ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH ON ANIMALHEALTH, WELFARE AND PRODUCTION          VOLUME IVCOLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE      MEKELL...
PREFACEThe College of Veterinary Medicine of Mekelle University has compiled theabstracts of research done by DVM graduate...
CONTENTS                                                                                                                  ...
AND KUYHA VETERINARY CLINIC .......................................................................... 17Kassahun Asnake, ...
Fikreslasie DawitSTUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN AND AROUND BAHIRDAR DAIRY FARMS BAHIRDAR, ETHIOPIA ...........
STUDY ON PREVALENCE AND ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CYSTIC      HYDATIDOSIS IN OVINE SLAUGHTERED AT ABERGELE EXPORT          ...
STUDY ON PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN BORANA PASTORAL AND AGRO PASTORAL AREAS, YABELLO DISTRICT,     ...
HEALTH AND WELFARE ASSESSMENT OF WORKING DONKEYS IN         HINTALO WEJJRAT DISTRICT, SOUTH TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA              ...
PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF PREDOMINANT CAUSATIVE     AGENTS OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN BOKE DISTRICT OF WESTERN          ...
INCIDENCE OF DYSTOCIA IN BOVINE IN AND AROUND MEKELLE             Berhe Hadera, Dr. Abraha,Tadelle, Dr. Gebregwergs Asebir...
A STUDY ONTHE PREVALENCE OF METALIC AND NON METALIC        FOREIGN BODIES IN THE STOMACH OF LARGE RUMINANTS          SLAUG...
CATTLE SLAUGHTERED AT DEBERE MARKOS MUNICIPAL ABATTOIR,                    AMHARA REGIONAL ESTATE, ETHIOPIA             Ge...
PREVALENCE AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HYDATIDOSIS IN CATTLE SLAUGHTERED AT ABERGELLE EXPORT SLAUGHTER HOUSE               ...
STUDY ON MAJOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS OF DAIRY                               CATTLE AT MEKELLE              Motuma R...
PREVALENCE OF OVINE HAEMONCHOSIS IN AND AROUND BAHIR DAR,                                     ETHIOPIA           Zelalem S...
ASSESSEMENT OF MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEMS OF DOGS IN MEKELLE                                VETERINARY CLINIC                  ...
STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE DERMATOPHILOSIS IN                 MEKELLE AND KUYHA VETERINARY CLINIC                  ...
STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TRYPONOSOMOSIS IN       DARAMALO DISTRICT, GAMU GOFA ZONE, SOUTH NATIONS,              N...
HEALTH AND WELFARE ASSESSMENT OF WORKING DONKEYS AT                                 ENDERTA DISTRICT                      ...
STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE AND MAJOR CAUSES OF LAMENESS IN            WORKING HORSES IN AND AROUND MEKELLE CITY              ...
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF EXTRACTS FROM SELECTED                          ETHIOPIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS            ...
PREVALENCE OF POULTRY COCCIDIOSIS IN AND AROUND BAHIR DAR             Tegbar Getnet, Dr. Tehetena Alemayhu, Dr. Yohannes H...
A CORSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS IN WOLAITA                          SODDO MUNICIPAL ABATTOIR                ...
ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND                                  ESCHERICHIA COLI             ...
PREVALENCE OF GASTRO INTESTINAL NEMATODE IN CART HORSES IN                           AND AROUND KOMBOLCHA                 ...
ISOLATION OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM LESSIONS OF      EQUINE HISTOPLASMOSIS IN MEKELLE, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA             ...
MAJOR PARASITIC CAUSES OF ORGAN CONDEMNATION IN    APPARENTLLY HEALTHY CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN ABERGELLE                    ...
organs and it was estimated at approximately173457054.7 ETB loss per annum. Afterthoroughly discussed pertinent conclusion...
AGE PROFILE AND DENTAL DISORDERS OF DONKEYS IN TWO      SELECTED WORKING SITES OF TIGRAY DONKEY HEALTH AND                ...
STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN AND AROUND               BAHIR DAR DAIRY FARMS BAHIRDAR, ETHIOPIA         Mu...
PREVALENCE OF BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS IN BAHIR DAR MUNICIPAL                                      ABATTOIR                     ...
STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF LUNG WORM INFECTION IN SHEEP               SLAUTHERED AT ABERGELE EXPORT ABATTOIR                  ...
PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF HARD TICKS (IXODIDES) ON               BOVINE IN SHASHEMENE VETERINARY CLINIC            ...
EVALUATION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF CROSSBRED          DAIRY CATTLE IN KALLAMINO DAIRY FARM, MEKELLE            ...
STATUS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION SERVICE AT FIELD LEVEL IN                            EASTERN ZONE OF TIGRAY             ...
STUDY ON SERO-PREVALENCE OF BOVINE AND HUMAN BRUCELLOSIS   IN AND AROUND ASELLE, EASTERN ARSI ZONE, OROMIA REGIONAL       ...
creating awareness of people on its zoonotic importance, use of cooked animal productand by product and early treatment ne...
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Book of abstracts volume iv

  1. 1. ABSTRACTS OF RESEARCH ON ANIMALHEALTH, WELFARE AND PRODUCTION VOLUME IVCOLLEGE OF VETERINARY MEDICINE MEKELLE UNIVERSITY May, 2012 MEKELLE, ETHIOPIA
  2. 2. PREFACEThe College of Veterinary Medicine of Mekelle University has compiled theabstracts of research done by DVM graduates. This book of abstracts is thefourth volume and includes researches conducted in 2007/08. The purpose ofthis abstract compilation is to nurture the culture of publication and to sharethe findings of research undertakings among the staff members, students,and other stake holders. In addition, such type of publication as monographserves as a data base to be easily accessible for the beneficiaries.The coordinator would like to acknowledge the contribution of the abstractsfrom the staff, students and staff members of College of Veterinary Medi-cine.For further information contact Dr. Fisseha Kassahun, research publicationand dissemination coordinator, P.O.Box: 3024, Mekelle, Ethiopia, Email:fishomarshet@gmail.com. Dr. Fisseha Kassahun The coordinator 2
  3. 3. CONTENTS PAGESTUDY ON PREVALENCE AND ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CYSTICHYDATIDOSIS IN OVINE SLAUGHTERED AT ABERGELE EXPORT ABATTOIR . 6Million Berhane, Dr. Habtamu TaddeleSTUDY ON PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BOVINE MASTITIS INBORANA PASTORAL AND AGRO PASTORAL AREAS, YABELLO DISTRICT,BORANA ZONE, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA ..................................................................... 7Kasim Guyo, Dr. Yohannis Tekle, Dr. Habtamu TaddleHEALTH AND WELFARE ASSESSMENT OF WORKING DONKEYS IN HINTALOWEJJRAT DISTRICT, SOUTH TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA ...................................................... 8Kiros Abraha, Dr. Awot Teklu, Dr. Hagos YihdegoPREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF PREDOMINANT CAUSATIVE AGENTSOF BOVINE MASTITIS IN BOKE DISTRICT OF WESTERN HARAGHE ZONE ...... 9Endeshaw Zerfu, Dr. Habtamu Tassew, Dr. Yohannes HagosINCIDENCE OF DYSTOCIA IN BOVINE IN AND AROUND MEKELLE ................ 10Berhe Hadera, Dr. Abraha,Tadelle, Dr.Gebregwergs AsebirA STUDY ONTHE PREVALENCE OF METALIC AND NON METALIC FOREIGNBODIES IN THE STOMACH OF LARGE RUMINANTS SLAUGHTERED ATMEKELLE MUNICIPALITY ABATTOIR .......................................................................11Tedros Tsige, Dr. Gebrehiwot TadesseCATTLE SLAUGHTERED AT DEBERE MARKOS MUNICIPAL ABATTOIR,AMHARA REGIONAL ESTATE, ETHIOPIA ................................................................ 12Gemberu Gebril, Dr. Habtamu Tassew, Dr. Yohannes Hagosprevalence and economic importance of hydatidosis in cattle slaughtered at abergelleexport slaughter house ...................................................................................................... 13Tsgab Alem, Dr. Yohannes TekleSTUDY ON MAJOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS OF DAIRY CATTLEAT MEKELLE .................................................................................................................. 14Motuma Regassa, Dr. Berhan Mengiste,Dr. Guesh Negashprevalence of OVINE haemonchosis in and around bahir dar, eTHIOPIA ...................... 15Zelalem Semahegn, Dr. Biruk Mekonnen, Dr. Yohannes HagosASSESSEMENT OF MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEMS OF DOGS IN MEKELLEVETERINARY CLINIC ................................................................................................... 16Gebretsadik Atsbaha, Dr. Daniel HussienSTUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE DERMATOPHILOSIS IN MEKELLE
