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FISH SEED PRODUCTION & CULTIVABLE FISH SPECIES WITH FISH CUM DUCK FORMING

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FISH SEED PRODUCTION & CULTIVABLE FISH SPECIES WITH FISH CUM DUCK FORMING

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FISH SEED PRODUCTION & CULTIVABLE FISH SPECIES WITH FISH CUM DUCK FORMING

  1. 1. FISH FARMING
  2. 2. India's Freshwater Fish The economic importance of Indian aquatic ecosystems can be seen from their contribution to fishery production. Fish Seed Production In past years the major source of fish seeds was wild collection. Seed was collected from natural water resources after breeding season and used as stocking material. These seed were of low quality and mixed with wild species of fishes. There was another problem related to quantity of seed, required amount of seed was not available, so the development of seed production technologies started in early years of the 16th century. In order to bring all the available effective water spread area under scientific fish culture with optimum stocking density, 368.5 million fingerlings shall be required every year. This would demand seed production of 4865 million spawn and 1216 million fry every year. The total average seed supply is only 30% of estimated seed requirement. In Haryana is February-March every year where as the breeding season of other species is monsoon season. Brood stocks of required fish are maintained and sex- wise segregate is made two month before. The pairing is made and injected with calculated dose of pituitary gland or ova prim, ova tide or ovpal is injected to male and female fish. Within the 6-8 hours of the injection eggs from female and sperm from male are released in the water. The fertilizer is external. Normally one kg fish releases about one lakh eggs. The hatchlings are known as spawn. The spawn is reared in the nursery pond. After 15 days, the spawn attains the size of 25 mm and ready for stocking in the pond. More than 50 lakh fry can be produced per hectare fish seed farm in both the seasons in a year.
  3. 3. Criteria for selection of suitable fish species  Adaptability to undrainable pond environment  Faster growth rate  Efficient utilizers of natural food resources of the pond  Efficient converter of artificial feed  Hardy and not easily susceptible to disease  Easy to breed and rear the seed  Prolonged breeding period or multiple breeding frequency  Non-predaceous, planktophagous and preferably herbivorous and detritus feeder  Compatability with other cultivable species of fish  Palatable with high nutritive value  High market demand and high price. Groups of Freshwater Species Indian freshwater fish species are grouped below into:  Indigenous major carps  Exotic carps  Common-type carps  Hill stream fishes  Air-breathing fishes  Ornamental fishes INDIGENOUS MAJOR CARPS "Major" carps are larger and faster-growing than the "minor" carps.  Catla catla: Found on the surface of lakes, ponds, tanks, reservoirs, and other bodies of water.  Lebeo rohita: Found in the column (that is, at various depths) in lakes, ponds, tanks, reservoirs, and other bodies of water.  Cirrhinus mrigala: Found at the bottom of lakes, ponds, tanks, and reservoirs.  Lebeo bata: Found at the bottom of bodies of water.  Labeo calbasu: Found at the bottom of bodies of water.
  4. 4. CATLA CATLA Catla (Catla Catla or Gibelion Catla), also known as the major (Indian) carp, is an economically important South Asian freshwater fish in the carp family Cyprinidae. It is commonly found in rivers and lakes in northern India, Nepal, Myanmar, Bangladesh and Pakistan. Catla is a fish with large and broad head, a large protruding lower jaw and upturned mouth. It has large, greyish scales on dorsal side and whitish on belly. It has broad and stout body, broad head with upturned mouth, prominent lips and elongated fins. The dorsal side of the body is more concave than ventral side. It occurs in surface water. It matures by second year. Slender fish, Body is silvery but dark gray along its back. LABEO ROHITA This fish is commonly called rohu. In Hindi it is called rehu (rawas is the Indian Salmon, which is quite different). It is called rohi in Oriya, rui in Bengali, rehu in Latin Nepali (now deceased), rou in Assamese and Sylheti, rohu itself in Madhesh of Nepal as well as in Thailand, Bangladesh, northern India, Pakistan and Myanmar. It is a non-oily/white fish in Nepal and India. It has an elongated body. Head is small but it is with a prominent terminal mouth, thick lips with short barbells. Colour is bluish or brownish gray above. Scales are gray and red or black. It grows to about 90cms. This carp occurs in column waters of all rivers and canals. It is an important aquacultured freshwater species in South Asia. When cultured, it does not breed in lentic environments, so induced spawning becomes necessary. MRIGAL The Mrigal carp (Cirrhinus Cirrhosus, also Cirrhinus Mrigala), also known as the mrigal and the white carp, is a species of ray-finned fish in the carp family. Native to streams and rivers in India, the only surviving wild population is in the Cauvery River, leading to its IUCN rating as vulnerable. It is widely aquafarmed and introduced populations exist outside its native range. It reaches a maximum length of 1m (3.3ft). Mrigal inhabits all the major river systems of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Burma. The adult fish feeds upon filamentous green algae, diatoms, pieces of higher plants, decayed vegetable, mud and detritus. It is basically a bottom feeder and hence suitable for cultivation with column and surface feeder carps in ponds.
