ENGLISH COMPOSITION    punctuation                   BY:             Aridho Finayah                Megawati            Nin...
•                                                                           @                                          *  ...
AMPERSAND&                  Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna)Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters ...
Evolution of theampersand:                                              Et ligature in Insular                            ...
Usage      The AMPERSAND is now less  common in formal writing. The main    remaining use of the “ & ” is in the formal na...
ASTERISK                              ASTERISK *An asterisk (disambiguation) from: Late Latin : asteriscus Greek          ...
Usage1)   COMPUTER     In computer, the ASTERISK is commonly used to sign POINTERS,     REPETITION, or MULTIPLICATION.2)TY...
3)LINGUISTICS An ASTERISK immediately before a word indicates  that the word is NOT directly showed. In the  following ex...
4)AMBIGUITYSince a word marked with an ASTERISK could  mean is "impossible", it is important in some  contexts to differen...
6)INSTANT MESSAGING AND SMSTo fix the mistake by sending another message, adding an  ASTERISK to the beginning or end of t...
7)EDUCATIONIn some examinations in the UK and  Singapore, A* ("A-star") is a special top  grade that is distinguished from...
EncodingsThe symbols are compared below (the displaydepends on your browsers font).                                       ...
East Asian                   Teardrop-                   SixteenLow Asterisk         Arabic Star                   referen...
AT SIGN@ The AT SIGN @ is also commonly         called the at symbol.The fact ,that there is NO single word    in English ...
In computer model in 1889, the ATSYMBOL not included on the keyboard ofthe   earliest commercially  successfultypewriters....
The @ SYMBOL       appears in the Medieval Bulgarian   translation of the Manasses Chronicle             (1345). The symbo...
Usage COMMERCIAL1)In contemporary English usage, @ is a commercial symbol, called at site. It has rarely been used in fin...
2)CONTEMPORARY  USAGE Computer                  On web pages,  programming, a            organizations often  common con...
GENDER-NEUTRALITY in SPANISH3) AND PORTUGUESE@-SIGN being used for gender-inclusive purposes, we can consider the Spanish ...
4)IN CULTURE The Museum of Modern Art known the AT  SIGN to its architecture and design collection. Many internet cafes ...
BACKSLASH The BACKSLASH () is a typographicalmark (glyph) used mainly in computingand is the mirror image of the common   ...
Usage  The BACKSLASH is used to indicate the  character following it should be treated  specially or normally. It thus ind...
Resources that should NOT be available have been recovered with paths using       particular mixes, such as:http://example...
BULLET•A BULLET ( • ) is a typographical symbol orglyph used to introduce items in a list.For example:•Item 1•Item 2•Item ...
Usage       o Bullets are most often used in TECHNICAL         WRITING, REFERENCE WORKS, NOTES and  PRESENTATIONS. An alte...
The shorts of BULLET, like:                         Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna)       Class B – 3rd...
THANK                       YOU..Source on WIKIPEDIA
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Punctuation

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To fulling the subject of English Composition 3rd Semester, Faculty of Letter, Competency of English Literaruter