  4. 4. AND KUYHA VETERINARY CLINIC .......................................................................... 17Kassahun Asnake, Dr. Guesh NegashSTUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TRYPONOSOMOSIS IN DARAMALODISTRICT, GAMU GOFA ZONE, SOUTH NATIONS, NATIONALITIES ANDPEOPELS REGION, ETHIOPIA ..................................................................................... 18Teketel Achiso, Dr. Habtamu TassewHEALTH AND WELFARE ASSESSMENT OF WORKING DONKEYS AT ENDERTADISTRICT......................................................................................................................... 19Saron Redae, Dr. Berhan MengisteSTUDY ON THE PREVALENCE AND MAJOR CAUSES OF LAMENESS INWORKING HORSES IN AND AROUND MEKELLE CITY ........................................ 20Mohammednur Mohammed, Dr. Yohannes HagosIN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF EXTRACTS FROM SELECTEDETHIOPIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS .............................................................................. 21Fetene Moges, Dr. Berhan Mengiste, Dr. Yohannes HagosPREVALENCE OF POULTRY COCCIDIOSIS IN AND AROUND BAHIR DAR ....... 22Tegbar Getnet, dr. Tehetena Alemayhu, dr. Yohannes HagosA CORSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS IN WOLAITA SODDOMUNICIPAL ABATTOIR ................................................................................................ 23Tsedeke Maregu, Dr. YisehakTsegayeANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ANDESCHERICHIA COLI ....................................................................................................... 24Tamirat Zelalem, Dr. Berhan Mengiste, Dr. Habtamu TassewPREVALENCE OF GASTRO INTESTINAL NEMATODE IN CART HORSES IN ANDAROUND KOMBOLCHA ............................................................................................... 25Samuel Worku, Dr. Berihun AferaISOLATION OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM LESSIONS OF EQUINEHISTOPLASMOSIS IN MEKELLE, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA ..................................... 26Dinku Biratu, Dr. Birhanu Hadush, Dr. Habtamu TaddeleMAJOR PARASITIC CAUSES OF ORGAN CONDEMNATION IN APPARENTLLYHEALTHY CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN ABERGELLE MODERN EXPORTABATTOIR, MEKELLE. ................................................................................................. 27Kflemaryam Tadesse, Dr. Netsanet BerheCHIEF CONSTRAINTS IN THE SUCCESS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATIONPROGRAME IN AND AROUND MEKELLE ................................................................ 28Getachew AbadiAGE PROFILE AND DENTAL DISORDERS OF DONKEYS IN TWO SELECTEDWORKING SITES OF TIGRAY DONKEY HEALTH AND WELFARE PROJECT..... 29 4
  5. 5. Fikreslasie DawitSTUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN AND AROUND BAHIRDAR DAIRY FARMS BAHIRDAR, ETHIOPIA ............................................................ 30Muhammed Suleman Dr. Gebreiwot Taddesse, Dr. Yohannes HagosPREVALENCE OF BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS IN BAHIR DAR MUNICIPALABATTOIR ....................................................................................................................... 31Habtamu TerefeSTUDY ON PREVALENCE OF LUNG WORM INFECTION IN SHEEPSLAUTHERED AT ABERGELE EXPORT ABATTOIR ................................................ 32Fiseha Kidanu, Dr. Yohannes HagosPREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF HARD TICKS (IXODIDES) ON BOVINEIN SHASHEMENE VETERINARY CLINIC .................................................................. 33Mohammed Siraj, Dr. Nesibu Awol, Dr. Birhanu HadushEVALUATION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF CROSSBREDDAIRY CATTLE IN KALLAMINO DAIRY FARM, MEKELLE .................................. 34Tsegay Haftu, Dr. Theodros TekleSTATUS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION SERVICE AT FIELD LEVEL INEASTERN ZONE OF TIGRAY ....................................................................................... 35Hagos Asgele, Dr. Gebregiorgis AshebirSTUDY ON SERO-PREVALENCE OF BOVINE AND HUMAN BRUCELLOSIS INAND AROUND ASELLE, EASTERN ARSI ZONE, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE OFETHIOPIA ........................................................................................................................ 36Abdulazim Usman Kimo, Dr. Yohannes Hagos 5
  6. 6. STUDY ON PREVALENCE AND ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF CYSTIC HYDATIDOSIS IN OVINE SLAUGHTERED AT ABERGELE EXPORT ABATTOIR Million Berhane, Dr. Habtamu TaddeleABSTRACTA cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011 to estimate theprevalence of hydatidosis in ovine slaughtered at Abergele export abattoir. An attemptwas also made to estimate the annual economic loss associated with echinococcosis dueto condemnation of organs during meat inspection. A total of 833 ovine were inspectedfollowing slaughter. Hydatidosis was prevalent in 22.2% (185/833) of ovine inspectedduring the study period. The infection rate of lung and liver were found to be 44.3% and33%, respectively. Among the risk factors, the origin of animals (χ2=49.24, p=0.000) andbody condition scoring (χ2=20.77, p=0.002) showed significant association with theoccurrence of hydatid cysts; animals coming from Mekelle and its surroundings showedhigher prevalence of hydatid cysts (36.3%) compared to animals originating from Shiresite which showed a prevalence of 9.8%. Similarly, animals with thin body conditionshowed higher occurrence of hydatid cysts (26.2%) compared to animals with fat/goodbody condition (17.8%). However, there was no significant association between age(χ2=4.15, p=0.246) of animals and occurrence of hydatid cyst. From a total of 94randomly collected cysts 27 (28.7%) were sterile, 48 (51%) were fertile, (70.1% viableand 29.9% non-viable) and 19 (20.2%) were calcified. From the collected cyst rate ofcalcification was higher in the liver than in the lung while fertility rate was higher in cystsrecovered from lung. The total annual economic loss due to hydatidosis in sheepslaughtered at Abergele export abattoir was estimated to be 26, 224, 338.52 ETB (1, 548,986.32 USD). The current results suggest that ovine hydatidosis is considered to beamong the major parasitic diseases in the study area with significant economic losses thatrequires an immediate measure to reduce its economic and public health impacts.Key words: Abattoir: Abergelle; Export; Echonococcosis; Mekelle; Prevalence; Sheep 6
  7. 7. STUDY ON PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN BORANA PASTORAL AND AGRO PASTORAL AREAS, YABELLO DISTRICT, BORANA ZONE, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA Kasim Guyo, Dr. Yohannis Tekle, Dr. Habtamu TaddleABSTRACTThe study was conducted in from November 2010 to April 2011 to determine prevalenceof bovine mastitis, to isolate predominant bacteria responsible for causing mastitis and toassess potential risk factors associated with the disease. A total of 460 lactating Boranbreed cows from both pastoral and agro pastoral areas were included in the study.California Mastitis test, Clinical examination of udder and teats and bacteriologicalexamination were employed during the study period. The overall prevalence of mastitis atcow level was 59.13% (272), from which 21.09% (97) and 38.04% (175) were clinicaland subclinical, respectively. The quarters level prevalence of the disease was also 38.7%(712) from which 246 (13.7%) and 466 (25.3%) were clinical and subclinical form,respectively. Among the cause of bovine mastitis in the study area staphylococcusspecies, streptococcus species and E.coli were leading infectious causes with relativepercentage of 29.21%, 22.47%and 11.38%, respectively. Among Potential risk factors;Age (x2=21.43, p<0.05) and Parity (x2=18.15, p<0.05) showed significance effect, whilestage of lactation (x2=10.54, p>0.05) has no significance effect on prevalence of mastitisin the present study. Thus high prevalence was observed in the cows older than 10 yearsand cows with >7 calves. In general management practices, hygiene of dairy environmentin all studied pastoral association were very poor. Adequate sanitation of dairyenvironment, proper attention to health of mammary gland, regular screening tests andawareness of the people of the area about the disease should get emphases as controlstrategies.Key words: Boran breed; Mastitis; Pastoral; prevalence; Risk factors 7