  5. 5. LABEO BATA Labeo bata is fish in genus Labeo. It is commonly known as bata, and is a native fish to India and Bangladesh. It is a popular game fish and is popular for its taste. It lives in ponds, rivers, etc. Its maximum length is 25–35 centimetres (9.8–13.8 in). It eats protozoa, algae, and tiny fishes. It is a slow-moving fish, so with any active and aggressive it will be nervous. The age and growth of Labeo bata (Ham.) was studied by the analysis of annuli found on the scale and by length-frequency distribution. LABEO CALBASU It is commonly found in fresh water ponds and tanks of India. The body is bluish green in colour with small head and folded lips. The snout consists of four black coloured long barbs. It is cultivable in ponds. It reaches to a size of 1 m and l .5 to 2 kg in weight. EXOTIC FISHES When the indigenous fishnets are not favoured for culture due to economic viability, exotic breeds are selected and cultured. These fishes yield nutritious food and earn foreign exchange. CYPRINUS CARPIO (COMMON CARP) This fish was imported from China and introduced into Nilagiri lakes. The growth of the fish is higher and grows to a length of 75cm and 6.5 kg weight. It breeds thrice in a year. When cultured under extensive system, the productivity was at 1500 kg/ha.
  6. 6. OSPHRONEMUS GORAMY (GOWRAMY) The Giant gourami (Osphronemus Goramy), is a species of gourami believed to be originally native to Southeast Asia, with its occurrence in other locations due to introductions. This species is commercially important as a food fish and is also farmed. It can also be found in the aquarium trade. The species has also been used for weed control, as it can be a voracious herbivore. It lives in fresh or brackish water, particularly slow-moving areas such as swamps, lakes, and large rivers. It is capable of breathing moist air, so can survive out of water for long periods. It is much larger than most gouramis, growing to a maximum length of 70 cm (28 in), though most are only around 45 cm (18 in). In colour, it is a pale to golden yellow, with silvery, pale blue stripes running vertically along its body. Females can be identified by their thicker lips. Giant gouramis build nests using weeds and twigs. It was imported from Jawa and Maritius and introduced into fresh waters of Madras and Calcutta. The rate of growth is very slow. CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA (GRASS CARP) The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon Idella) is an herbivorous, freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae, and the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon. It is a large cyprinid native to eastern Asia, with a native range from northern Vietnam to the Amur River on the Siberia-China border. It is cultivated in China for food, but was introduced in Europe and the United States for aquatic weed control. It is a fish of large, turbid rivers and associated floodplain lakes, with a wide degree of temperature tolerance. Grass carp will enter reproductive condition and spawn at temperatures of 20 to 30°C (68 to 86°F). Grass carp have elongated, chubby, torpedo-shaped body forms. The terminal mouth is slightly oblique with non-fleshy, firm lips, and no barbels. The complete lateral line contains 40 to 42 scales. This species occurs in lakes, ponds, pools, and backwaters of large rivers, preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. In the wild, grass carp spawn in fast-moving rivers, and their eggs, which are slightly heavier than water, develop while drifting downstream, and kept in suspension by turbulence.
