese speaking countries Cultural impact Countries with a Catholic majority Religious impact
  71. 73. Dear children, Unit 11 is finished. Study it! Be careful with your teacher! A new Queen Elizabeth?
  72. 74. Queen Elizabeth anticipates the battle against the Spanish Army Are children studying Unit 11? Yes, your Majesty. I’m looking at some of them!