  8. 8. HEALTH AND WELFARE ASSESSMENT OF WORKING DONKEYS IN HINTALO WEJJRAT DISTRICT, SOUTH TIGRAY, ETHIOPIA Kiros Abraha, Dr. Awot Teklu, Dr. Hagos YihdegoABSTRACTA cross-sectional type of study was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011with theobjective of assessing on the general health problems and welfare concerns of workingdonkeys in peasant associations of the study area, Hintalo Wejirat. During the studyperiod, a total of 384 donkeys were checked for the welfare concerned general healthproblems and behavioral responses. Both direct (animal related) and indirect (ownersgroup-focused discussions) assessment methods were used for the study. Out of thetotally sampled 384 donkeys 62.3% were found to be with a general health problems ofwhich skin accounts for 42.12%, parasites 33.33%, and 14.06% for the visible mucusmembrane and a least value for musculo-skeletal problems (13.02%). The resultsobtained also show that donkeys of 6-7 years old are highly predisposed to many of thehealth problems (7.03%), followed by 2.08%, 1.04% and 0.78%. The older donkeys wererelatively resistant to adverse health problems. Most of the health problems were found tobe highly prevalent in donkeys with moderate body condition scores (6.5%), followed by3.41% for greater than moderate, and 3.65% for less than moderate. Donkeys with bodycondition score of nine (very fat) were found to be relatively resistant or unaffected withmajority of the health problems encountered. Of the assessed behavioral responses 4.2%of the donkeys were found to be hypersthatic, 22.6% depressed and 24.2% 0f them doesnot respond when walk beside. Results of the indirect assessment through a point focusdiscussion revealed out of the totally questioned people 25% said that most of thequestioned criteria (death, scale, severity or pain and out of use) are due to differentdiseases, 23% due to attitude, 21.5% due to wounds and harness, 8.5% due to shelterrelated problems, 7.5% due to external parasites and 15% of them said that the mentionedproblems are due to hyena bites. Only 0.5% said due to other causes.Key words: cross-sectional, donkeys, welfare, health problems, behavior 8
  9. 9. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF PREDOMINANT CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN BOKE DISTRICT OF WESTERN HARAGHE ZONE Endeshaw Zerfu, Dr Habtamu Tassew, Dr Yohannes HagosABSTRACTA cross sectional study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 in BokeDistrict of Western Harerghe zone to determine the prevalence and isolate the majoarbacterial agents that involved in bovine mastitis. The study was conducted on 384 localzebu lactating cows which were examined through clinical examination, CMT test andmicrobiological examination. From the 1536 quarters of 384 cows examined, 98(25.5%)were positive on CMT bases for mastitis at cows level and 157(10.2%) at quarters level.Out of these, 80 (20.8%) subclinical and 18(4.7%) clinical at cow level were infected.whereas127 (8.3%) subclinical and 30(2%) clinical at quarters level. Six (1.6%) andtwelve (3.1%) were acute and chronic in cow level and 9(.6%) and 21(1.4%) were acuteand chronic in quarter level respectively. Out of CMT positive animals, 80(20.8%) in cowlevel and 108(7%) in quarter level were cultured and positive for mastitis causal agents.The 1480 (96.4) quarters were functional and the rest 56(3.6%) were blind. 26(7%),9(2.3%) and 4(1%) animals had single, double and three blind teats respectively. FromCMT positive cases, 108 pathogens were isolated. The most prevalent bacterialorganisms isolated were Staphylococcus species (19%) following by Streptococcusspecies (18%) and Enterobacteriacae (16%).The predominant bacterial species from theisolated (Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Streptococcus agalactiae) were the highestnumber of isolates. Risk factors analysis revealed that the age (p<0.05), parity (p<0.05)and udder hygiene condition (p<0.05) were highly significant for the prevalence ofmastitis. Therefore, treating clinically infected cows, regular screening for earlydetection, protecting hygienic condition, animal health service and giving attention tohealth of the mammary gland were important in reducing the prevalence of mastitis in thestudy area.Key words: Bovine; isolation; mastitis; prevalence; quarter 9
  10. 10. INCIDENCE OF DYSTOCIA IN BOVINE IN AND AROUND MEKELLE Berhe Hadera, Dr. Abraha,Tadelle, Dr. Gebregwergs AsebirABSTRACTThe study was conducted from November 25/2010 to April 15/2011, with the mainobjective of investigating incidence of dystocia in bovines, observational study wasconducted on 313 at risk calving cows and heifers and questionnaire study was conductedduring the same time. According to the observational study, 23 calves out of 313 calvesborn after dystocia. And overall incidence of dystocia found to be 7.3%.From the total 23calving with dystocia 2.23% were with major difficulty while 5.22% were easy. Therewas significant difference between parity groups (p=0.047). There were 16.98%, 10.12%,4.61% and 2.58% in first, second, third and fourth and above forth, respectively.Incidence of dystocia was higher in large size calves than in medium and small. Thisfactor was highly significant (p=0.001). And the incidence was19.23%, 6.76% and3.11%in large, medium and small size calves respectively. In terms of sex the incidence ofdystocia was 8.63%, 6.32% in male and female, respectively. In relation to breed theincidence of dystocia was 7.57%, 6.95% in cross and local breeds respectively. In relationto body condition of the cow the incidence of dystocia was 9%, 6.99% and 5.7% in good,average and poor body condition, respectively. Forty three percent of the dystocia wascaused abnormal posture and 17.39%, 26.09% were caused by insufficiency of expulsiveforce and feto-maternal disproportion, respectively. The rest 13.04% was caused due tocombination of the causes. In relation to season dystocia was relatively higher in summerthan in winter, autumn and spring which was 12.5%, 5%, %, 8% and 9.52%, respectivelyaccording to the questionnaire survey. The major economic loss was due to still birth andearly calf mortality. According to the questionnaire survey out of 17 calves born afterdystocia 2 of them born as still birth and 3 of them died early before weaned and thisaccount 11.75% and 17.64% from the total calves after dustocia.Key words: dystocia, parity, fetomaternal disproportion, abnormal posture 10
  11. 11. A STUDY ONTHE PREVALENCE OF METALIC AND NON METALIC FOREIGN BODIES IN THE STOMACH OF LARGE RUMINANTS SLAUGHTERED AT MEKELLE MUNICIPALITY ABATTOIR Tedros Tsige, Dr. Gebrehiwot TadesseABSTRACTA cross-sectional study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of metallic and non-metallic foreign bodies found in the stomach of large ruminants slaughtered at Mekellemunicipality abattoir from November 2010 to March 2011. Age of the animals wasdetermined on the basis of dental erruption. The reticulorumen and other associatedorgans (diaphragm, heart and liver) of 633 slaughtered animals were carefully examinedfor the presence of any indigestible foreign body. Statistical analysis showed that theprevalence of indigestible foreign bodies was 94% (n=595). The studied animals includedoxen (n=631) 99.7% and cows (n=2) 0.3%. Plastics were the most frequently retrievedforeign bodies (44%). Others included: ropes (11.3%), leather (6.6%), rocks (7.4%), hairballs (6.9%), cloth pieces (0.8%), metals (9.2%) and miscellaneous objects (13.8%).There was a significant association between age and the occurrence of rumen foreignbodies (p<0.05), weight of foreign body and body condition score (p<0.05). However,there were insignificant associations between sex and the occurrence of rumen foreignbodies (p>0.05). The prevalence was generally high in older animals. The weight of theforeign bodies was completely dependent on the age of the animals as the size of therecovered foreign bodies was comparatively big in older animals. The size of the foreignbody had significant effect on the body condition score of the animal. The weight of theforeign body was heavier in large ruminants with thin and emaciated body condition. Itcan be concluded that the high prevalence of foreign bodies in large ruminants is mostprobably the result of food scarcity due to drought that led to starvation, pica andsubsequent ingestion of foreign bodies, careless spread and disposal of plastics and othermaterials in pasture, extensive management system of the animals and the indiscriminateeating habit of bovines contributed to the high prevalence.Key words: Abattoir; foreign body; Mekelle; reticulorumen 11