  7. 7. HYPOPHTHALMICHTHYS MOLITRIX (SILVER FISH) The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is a species of freshwater cyprinid fish, a variety of Asian carp native to China and Eastern Siberia. It is cultivated in China. Pound for pound, more silver carp are produced worldwide in aquaculture than any other species. They are usually farmed in polyculture with other Asian carp, or sometimes Indian carp or other species. It has been introduced to, or spread by connected waterways, into at least 88 countries around the world. The most common reason for importation was for use in aquaculture, but enhancement of wild fisheries and water quality control were also important reasons for importation. The silver carp reaches an average length of 60-100 cm (24-39 inch) with a maximum of 140 cm (55 inch) and about 45 kg (99 lb). TILAPIA MOSSAMBICUS The Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis Mossambicus, is a tilapiine cichlid fish native to southern Africa. It is a popular fish for aquaculture. Dull colored, the Mozambique tilapia often lives up to a decade in its native habitats. Due to human introductions, it is now found in many tropical and subtropical habitats around the globe, where it can become an invasive species because of its robust nature. This makes it an optimal species for aquaculture because it readily adapts to new situations. It is known as Black Tilapia in Colombia and as Blue Kurper in South Africa. It was imported from East Africa in 1952. The upper jaw in males is larger. It breeds even at the age of two months. MURREL FISHES (AIR-BREATHING FISHES) These are air breathing fishes with long cylindrical body, flattened head and protractile mouth. These can grow in fresh water ponds, irrigation canals, wells and marshy areas. They breed even before the onset of monsoons. CHANNA PUNCTATUS OR OPHIOCEPHALUS (SNAKE HEAD) It is a long fish with snake like body and accessory respiratory organs. As it lives outside the water also, it is commonly called Live fish. It is coloured differently. It grows to an average length of 30 - 35 cm. It is a common food fish of high demand.
  8. 8. CATFISHES Catfishes (order Siluriformes) are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat’s whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the heaviest and longest, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia and the second longest, the wels catfish of Eurasia, to detritivores (species that eat dead material on the bottom), and even to a tiny parasitic species commonly called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are also naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbel. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the skull and swim bladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance; many of the larger species are farmed or fished for food. Many of the smaller species, particularly the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal, but others (many Auchenipteridae) are crepuscular or diurnal. The cat fishes are predatory fishes. Their skin is devoid of scales. Two pairs of barbels are present on upper and lower jaw. Most of the fish body is utilized as food due to absence of scales and spines. CLARIAS BATRACHUS (WALKING CATFISH) The walking catfish (Clarias Batrachus) is a species of freshwater air breathing catfish native to Southeast Asia, but also introduced outside its native range where it is considered an invasive species. It is named for its ability to "walk" across dry land, to find food or suitable environments. While it does not truly walk as most bipeds or quadrupeds do, it has the ability to use its pectoral fins to keep it upright as it makes a sort of wiggling motion with snakelike movements. It can survive using this form of locomotion as long as it stays moist. This fish normally lives in slow-moving and often stagnant waters in ponds, swamps, streams and rivers, flooded rice paddies or temporary pools which may dry up. When this happens, its "walking" skill allows the fish to move to other sources of water. Considerable taxonomic confusion surrounds this species and it has frequently been confused with other close relatives.
  9. 9. HETEROPNEUSTES FOSSILIS The Asian stinging catfish or fossil cat, Heteropneustes Fossilis, is a species of airsac catfish found in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Myanmar. In India in the state of Kerala it is locally called as kadu (Malayalam : kadu). It is highly preferred in Assam and locally known as xingi. In Bangladesh this fish is called Shing Mach, In SriLanka; this fish is called hunga by the Sinhala-speaking community. It’s found mainly in ponds, ditches, swamps, and marshes, but sometimes occurs in muddy rivers. It can tolerate slightly brackish water. It is omnivorous. This species breeds in confined waters during the monsoon months, but can breed in ponds, derelict ponds, and ditches when sufficient rain water accumulates. It is in great demand due to its medicinal value. The stinging catfish is able to deliver a painful sting to humans. Poison from a gland on its pectoral fin spine has been known to be extremely painful. CLARIAS MACROCEPHALUS (BROADHEAD CATFISH) The broadhead catfish (Clarias Macrocephalus) is an economically important air- breathing catfish that is a native of Southeast Asia. The fish is farmed in ponds for use in human consumption in countries such as Thailand and the Philippines. However, native populations now face extinction due to man-made activities and genetic introgression due to interbreeding with escaped aquaculture hybrids. The broadhead catfish is identified by its large dorsal fin and its short and rounded occipital process. The occipital process is pointed in Clarias batrachus, a closely related species. Another identifying feature for the broadhead catfish is the white spots on the side of its black body. ANABAS TESTUDINEUS (CLIMBING PERCH) Anabas Testudineus, the climbing perch, is a species of fish in the family Anabantidae, the climbing gourami. It is native to Asia, where it occurs from India east to China and to the Wallace Line. It has also been established in some countries outside of its native range. This species grows to 25 cm (9.8 inc) in total length. This species is important as a food fish in certain areas of India and in Southeast Asia, where its ability to survive out of the water for extended periods of time, provided it is kept moist, improves its marketability.
