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# Divergence

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A brief introduction of Divergence of Electromagnetic waves

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### Divergence

1. 1. DIVERGENCEBY : SHAKIR HUSSAINB.E-IV
2. 2. What is flux• The flow of energy through a surface.• In electronics, the term applies toany electrostatic field andany magnetic field . Flux is called as"lines" in a plane that contains orintersects electric charge poles ormagnetic poles.
3. 3. Electric flux
4. 4. Magnetic flux
5. 5. WHAT IS DIVERGENCE Divergence is an operation which isperformed on vector and that results inscalar quantity. It tells how much flux is entering orleaving a small volume(or a point) perunit volume. divergence is just the net flux per unitvolume, or “flux density”.◦ Divergence = Flux / Volume.• It states that the sum of all sources minusthe sum of all sinks gives the net flow out of a
6. 6. Types of Divergence Zero Divergence◦ No net flux inside the region or volume.
7. 7. Types of Divergence POSITIVE DIVERGENCE◦ Divergence of vector field is positive ifvector diverges or spread out from givenpoint.
8. 8. Types of Divergence Negative Divergence◦ Divergence of vector field is callednegative if vector converges at that givenpoint.
9. 9. Divergence of Vector Field Divergence of vector field A is measure ofhow much a vector field converges to ordiverges from a given point in volume. The divergence of a vector field A isdefinedasDiv A= A
10. 10. DEL OPERATOR "del operator", usually denoted by thesymbol (which is called the"nabla"). This can be regarded as avector whose components in the threeprinciple directions of a Cartesiancoordinate system(or any other) arepartial differentiations with respect tothose three directions(x,y,z) or anyother
11. 11. DEL OPERATOR the del operator can be expressed asLetting i, j, k denote the basis vectors inthe x,y,z directions.
12. 12. Methamatical representationDivergence Total flux change = (field change in X direction)+ (field change in Y direction) + (field change inZ direction)Assuming F1 is the field in the X direction, F2 inthe Y and F3 in the Z.
13. 13. Methamatical representationIn Cylinderical FormIn the above Divergence of vector A isin cylinderical form.
14. 14. Methamatical representationIn Spherical FormIn the above Divergence of vector A isrepersented in Spherical form.