  12. 12. CATTLE SLAUGHTERED AT DEBERE MARKOS MUNICIPAL ABATTOIR, AMHARA REGIONAL ESTATE, ETHIOPIA Gemberu Gebril, Dr. Habtamu Tassew, Dr. Yohannes HagosABSTRACTA cross-sectional survey on bovine hydatidosis was carried out on local zebu cattleslaughtered at Debre Markos Municipal Abattoir from November 2010 to April 2011 todetermine the prevalence and economic losses. Out of the total 465 cattle examined, 193(41.5%) were found to harbor hydatid cysts. The study showed a high prevalence rate(41.5%) and significant estimated economic losses in the area. The prevalence wasslightly higher in cattle having poor body condition (50%) followed by medium (40.29%)and good (36.17%). There was relatively insignificant association (p=0.286, χ2=8.558)between different age groups with regard to cyst detection even though a bit higherprevalence has been indicated in older (41.97%) than younger (34.48%) zebu cattle.From the total of 193 infected animals, 79 (41%) had hydatid cysts found only in thelung, 38 (19.7%) in the liver, and the rest 76 (39.3%) had multiple anatomicaldistribution. Of the 275 viscera examined, the highest number of hydatid cysts (56.4%)was found on lung followed by liver (41.4%), spleen (1.1%), kidney (0.7%) and heart(0.4%). On the basis of cyst fertility and viability tests on 500 cysts, 128 (25.6%) werefertile, 205 (41%) sterile and 167 (33.4%) calcified whereas from all fertile cystssubjected for viability test, 73 (57%) were viable. This study considerably revealed highannual economic losses (574463.22 ETB) due to organ condemnation and carcass weightlosses with the highest loss associated with liver condemnation followed by lungs.Widespread practice of offering dogs with uncooked infected offals, the absence of well-constructed abattoir and the habit of leaving condemned organs unburied might be thepredominant potential risk factors associated. Therefore, reduction of stray dogpopulation, creation of public awareness regarding about the disease, and conductingregular meat inspection services should be exercised as relevant control measures.Keywords: Abattoir; Debre Markos; economic significance; hydatidosis; prevalence 12
  13. 13. PREVALENCE AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HYDATIDOSIS IN CATTLE SLAUGHTERED AT ABERGELLE EXPORT SLAUGHTER HOUSE Tsgab Alem, Dr. Yohannes TekleABSTRACTA cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 toinvestigate prevalence of hydatidosis and its associated economic losses. This study hasbeen carried out based on the Ante- mortem and post mortem examination. Among totalof 1048 slaughtered cattle examined, 224 (21.4 %) were found positive for hydatidosiswhich harbor the cyst in different visceral organs (lung, heart, liver and kidney). Theoverall high prevalence in this study was found due to poor husbandry system, absence ofawareness among the public about zoonotic importance of the disease, contamination ofpasture with dogs feces, unhygienic disposal of condemned organs, presence of straydogs, close relationship between cattle, dog and man, lack of cooperation between theveterinary and public health professionals. Out of 687 cysts detected, 479 (69.72%) werecounted from lung, 18 (2.62%) were from heart, 186 (27.07%) from liver and 4 (0.58%)from kidney. In this study among these cysts from different organs 103 (32.19%), 163(50.93%) and 54 (16.88 %) were found fertile, sterile and calcified respectively. Howeverlung was highly affected than others. In addition, there was statistical significantdifference (p<0.05) on the prevalence of hydatidosis between cattle in different bodycondition with higher prevalence in poor body condition (78.1%) than their counter parts(5.1%).More ever, no significant variation was observed with regard to age and origin ofanimals. Overall economic loss due to organ condemnation and carcass weight loss wasapproximately 34710.2044USD.Key words: Hydatid cyst, slaughter cattle, prevalence, echinococcus. 13
  14. 14. STUDY ON MAJOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH PROBLEMS OF DAIRY CATTLE AT MEKELLE Motuma Regassa, Dr. Berhan Mengiste, Dr. Guesh NegashABSTRACTStudy was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011 at Mekelle Veterinary Clinicwith objective to assess the incidence of various reproductive disorders, identify themajor reproductive disorders of dairy cows in study area and to suggest suitable remedialmeasures to the farmers. This study was under taken by applying questionnaire survey;data was collected from case book of clinics and examination of reproductive tract. Outof 239 cows that have reproductive disorders, 29.7%, 18.8%, 17.2%, 12.1%, 8.8%, 5.4%,4.6% and 3.3% were found to have repeat breeder, RFM, abortion, anoestrus, dystocia,uterine prolapsed, metritis and vagina prolapsed, respectively. According to this study theeffect of age (p=0.423) and parity (p=0.742) on reproductive disorders were notstatistically significant. On the other hand breed and service (p<0.05) have significanteffect on the reproductive disorders of the dairy cows. Possible risk factors responsiblefor the occurrence of reproductive health problems were identified and included as age,parity, breed and type of service. Improvements in management systems (such ashousing, feeding and health care), heat detection and proper selection of bulls forbreeding could help in minimizing reproductive health problems and improve thereproductive efficiency of small holder dairy cows.Key words: Reproductive disorders; dairy cows; breed; artificial insemination. 14
  15. 15. PREVALENCE OF OVINE HAEMONCHOSIS IN AND AROUND BAHIR DAR, ETHIOPIA Zelalem Semahegn, Dr. Biruk Mekonnen, Dr. Yohannes HagosABSTRACTA study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of haemonchosis in sheep slaughteredin three different hotels of Bahir Dar town from November, 2010 to March, 2011. Duringthe study period, 397 abomasums of sheep, 163 females and 234 males, were examinedaccording to the standard procedures. The haemonchus species were identified in sheepabomasums with an overall prevalence of 45.8%. The prevalence was compared with age,sex, body condition and origin of the sheep. There was no statistically significantdifference (p>0.05) observed among the risk factors of sex and origin; however, therewas statistically significant difference (p<.005) noticed among months, ages and bodyconditions of the sheep in relation to the prevalence of haemonchus species. The resultsrevealed that the infection was significantly higher in wet season (November) comparedto dry season (March) and lower prevalence was observed in young than adult groups. Itwas concluded that the epidemiological evidence of the present investigation showed thathaemonchosis is considerably prevalent disease of sheep in the study area. Hence, itdemands further studies on epidemiology particularly molecular one, and the economicsignificance of haemonchus species. Moreover, economically acceptable controlmeasures are recommended in the study area.Key words: Bahir Dar; haemonchus; prevalence; sheep 15
  16. 16. ASSESSEMENT OF MAJOR HEALTH PROBLEMS OF DOGS IN MEKELLE VETERINARY CLINIC Gebretsadik Atsbaha, Dr. Daniel HussienABSTRACTA cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in MekelleVeterinary Clinic to assess major health problems of dogs and to determine the associatedrisk factors. A total of 109 dogs were examined based on history and clinical signs. Chi-Square statistics and comparison of proportions were used to analyze the data. Out of thetotal 109 dogs examined, 42 (38.5%), 36 (33.00%), 15 (13.8%) and 16 (14.7%) had skin,respiratory and injury problems, respectively. Of 42 dogs that had skin problems, 25(59.5%) were lice and flea infested and 17 (40.5%) were mange mite infested. From 36dogs that had gastrointestinal tract problems, 21 (58.30%) showed diarrhea and 15(41.70%) were with vomiting. Out of the 16 injured dogs, 11 (68.75%) were dogs bitingwounds and 5 (31.25%) were car accident, abrasion, and bad management inflictedinjuries. All 15 dogs that came with respiratory tract infection showed various degree ofcoughing. The occurrence of the disease conditions did not show any statisticalsignificant difference between male and female (χ2=0.54; p=0.9). Moreover, thedifference in occurrence of health problems between the local and exotic breeds of dogwas not found to be statistically significant (χ2=7.5; p=0.05). Nevertheless, the differencein occurrence of major health problems among various age categories was statisticallysignificance (χ2=19.8; p=0.019). It is recommended that pet owners should care more fortheir pets by proper housing, feeding, and prevention of contamination of public placesby dog feces and regular deworming of dogs.Key words: Dogs, health problems, mekelle veterinary clinic 16