  10. 10. ETROPLUS SURATENSIS (GREEN CHROMIDE) The Green Chromide (Etroplus Suratensis) is a species of cichlid fish from freshwater and brackish water in southern India and Sri Lanka. It can be a perfect fish for Pisciculture. In India, it is found throughout Kerala, especially in Kerala Backwaters around Alleppey (Alappuzha), Kottayam, Quilon (Kollam), and in western flowing rivers in Karnataka, backwaters of Andhra Pradesh and Chilika lake. It feeds on algae, plant material and insects. The fish, known locally in Kerala as Karimeen, is considered a delicacy. Some of the prominent dishes are the Karemeen Fry, Karemeen Molly and Karemeen Pollichathu. This fish is fairly expensive and is available throughout the year. It is caught mainly using gillnets. It is commonly called pearl spot due to presence of transparent patches shining like pearls. The body is greenish, light pink and possesses eight black stripes. It is regarded as a good food fish due to delicious smell. It is not a predator, builds nests during the breeding season and hence regarded as most suitable for culture in ponds and lakes. WALLAGO ATTU Wallago Attu is a species of catfish in the family Siluridae, or "sheatfishes". The fish is commonly known by its genus name, wallago or 'lanchi'. It is found in large rivers and lakes in much of the Indian Subcontinent and in parts of Southeast Asia. The species can reach 2.4 m (8 feet) total length. It ranges mainly across India, Nepal, Bangladesh and SriLanka, but is also found in Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Malaysia, and is also reported from Afghanistan. It is a cat fish found in all rivers and lakes of India. Head is larger than trunk. The body is laterally compressed. Tail is extraordinarily long and slender. Two pairs of barbells are present on the head. Mouth is large with large jaws having teeth for feeding on fresh water. Hence it is called fresh water shark. As it is a predator fish, it is not suitable for artificial culture.
  11. 11. MYSTUS SEENGHALA Mystus is a genus of small to medium-sized bagrid catfishes that occur in South and Southeast Asia. Four pairs of barbs elongated upper jaw, long maxillary barbs, and deeply divided caudal fin are the main features of the fish. COLDWATER FISHES Coldwater fish, in the context of aquariums, refers to fish species that prefer cooler water temperatures than tropical fish, typically below 20 °C (68 °F). Some examples are koiand goldfish. These fishes are commonly called sport fishes. These species tend to grow more slowly and live longer than fish that live in warmer waters, and are generally felt to be easier to keep. Coldwater fish are fish such as goldfish, koi, and other members of the carp family that are able to survive in cold water temperatures. When kept in a household aquarium, they do not require a heater and are quite comfortable at around 60°F (15°C). These fish are also desirable choices for outdoor ponds and can stand temperatures down to 10°C. SALMOGIARDNERI (RAINBOW TROUT) The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a species of salmonid native to cold- water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead (sometimes "steelhead trout") is an anadromous (sea-run) form of the coastal rainbow trout (O. m. irideus) or Columbia River redband trout (O. m. gairdneri) that usually returns to fresh water to spawn after living two to three years in the ocean. Freshwater forms that have been introduced into the Great Lakes and migrate into tributaries to spawn are also called steelhead. Adult freshwater stream rainbow trout average between 1 and 5 lb (0.5 and 2.3 kg), while lake-dwelling and anadromous forms may reach 20 lb (9.1 kg). Coloration varies widely based on subspecies, forms and habitat. Adult fish are distinguished by a broad reddish stripe along the lateral line, from gills to the tail, which is most vivid in breeding males.
  12. 12. TOR TOR (MAHSEER) Mahseer is the common name used for the genera Tor, Neolissochilus, and Naziritor in the family Cyprinidae (carps). The name mahseer is however more often restricted to members of the genus Tor. The range of these fish is from Malaysia, Indonesia, across southern Asia including the Indian Peninsula and Pakistan. They are commercially important game fish, as well as highly esteemed food fish. Mahseers inhabit both rivers and lakes, ascending to rapid streams with rocky bottoms for breeding. Head possess short rostral and long maxillary barbs. Dorsal ride of the body is grayish green, lateral sides are gold and belly is silvery white. Even though it is adapted to grow well in canals but now it is cultured in reservoirs like Bakranangal. It grows to a size of 1mt. TINCA TINCA (DOCTOR FISH) The Tench or Doctor fish (Tinca Tinca) is a fresh- and brackish-water fish of the cyprinid family found throughout Eurasia from Western Europe including the British Isles east into Asia as far as the Ob and Yenisei Rivers. It is also found in Lake Baikal. It normally inhabits slow-moving freshwater habitats, particularly lakes and lowland rivers. In Germany, the tench is called Schlei. Trout are predators and the natural enemies of the tench. It has a stocky, carp-like shape and olive-green skin, darker above and almost golden below. The caudal fin is square in shape. The other fins are distinctly rounded in shape. The mouth is rather narrow and provided at each corner with a very small barbel. Maximum size is 70 cm, though most specimens are much smaller. CULTIVABLE FISH SPECIES Amongst the cultivable carps, there are two groups of fish which are highly recommended for pond fish culture; i) Indigenous which includes Rohu, Mori and Thaila and ii) Exotic which includes Silver Carp, Grass Carp and Bighead Carp. The former group of fish are widely distributed throughout the Indian Sub-Continent therefore, they are called Indian Major Carps and later group of fish are widely distributed in China, therefore, they are called Chinese Carps.