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Punctuation

  1. 1. ENGLISH COMPOSITION punctuation BY: Aridho Finayah Megawati Nina Henny Arlina Uswatun Hasanah Vinna H. Sitorus
  2. 2. • @ * Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan &
  3. 3. AMPERSAND& Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna)Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  4. 4. Evolution of theampersand: Et ligature in Insular ship:The modernampersand is virtuallyidentical to that of theCarolingianminuscule. The italicampersand, to theright, is originally alater et-ligature. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  5. 5. Usage The AMPERSAND is now less common in formal writing. The main remaining use of the “ & ” is in the formal names of businesses, especially FIRMS, PARTNERSHIP, LAW FIRMS, and ARCHITECTURAL.In such names, a comma never follows the word just before the ampersand. When the ampersand forms part of aregistered name (e.g. Smith & Wesson), Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  6. 6. ASTERISK ASTERISK *An asterisk (disambiguation) from: Late Latin : asteriscus Greek : ἀ στερίσκος (asteriskos)or "little star" is a typographical symbolor glyph. It is called “little star” because it looks like a conventional image of a star. It can be used to censor out swear words or objectionable text. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  7. 7. Usage1) COMPUTER In computer, the ASTERISK is commonly used to sign POINTERS, REPETITION, or MULTIPLICATION.2)TYPOGRAPHY The asterisk is used to call out a FOOTNOTE. Less commonly, multiple asterisks are used to sign different footnotes on a page (i.e., *, **, ***). To strike out slices of a word to avoid misunderstanding by using the full form of a bad language or to avoid profanation of a holy name.  Sometimes used as an alternative to TYPOGRAPHICAL BULLETS (•) to indicate items of a list.  It can be used in textual media to represent *EMPHASIS* when BOLD or ITALIC TEXT is NOT available (e.g. email).
  8. 8. 3)LINGUISTICS An ASTERISK immediately before a word indicates that the word is NOT directly showed. In the following example, the Proto-Germanic word ainlif is a recreated form. *ainlif → endleofan → eleven A DOUBLE ASTERISK indicates a form that would be expected according to rule, but is NOT actually found. Example:for the plural, **kubar would be expected, but separate masculine plural akābir ‫ أكابر‬and feminine plural kubrayāt ‫ كبريات‬are found as irregular forms.
  9. 9. 4)AMBIGUITYSince a word marked with an ASTERISK could mean is "impossible", it is important in some contexts to differentiate these meanings.5)MUSICIn music an ASTERISK is often used to sign a slow pause. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  10. 10. 6)INSTANT MESSAGING AND SMSTo fix the mistake by sending another message, adding an ASTERISK to the beginning or end of the fixed line. Sometimes only a single word is corrected in this way, if its clear where the mistake was in the original message. Must be used before the word like note.Example:Tom : Hi, how is brownie?Jane : Ugh, my stupid X at ran away again! *CATTom : OMG! Sorry to hear that When the writer wants to explain actions in a kind of narrated style while messaging, verbs are sometimes written between TWO ASTERISKS, such as"*NODS (THUMBS UP)*" or "*SHAKES HEAD (TREMBLE TO SUBMIT OR DOUBT)*". This is known as an emote.
  11. 11. 7)EDUCATIONIn some examinations in the UK and Singapore, A* ("A-star") is a special top grade that is distinguished from grade A. CENSORSHIP8)Many companies which deal with slang or vulgar text might censor such words using an ASTERISK. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  12. 12. EncodingsThe symbols are compared below (the displaydepends on your browsers font). Open Asterisk Heavy Small Full WidthAsterisk Centre Operator Asterisk Asterisk Asterisk Asterisk * ∗ ✱ ﹡ * ✲ Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  13. 13. East Asian Teardrop- SixteenLow Asterisk Arabic Star reference Spoked Pointed mark Asterisk Asterisk ‫٭‬ ※ ✻ ✺ Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  14. 14. AT SIGN@ The AT SIGN @ is also commonly called the at symbol.The fact ,that there is NO single word in English for the symbol has prompted some writers to use theFrench arobase, or Spanish arroba—orto COIN new words such as asperand and ampersa, but none of these have realized wide currency. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  15. 15. In computer model in 1889, the ATSYMBOL not included on the keyboard ofthe earliest commercially successfultypewriters.It is now universally included oncomputer keyboards.In recent years, its meaning are“LOCATED AT" or "DIRECTED AT",especially in email addresses and social Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna)media like Facebook, Twitter, etc. Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  16. 16. The @ SYMBOL appears in the Medieval Bulgarian translation of the Manasses Chronicle (1345). The symbol is usedas the initial "a" for the "amin" (amen) formula. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  17. 17. Usage COMMERCIAL1)In contemporary English usage, @ is a commercial symbol, called at site. It has rarely been used in financial documents or grocers price tags.Since 23 October 2012, the AT-SIGN is registered as a Trade Mark by the German Patent and Trade Mark Office. From now on it’s illegal for other commercial interests, should use the AT-SIGN. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  18. 18. 2)CONTEMPORARY USAGE Computer On web pages, programming, a organizations often common contemporary ambiguous email use of @ is in email addresses of their addresses as in members or employees joe@gmail.com ; by forgetting the @ SIGN. This practice, known asthe user “joe“ located at address mugging, makes site the gmail.com the email addresses less domain. This idea of weak to spam programs the symbol that scan the internet for representing located at
  19. 19. GENDER-NEUTRALITY in SPANISH3) AND PORTUGUESE@-SIGN being used for gender-inclusive purposes, we can consider the Spanish and Portuguese word AMIGOS. AMIGOS = be used only when the writer is sure the group referred to is all-male. AMIGOS(AS) = the feminine. AMIG@S = when the word represents NOT only male friends, but also female ones. AMIGOS/AS and AMIG Ⓐ S = as a kind
  20. 20. 4)IN CULTURE The Museum of Modern Art known the AT SIGN to its architecture and design collection. Many internet cafes use the spelling " c@fe" to suggest their internet theme. The British bars called B@1 (BEATONE) to denote the word "bar" and suggest modernity. John Lloyd, use of the term chemical element “ASTATINE" to refer to the symbol @. A Chinese couple tried to name their son @—pronouncing it "AI TA" or "LOVE HIM“ .
  21. 21. BACKSLASH The BACKSLASH () is a typographicalmark (glyph) used mainly in computingand is the mirror image of the common slash (/).It is sometimes called a HACK, WHACK, ESCAPE (from C/UNIX), contrary from SLASH, SLOSH, BACKSLANT, BACKWHACK, and more rarely BASH, reverse SLANT, and reversed VIRGULE. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  22. 22. Usage The BACKSLASH is used to indicate the character following it should be treated specially or normally. It thus indicates escape characters. In various regular expression languages it acts as a switch, changing subsequent literal characters into metacharacters.The BACKSLASH is used both to introducespecial characters and to introduce lambda functions (λ).
  23. 23. Resources that should NOT be available have been recovered with paths using particular mixes, such as:http://example.net/secureprivate.asp x In PHP version 5.3 and higher, the BACKSLASH is used to indicate a namespace. In some dialects of the BASICprogramming language, the BACKSLASH is used as an operator symbol to indicate integer division. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  24. 24. BULLET•A BULLET ( • ) is a typographical symbol orglyph used to introduce items in a list.For example:•Item 1•Item 2•Item 3The BULLET symbol may take any of avariety of shapes, such as CIRCULAR,SQUARE, DIAMOND, ARROW, etc. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  25. 25. Usage o Bullets are most often used in TECHNICAL WRITING, REFERENCE WORKS, NOTES and PRESENTATIONS. An alternative method is to use a numbered list.o BULLET points may be SHORT PHRASES, SINGLE SENTENCES, or of PARAGRAPH LENGTH.Bulleted items are NOT usually ended with a full stop, if they are NOT complete sentences. It is correct to terminate a BULLET point with a full stop if the text within that item consists of FULL SENTENCE. Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  26. 26. The shorts of BULLET, like: Punctuation Marks (Aridho, Mega, Nina, Ana, Vinna) Class B – 3rd semester - Faculty of Letters English Department - University of Balikpapan
  27. 27. THANK YOU..Source on WIKIPEDIA

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