  17. 17. STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE DERMATOPHILOSIS IN MEKELLE AND KUYHA VETERINARY CLINIC Kassahun Asnake, Dr. Guesh NegashABSTRACTA survey of bovine Dermatophilosis on 1250 cattle were carried out from November2010 to April 2011 in Mekelle and Quiha in different areas of veterinary clinics.Accordingly, 192 cross breed and 1158 local zebu breed were examined in the clinics,and a total of 35(2.8%) were found positive for the disease with prevalence rate of 10(5.21%) and 25 (2.16%), respectively. Clinical examination was made and skin scrappingfrom suspected cases was examined for Dermatophilus congolense using Giemsa stainingtechnique. The influencing factors in the establishment and transmission of the diseaseare indicated and the extent of the disease was compared and analyzed in relation tobreed, sex, age, working site, severity of skin lesion, tick infestation and seasonaloccurrence. In this study the significant difference (p<0.05) were seen in different breeds,age groups, tick infestation and seasonal occurrence but the rest were insignificant(p>0.05). Finally possible solutions to control the disease and to decrease the risk factorswere recommended.Key words: Bovine; Dermatophilosis; Giemsa; Prevalence; Mekelle 17
  18. 18. STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TRYPONOSOMOSIS IN DARAMALO DISTRICT, GAMU GOFA ZONE, SOUTH NATIONS, NATIONALITIES AND PEOPELS REGION, ETHIOPIA Teketel Achiso, Dr. Habtamu TassewABSTRACTA cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2010 to April, 2011 in DaramaloDistrict of Gamu Gofa Zone, South Nations, Nationalities and Peoples’ Region. Thestudy was carried out on cattle which are selected with systematic random samplingtechnique from five peasant associations of the study area to determine the prevalenceand potential risk factors associated with bovine trypanosomosis. Based on sixtycommunity member interviews, bovine trypanosomosis was found to the primary diseaseof cattle in all PAs. Out of 246 blood samples collected from selected cattle for laboratoryexaminations, 61 (24.8%) samples were positive. Parasitological examinations revealedthat the infection rate caused by T.congilense (90.2%) being dominant over T. vivax(6.5%). Mixed infection of the two species (3.3%) was also recorded. Most of the animalswith mean PCV values less than 26% were found positive for trypanosomosis. The meanPCV values of parasitemic and aparasitemic animals were 21.2% and 26.1%,respectively. There was statistically significant difference (p=0.000, χ2=23.092) betweenPCV values and the prevalence of the disease. There was relatively insignificantassociation (p=0.481, χ2=1.463) between different age groups even though a bit higherprevalence has been indicated in older (27.7%) than younger (26.6%) zebu cattle. Theprevalence was slightly higher in cattle having poor body condition (37.7%) followed bymedium (9.2%) whereas animals in good body condition were found completely freefrom the disease. The results of the present study revealed that trypanososomosis was amajor constraint for cattle production in the study area. Therefore, tsetse fly control andregular strategic prophylactic treatment should be implemented in the study area.Key words: Bovine; Daramalo District; prevalence; Trypanosomosis 18
  19. 19. HEALTH AND WELFARE ASSESSMENT OF WORKING DONKEYS AT ENDERTA DISTRICT Saron Redae, Dr. Berhan MengisteABSTRACTThe cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 with the aimof assessing health and welfare problems of working donkeys in Enderta district aroundMekelle city. Direct assessment format was employed to obtain the required data. Thewound prevalence of the study area was 61.7%. Donkeys used for fire and charcoaltransport had higher prevalence of wound than those used for water and food transport.Wound distribution on the donkeys body showed that 49.71%, 32.37%, 9.25%), 8.67%are wounded at under the tail, point of shoulder and back, girth and other body partsrespectively. In this study, 57%, 37.8% and 5.2% the donkeys had body condition scoreof 2, 2-3 and 3, respectively. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in thebody condition score of the donkeys between the two sites. The donkeys used for foodand water transport have good body condition than those used for fire wood and charcoaltransport. The prevalence of external parasite was 78.61%. There was no statisticallysignificant difference (p>0.05) between the two sites in prevalence of external parasite.The prevalence of external parasite in relation to body condition score, 219 score 2, 169donkeys (44%) are positive, 145 score 2-3, 118 donkeys (30.7%) are positive and 20score3, 15 donkeys (3.9%) are positive. Body condition score did not show statisticaldifference by tick infestation (p>0.05). The tick prevalence is high which showed thatthere could be serious problem concerning tick infestation in donkeys which is neglectedby owners and also by veterinarians. Finally, donkey owners and veterinarians shouldimplement appropriate control and preventive strategies of tick infestation of donkeys arerecommended.Key words: donkey; health; welfare 19
  20. 20. STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE AND MAJOR CAUSES OF LAMENESS IN WORKING HORSES IN AND AROUND MEKELLE CITY Mohammednur Mohammed, Dr. Yohannes HagosABSTRACTA study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in four selected sites in andaround Mekelle namely; Quiha, Adigdom, and Wukro to determine the prevalence andmajor causes lameness and identify the likely potential risk factors using questionersurvey and clinical examination. A total of 410 working horses were randomly selectedfrom the four sites of the study area. The overall prevalence of lameness in this study wasfound to be 11.5%. The prevalence of lameness was significantly influenced by bodycondition (χ2=13.1, p=0.01) and it was higher in poor body condition (19.3%) bycomparing with those having moderate (12.2%) and good body conditions (6.1%),similarly there was statistically significant difference (χ2=410.0, p=0.000) between theprevalence and causes of lameness. Injury (67.86%) was found to be the major cause ofthe disease, followed by back problem (42.86%), arthritis (40.0%), hoof over growth(27.78%), epizootic lymphagitis (25.0%), wound (14.29%), nail piercing (18.75%) andother causes (5.26%). However, no significant difference was observed between sites(χ2=0.180, p=0.981) with a prevalence rates of 11.6%, 10.5%, 8.6% and 13.5% inMekelle, Adigudom, Quiha and Wukro, respectively. In this study grade-2 (38.2%) typeof lameness was found to be with higher prevalence than grade-1 (23.4%), grade-3(23.4%) and grade-4 (14.8%). Generally, this study showed lameness as a major healthproblem of horses and there are different causes of lameness in the study area. So acomprehensive horse health and welfare promotion program is important to alleviate theproblem.Key words: Horse, lameness, Mekelle, prevalence 20
  21. 21. IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF EXTRACTS FROM SELECTED ETHIOPIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS Fetene Moges, Dr. Berhan Mengiste, Dr. Yohannes HagosABSTRACTThe antibacterial activit of four selected Ethiopian medicinal plants was studied. Thewhole parts of Verbena officinalis, fruits of Measa lanceolata, arial parts of Cissusquadrangularis and leaf of Dodonae angustifolia were collected air dried under shed,powdered and soaked in 80% methanol to be extracted. Invitro antibacterial assay of theextracts was tested by the method of agar disk diffusion at different concentrations. Theplant extracts have shown broad spectrum activity against gram positive (S. aureus) andgram negative (E.coli) bacteria, except Cissus quadrangularis which did not showactivity against E.coli. The plant extracts had concentration dependant zone of inhibitionagainst the tested bacteria. In fact, the highest activity was obtained for V. officinalis at1000mg/ml against S. aureus. The activities are attributed to the presence of somesecondary metabolites present in the tested plants which have been associated withantibacterial activities. This finding suggests that there is possibility to isolate potentialantibacterial drugs from these medicinal plants.Key words: Antibacterial activity; extract; test bacteria 21
  22. 22. PREVALENCE OF POULTRY COCCIDIOSIS IN AND AROUND BAHIR DAR Tegbar Getnet, Dr. Tehetena Alemayhu, Dr. Yohannes HagosABSTRACTA cross sectional study was conducted in and around Bahir Dar from November 2010 toApril 2011 with the objective of investigating the prevalence of poultry coccidiosis in thestudy area on local strain chicken and white leghorn breed chicken that are kept underfree range and deep litter management systems respectively. A total of 409 chickens, 199local strain chicken and 210 white leghorns were included in the study. Flotationtechnique was employed to harvest coccidial oocysts from the sampled chicken. Theresult revealed that out of 409 chicken examined during the study period 248 (60.6%)were found to be positive for coccidial oocysts. Out of these positive cases 69.04 % werewhite leghorn whereas 51.7 % were local strain chicken. Moreover, results of coccidiosisby management system of chicken were assessed and the finding indicated that coccidialinfection in deep litter management system were significantly higher than that free rangesystem (χ2=12.795; p=0.000). Prevalence of coccidiosis by age group indicted thatsignificantly higher prevalence of coccidiosis (χ2=28.287; p=0.000) were registered inyoung chicken. However, significant variation was not noticed by sex groups of chickens(χ2=1.367; p=0.242). Generally, the present study shows that coccidiosis is the mostsignificant parasitic disease in the study area and further studies using large sample sizeshould be undertaken so as to get the overall picture of the disease in the area.Key words: Bahir Dar; Coccidiosis; Poultry; prevalence 22
  23. 23. A CORSS SECTIONAL STUDY ON BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS IN WOLAITA SODDO MUNICIPAL ABATTOIR Tsedeke Maregu, Dr. YisehakTsegayeABSTRACTA cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 to assess theoverall prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and costs incurred due to liver condemnation incattle slaughtered at Wolatia Soddo Municipal Abattoir. Chi-square test was applied totest if statistical association exists between the risk factors. The overall prevalence offasciolosis was found to be 27.25 % (109) from 400 randomly sampled animals. Theprevalence of F. hepatica and F. gigantica was 9.17% and 90.82%, respectively. Theprevalence of the disease in male and female animals was 27.17% and 28.12%respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) observed betweensex. The highest prevalence of the parasite was recorded in animals with poor bodycondition (53.06%), followed by medium body condition (38.74%), and 16.67% inanimals with good body condition. There was a statically significant (p<0.05) variation inthe prevalence among different body condition. There was significant difference (p<0.05)in the prevalence between origin of animals. Animals originated from highland andlowland area showed prevalence of 7.19% and 37.39%, respectively. A prevalence of34.86% and 24.39% was recorded for cattle of age between 2 and 4 and greater than 4years respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) observed inthe prevalence of fasciolosis among the studied age group. The cost associated withcondemnation of fluke infected liver was estimated to be 181,376 Ethiopian birr (10,563USD, exchange rate 17.17) per annum. Coprology, revealed 22.5% (90) prevalence.Accordingly, the sensitivity of feacal examination method was found to be 72.47%,specificity was 96.21% and accuracy was 89.75% with substantial agreement between thetwo tests (k=0.6999). Detailed studies should be conducted on the epidemiology of thedisease in order to expand and implement disease investigation and control strategy andfurther diagnosis should be done to determine the efficiency of fecal examination method.Key words: Bovine fasciolosis; post mortem; prevalence; Wolaita Soddo 23
  24. 24. ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY PATTERN OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI Tamirat Zelalem, Dr. Berhan Mengiste, Dr. Habtamu TassewABSTRACTAntibiotic sensitivity test was conducted from December 2010 to April 2011 on sixdifferent antibiotics against two species of bacterial isolates with the objective of invivosusceptibility of tested organisms to compare effectiveness of the test drugs and todetermine zone of inhibition against the bacterial isolates. Tetracycline had highest meanzone of inhibition (28.60mm) against Staphylococcus aureus while norfloxacin hadhighest mean zone of inhibition (28.60 mm) against Escherichia coli. There was highsignificance (p<0.05) between groups of the drugs with the exception norfloxacin withamoxicillin which was not significant (p>0.05) for S.aureus and tetracycline withamoxicillin, sulfa + TMP with cefoxitin for E.coli. The study of antibiotic sensitivitypattern and periodic surveillance of the isolates are useful in choosing the appropriatetherapy against the bacterial isolates.Keywords: antibiotics; Escherichia coli; sensitivity; Staphylococcus aureus 24
  25. 25. PREVALENCE OF GASTRO INTESTINAL NEMATODE IN CART HORSES IN AND AROUND KOMBOLCHA Samuel Worku, Dr. Berihun AferaABSTRACTA cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 to determinethe prevalence of nematodes and identify common GIT nematode species in and aroundKombolcha using qualitative fecal analysis method in cart horses. A total of 384 animalswere sampled during the study period via collection of the fecal sample to examine GITnematodes and the overall prevalence of GIT nematode was 52.1% of which 32.6%, 6.5%and 2.9% infested with Strongyle, Ascaris and Oxyuris, respectively. In addition, therewere also mixed infestation like Strongyle and Ascaris, Strongyle and Oxyuris andArongyle, Ascaris and Oxyuris with a prevalence of 4.9%, 4.4% and 0.8%, respectively.There is statistical significance difference in the rates of the different nematodes(p<0.05). Age specific prevalence of the parasites was observed and its rate was 9.4%,27.6% and 15.1% in young, adult and old horses, respectively. And the prevalence wasfound to be statically significant (p<0.05). Body condition rates also showed that theprevalence were 18.5%, 27.1% and 6.5% in poor, medium and good body conditionhorses respectively where statically significant difference was observed among thedifferent body conditions (p<0.05). This result showed that nematode parasites are moreprevalent in the area hence, regular deworming, pasture management are used to reducethe warm burden in the cart horses.Key words: Age; body condition; cart horses; GIT parasite; Nematodes; prevalence 25
  26. 26. ISOLATION OF BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS FROM LESSIONS OF EQUINE HISTOPLASMOSIS IN MEKELLE, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA Dinku Biratu, Dr. Birhanu Hadush, Dr. Habtamu TaddeleABSTRACTA study was conducted between November 2010 to April 2011 to isolate bacterialcontaminants from confirmed lesion of Equine histoplasmosis (EH), determine theantibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates and study the profile of white blood cells(Neutrophils, Lymphocytes) across different severity stages of EH. From 24 EH positivecart horses, a total of 47 samples were collected from either open and or closed lesions of24 cases of EH of different stages of severity were used. Six different genera of bacteriawere isolated from the different lesions of confirmed EH cases namely Bacillus(27.12%), Aeromonas (24.58%), Micrococcus (16.10%), Rhodococcus equi (14.41%),and Klebsiella (0.85%) respectively. The dominant bacterium isolated from confirmedclosed lesions of EH was Aeromonas (31.91%) while from open lesions was Bacillus(26.76%). The result of differential white blood cell count has indicated that there wasstatistically significant association between severity of EH and Neutrophils count(r2=0.95, p=0.000). On the other hand, statistically significant inverse relationship wasobserved between severity of EH and lymphocyte count (r2=0.8875, p=0.000). The resultof the antibiotic sensitivity test on the dominant bacterial isolates showed that Bacillus issusceptible to all antibiotics and Aeromonas was susceptible to Gentamycine andAmoxacillin. On the other hand Staphylococcus has developed drug resistance except forCefoxitin. Micrococcus was susceptible to all antibiotics but tetracycline. The responseall antibiotics against Rhodococcus were moderate to poor. In conclusion, although theprimary cause of Equine Histoplasmosisis the fungus is the fungus Histoplasmacapsulatum var farciminosum (HCF), since bacteria do complicate the lesions treatmentof EH should include antibiotics in addition to antifungal drugs.Key words: Bacteria; drug sensitivity test; Equine histoplasmosis 26
  27. 27. MAJOR PARASITIC CAUSES OF ORGAN CONDEMNATION IN APPARENTLLY HEALTHY CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN ABERGELLE MODERN EXPORT ABATTOIR, MEKELLE. Kflemaryam Tadesse, Dr. Netsanet BerheABSTRACTThe study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011 in Abergelle exportabattoir. The aim of this study was to identify and determine the major parasitic cause oforgan condemnation and estimate the magnitude of the direct losses attributed to thecondemned organs from cattle slaughtered in the abattoir. Standard ante mortem and postmortem inspection procedures were followed throughout the study. During the study atotal of 902 cattle were examined. The study revealed that prevalence of differentparasites was 6.76% fasciolosis 19.02% hydatidosis and 9.20% cysticercosis. Out of 902slaughtered cattle 188 (20.84%) livers were condemned due to various parasites at aproportion of 61(6.76%) fasciolosis, 55(6.10%) cysticercosis, 51(5.65%) hydatidosis,9(1.00%) concurrent infection of fasciolosis and cysticercosis, 6(0.67%) concurrentinfection of fasciolosis and hydatidosis, and 6(0.67%) due to concurrent infection ofhydatidosis and cysticerccosis. The association between age and body condition of theanimal in relation to fasciolosis were found to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05) butthe variation between origin and month found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Inaddition the association between concurrent infection of cysticercosis and fasciolosis inliver found to be statistically significant (p<0.05), but the variation among origin, bodycondition and different months were found to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Forindependent infection of fasciolosis, cysticercosis and hydatidosis of liver the associationamong different months found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). In this study115(12.7%) lungs were condemned due to hydatidosis; and variation among age, origin,body condition and months found to be statistically insignificant (p>0.05). Totalcondemned heart were 13(1.44%) due to cysticercosis and there was not statisticalsignificant difference among age group, body condition, animal origin and months(p>0.05). a total loss of 23978.59 ETB incurred in the abattoir from the three condemned 27
  28. 28. organs and it was estimated at approximately173457054.7 ETB loss per annum. Afterthoroughly discussed pertinent conclusion was drawn.Key words: Abattoir, cattle; cysticercosis; fasciolosis; hydatidosis, economic loss, organ condemnation; prevalence CHIEF CONSTRAINTS IN THE SUCCESS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION PROGRAME IN AND AROUND MEKELLE Getachew AbadiABSTRACTA study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in and around Mekelle. Thisstudy was conducted to assess problems and chief constraints that hinder the success ofAI in the study area. A total of 320 cattle owners and 21 Artificial Inseminationtechnicians were interviewed using structured questionnaire survey. Chief constraints inthe study area include: timing insemination problem (8.4%), heat detection problem(11.9%), management problem (16.9%), disease problem (19.4%), low experience ofArtificial Insemination Technicians (7.2%) and lack of awareness about Artificialinsemination (35.9%). Lack of ownership and follow up, inadequate man power & lackof commitment, lack of attention to this field, limitation of inputs, facilities andinfrastructural problems were also mentioned by Artificial Insemination technicians. Thestudy has found an alarming result with motivations of the Artificial inseminationtechnicians in which 78% of them have indicated that they are not motivated to work asAI technicians due to associated problems and constraintsKey words: Constraints, Artificial insemination, Questionnaire survey 28
  29. 29. AGE PROFILE AND DENTAL DISORDERS OF DONKEYS IN TWO SELECTED WORKING SITES OF TIGRAY DONKEY HEALTH AND WELFARE PROJECT Fikreslasie DawitABSTRACTNutritional status, measured as body condition, has been used to assess welfare inworking Equines due to that; dental abnormalities have substantial impact on thenutritional status of donkeys because they limit digestibility of feeds and the nutrientutilization. This cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011in two selected working sites of Tigray Donkey health and welfare projects, Adigudemand Quiha with the objective of determining the prevalence of dental disorder and ageprofile in donkeys in the working sites. A total of 384 donkeys were selected from thetotal 990 donkeys presented to the clinics in the study area using systemic randomsampling method and all donkeys were examined by opening of mouth cavity usingmouth speculum. From the total 384 donkeys 154 (40.1%) of them had dental disorders.In the current study three types of dental abnormality were examined which includeincisor teeth abnormality 11(2.9%), check teeth abnormality 128(33.3%) and periodontaldisease 15(3.9%). The age profile of donkey was also determined in those working sitesand the age proportion obtained were 4.4% (n=17), 22.4% (n=86), 46.4% (n=178), 18.4%(n=71), 6.0% (n=23) and 2.3% (n=9) in age groups of <2.5years, 2.5-5 years, 6-10 years,11-15 years, 16-20 years, 20+ years, respectively. There was no significant difference(p>0.05) among the different soil type and sex but statistical analysis of dental disorderon site, age and body condition scoring showed significant difference (p<0.05). Thisstudy conclude that about 81.25% of above 16 years old donkey have dental disorder andabout 66.7% of donkeys presented in less than moderate body condition scoring havedental disorders. The study revealed that dental disorder was an important constrains inthe welfare of donkeys which limit their nutritional status. Further study and extensioneducation should be carried out to create awareness on the people.Key words: Adigudem; age profile; dental disorder; Donkeys; prevalence; Quiha 29
  30. 30. STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BOVINE MASTITIS IN AND AROUND BAHIR DAR DAIRY FARMS BAHIRDAR, ETHIOPIA Muhammed Suleman, Dr. Gebreiwot Taddesse, Dr. Yohannes HagosABSTRACTA cross sectional study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 on a total of311 lactating dairy cows (local and cross breed) to determine the prevalence of mastitis,isolate the predominate bacterial causative agents, and to assess the role of some potentialrisk factors of mastitis in Bahir Dar town and its surrounding. Clinical prevalence wasdetermined through examination of abnormalities in milk and udder where CaliforniaMastitis Test (CMT) was utilized as a screening test to be able to determine theprevalence of subclinical mastitis. The overall mastitis prevalence recorded in the studyarea was 53.4% (n=166), out of which 2.6% (n=8) clinical and 50.4% (n=158) weresubclinical cases. Of the 1244 quarter examined, 2.3% (n=29) were blind teats and 27.3%(n=332) showed evidence of infection of subclinical mastitis. About 142 bacterial isolateswere identified from CMT positive and mastitis milk samples. The most frequent isolateswere Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species (45.77%), Staphylococcus aures(S.aures) (23.2%), Streptococcus species (12.68%) and Entrobacteriaceae (9.8) otherthan Escherichia coli (E.coli) (23.2%). Other species isolated included E.coli (3.5%),Micrococcus (2.8%), Pseudomonas (1.4%), and Corynabacterium (0.7%). Theoccurrence of mastitis varied significantly (p<0.005) among breeds which was higher incross breed cows 38.9% (n=121), than local Fogera 15.8% (n=49). The prevalence ofmastitis was also significantly (p<0.005) associated with the presence of tick and/orlesion washing the udder and hand before milking. There was no significant difference(p>0.05) between lactating cows with lactation stage and parity number. The studyshowed that mastitis is the problem of dairy cows in the study area and the major isolateswere contagious pathogens. Therefore, hygienic milking practice, culling of chronicallyinfected cows and proper hygienic practice in the dairy farms could be feasible option tocontrol the disease in the study area.Key words: Bacterial isolates, Bahir Dar, CMT, lactating cows, mastitis, prevalence 30
  31. 31. PREVALENCE OF BOVINE FASCIOLOSIS IN BAHIR DAR MUNICIPAL ABATTOIR Habtamu TerefeABSTRACTA cross sectional study on prevalence of bovine Fasciolosis was carried out at Bahir Darmunicipal abattoir. The study was conducted from November 2010 to March 2011. Thisstudy was used to establish the prevalence of bovine Fasciolosis in Bahir Dar municipalabattoir and to compare diagnostic efficiency of faecal and postmortem examination. Atotal of 384 cattle were randomly selected from the total number of cattle slaughteredduring the study period. Faecal samples were examined using sedimentation techniquefollowed by postmortem examination of each slaughtered animals. Abattoir surveyrevealed that the overall prevalence of fasciolosis in the study was 32.3% and 44.8% incoproscopic and post mortem examination respectively. There was also a statisticallysignificant (p<0.05) value in between this results. Coproscopic examination was revealeda prevalence of 39.28% and 25.25%; post mortem examination was revealed a prevalenceof 50% and 39.89% in animals of old and adult age groups respectively. The currentstudy on age groups had statistically significant effect on the prevalence of bovinefasciolosis (p<0.05). The prevalence of poor body condition animals under coproscopicexamination was 36.40% where as good body condition animals were 26.28%. Theprevalence of post mortem examination was 50.43% and 37.82% in poor and good bodycondition animals respectively. It was statistically significant (p<0.05). From the totallivers found to be positive for bovine Fasciolosis 69.28% were infected with F. hepatica,14.53% were infected with F. gigantica and 16.8% were infected with immature orunidentified form of Fasciola species. These results indicate that F. hepatica was the mostcommon liver fluke species that leads to high liver condemnation rates in cattleslaughtered in the study area.Key words: Bahir Dar; bovine; coproscopy; fasciolosis; prevalence 31
  32. 32. STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF LUNG WORM INFECTION IN SHEEP SLAUTHERED AT ABERGELE EXPORT ABATTOIR Fiseha Kidanu, Dr. Yohannes HagosABSTRACTA cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle Abergelle export abattoir fromNovember, 2009 to April, 2010 to determine the prevalence of lung worm infection andidentifying the species of the lung worm using post mortem examination and Baermantechnique and to determine the likely potential risk factors by questionnaire surveys.Accordingly, a total of 571 sheep were sampled. Out of 571 sheep examined, 177 werefound positive for lung worm on post mortem examination and the overall prevalence oflung worm in the study area was found to be 31.0% (117/571). In this study theprevalence rate of Dictyocaulos filaria (15.8%) was found to be higher thanProstrongylus rufescens (8.8%) and Mulleries capillaries (6.1%). The prevalence of lungworm infection was significantly influenced by age (χ2=29.125, p=0.000) and it washigher in age groups of less than 1 year 3 month (42.72%) than 1year 3 months to 1 year10 month (32.12%) and greater than 1 year 10 month (18.0%), similarly there wasstatistically significant difference (χ2=32.235, p=0.000) in prevalence of lung worminfection among thin body condition score (50.78%), average (24.39%) and fat (36.36%).Generally, it is possible to conclude that ovine dictyocaulosis is major problem of sheepwithin the different origins of the animals in the study area. Therefore, extension work toincrease the attitude of the society in using chemotherapy, sensible grazing system andother possible prevention and control measures should be focused.Key words: Mekelle, Ovine, Ovine dictyocaulosis, prevalence 32
  33. 33. PREVALENCE AND IDENTIFICATION OF HARD TICKS (IXODIDES) ON BOVINE IN SHASHEMENE VETERINARY CLINIC Mohammed Siraj, Dr. Nesibu Awol, Dr. Birhanu HadushABSTRACTThis cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 to April 2011 atShashemene veterinary clinic with the objectives of determining the prevalence of tickinfestation and identifying the major species of ticks encountered in cattle. During thestudy period a total of 393 cattle were examined and all of them were infested with tick.A total of 1953 ticks were collected from half body regions of all cattle. As a whole fourgenera and six species of Ixodid ticks were identified. The tick genera identified wereAmblyomma (55.97%), Boophilus (21.09%), Hyalomma (13.52%) and Rhipicephalus(9.42%). Amblyomma variegatum (34.9%), Boophilus decolaratus (21.1%), Amblyommacohaerence (14%), Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (13.5%), Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi(9.4%) and Amblyomma lepidum (7.1%) were the species of tick identified in decreasingorder. Further study and strategic control of ticks is recommended.Key words: Cattle, Ixodid tick, prevalence, Shashemene. 33
  34. 34. EVALUATION OF THE REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF CROSSBRED DAIRY CATTLE IN KALLAMINO DAIRY FARM, MEKELLE Tsegay Haftu, Dr. Theodros TekleABSTRACTEvaluation on the reproductive performance of 70 crossbred Holstein Friesian dairy cowswas conducted at Kallamino dairy farm, Mekelle. The study was based on a retrospectiveindividual cow breeding record analysis covering the period 1998 to 2006. The mean ageof the cows was found to be 7.9 years and the mean parity of the dairy cows wasregistered to be 4. The mean age at first service and mean age at first calving of the farmwere 26.1months and 35.2months, respectively. The average days to first observed heatwas 64.7days and days open of 114 days was recorded. Service per conception of 1.8, dryperiod of 62.6days and calving interval of 15.3 months were recorded. According to thisstudy, parity has no significance effect (p>0.05) on S/C, average days open and averagedays to observed heat. Based on the result of this study, the farm needs to check on age atfirst calving and calving interval through developing good management systems mainlybased on feeding and effective reproductive health management.Key words: Crossbred cows, Mekelle, Reproductive performance 34
  35. 35. STATUS OF ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION SERVICE AT FIELD LEVEL IN EASTERN ZONE OF TIGRAY Hagos Asgele, Dr. Gebregiorgis AshebirABSTRACTA retrospective study was conducted from November 2010 to April 2011 in eastern zoneof Tigray to determine the status of artificial insemination in the study area for the lastseven years (2004 to 2010). The data was collected from Regional Artificial InseminationCenter (RAIC) and by interviewing and discussing closely with the 325 livestockowners.AI service eastern zone of Tigray has been showing a little progress in thesuccessive years, because of the farmers understanding the advantage of AI had goodprogeny, increase milk quality and quantity, and economic importance rather than bullkeeping in their house would expose them to additional expenditure greater than AIservice. The AI field service operates use three strategies, the first and widely usedsystem is a daily round with which inseminators visit farms, villages and crush sites usingmotor bikes alongside the main road, the second Static point with which AI techniciansare stationed on farms where a large number of animals are kept. Large number ofrespondents had been observed to express that the main factors for failure to conceivewere associated with heat detection and insemination time (21.2%), managementproblem, heat detection and insemination time (20.4%), management problem (10.8%),management problem and diseases (15.2%), respectively. Problems related to only lack ofskilled technicians (6.4%), timing of insemination (14.4%), diseases (7.2%) and heatdetection (4.4%) were noticed to have a minor effect. According to the survey, more thanhalf (55.6%) of the respondents were getting their AI service on static points whereas,(44.3%) of the respondents noted to have received their service by going to traveling onrequest. The assessment of AI regard to different farming systems shows that more thanhalf (53.7%) of the respondent of intensive management system preferred AI servicerelative to semi intensive and extensive farming system were recorded as, 38.1%,and8.1% respectively.Key words: Artificial insemination, dairy cattle, Eastern zone of Tigray 35
  36. 36. STUDY ON SERO-PREVALENCE OF BOVINE AND HUMAN BRUCELLOSIS IN AND AROUND ASELLE, EASTERN ARSI ZONE, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE OF ETHIOPIA Abdulazim Usman Kimo, Dr. Yohannes HagosABSTRACTA cross-sectional study was conducted in and around Asella from November 2010 toMarch 2011, to determine the prevalence of bovine and human brucellosis using RBPTand CFT and to identify the likely potential risk factors. A total of 417 dairy cattle and400 humans were sampled. The sampling involved all cattle above 6 months of age withno history of previously vaccinated against brucellosis and humans suspected to thedisease with the history of exposure. Out of 417 cattle 22 (5.28 %) were positive to RBPTof which 16 (3.84 %) were confirmed to be positive whereas out of 400 human screenedby RBPT, 9 (2.25 %) were positive of which 5 (1.25 %) were confirmed to be positive toCFT. The overall prevalence of bovine and human brucellosis in the study area was 3.84% and 1.25%, respectively. In cattle the prevalence of brucellosis was significantlyinfluenced by both abortion (χ2=36.434, p=0.000) and retained fetal membrane (χ2=6.045,p=0.014) and a prevalence rates of 35.71% and 22.73% were recorded with history ofabortion and retained fetal membrane, respectively, similarly in humans the prevalence ofbrucellosis was statistically significant with exposure to animal products and by-products(χ2=14.582, p=0.002) and occupational groups (χ2=16.956, p=0.001). However, nosignificant difference was observed between age groups (χ2=4.947, p=0.084) and sex(χ2=2.318, p=0.128) in cattle, similarly in humans the prevalence was found to bestatistically insignificant with both sex (χ2=2.044, p=0.153) and age groups (χ2=1.865,p=0.761). The questionnaire survey were conducted on 14 farm owner and 113 humanspresented at hospital. Out of 14 farm owners only 3 (21.4%) had little knowledge onbrucellosis and wear protective gloves during handling aborted cows and retained fetalmembrane. Whereas out of 113 people presented at hospital 84 (74.34%) had noinformation about its zoonotic importance. In general brucellosis control strategies incattle includes improved management practice, test and slaughter policy while in human 36
  37. 37. creating awareness of people on its zoonotic importance, use of cooked animal productand by product and early treatment need to be initiated and promoted.Key words: Asella; Bovine; Brucellosis; Human; Prevalence 37

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