  13. 13. GUPPY The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also known as millionfish and rainbow fish, is one of the world's most widely distributed tropical fish, and one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species. It is a member of the Poeciliidae family and, like all other members of the family, is live-bearing. Guppies, whose natural range is in northeast South America, were introduced to many habitats and are now found all over the world. GAMBUSIA Gambusia is a large genus of fish in family Poeciliidae (Order Cyprinodontiformes). Gambusia contains over 40 species, most of which are principally found in freshwater habitats, though some species may also be found in brackish or saltwater habitats. These can be introduced into ponds to eat mosquito larvae. As a consequence, they have been introduced widely outside their native range, and sometimes become invasive, threatening the local species.[3] They are very important in aquarium trade, desired for small size, ease of breeding, and charming gracefulness. They are viviparous—they have live young. BUTTERFISH (STROMATEIDAE) The family Stromateidae of butterfishes contains 17 species of fish in three genera. Butterfishes live in coastal waters off the Americas, western Africa and in the Indo- Pacific. A family of very deep bodied fish, many of which are called something else and other fish which are not butterfish are called butterfish.
  14. 14. SKATES & RAYS Rays and skates are dorsoventrally flattened fish that are closely related to sharks. All are considered to be within a closely related group of fish called elasmobranchs. Rays belong to three scientific orders - Pristiformes, Myliobatiformes, and Torpediniformes while skates are classified in the order Rajiformes. These mostly bottom dwelling fish are related to sharks but have pectoral fins so enlarged they are referred to as "wings". Like sharks skates have no bones but a skeleton of cartilage. Skate is generally sold as cuts from the wings and is prepared quite differently from other fish. There are many different types of rays including stingrays, electric rays, butterfly rays, round rays, manta rays, guitarfish, and sawfish. TUNA (MACKERELS) Tuna include the largest members of the Mackerel family. Unlike those called "Mackerel", tunas have deep flattened bodies. Most have scales only in a few places but that's enough to be kosher. Bluefin Tuna (all varieties) is to be avoided as all Bluefin’s are critically endangered. The tuna is distributed throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans in subtropical and temperate waters. In the western Atlantic Ocean, it is found from Labrador, Canada, to northern Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico. In the eastern Atlantic Ocean, it is found from Norway to the Canary Islands. In the western Pacific Ocean, it is distributed from Japan to the Philippines. This tuna is epipelagic and oceanic, coming near shore seasonally. It can tolerate a considerable range of temperatures and has been observed both above and below the thermocline, down to depths of greater than 3000 feet (9,850 m). GOLD FISH The goldfish (Carassius Auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes. It was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated, and is one of the most commonly kept aquarium fish. A relatively small member of the carp family (which also includes the koi carp and the crucian carp), the goldfish is a domesticated version of a less-colorful carp (Carassius auratus) native to East Asia. It was first domesticated in China more than a thousand years ago, and several distinct breeds have since been developed. Goldfish breeds vary greatly in size, body shape, fin configuration and coloration
  15. 15. FISH CUM DUCK FARMING Fish cum Duck Integration is most common in the developing countries. This type of integration is not popular in northern states of India. Ducks are of several types and Khaki Campbell is recommended for fish-cum-duck integration Fishpond being a semi-closed biological system with several aquatic animals and plants provides an excellent disease-free environment for the ducks. In turn, ducks consume juvenile frogs, tadpoles and dragonfly etc. there by making a safe environment for fish. Duck droppings go directly into the pond, which in turn provide essential nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus that stimulate growth of natural food organisms.
  16. 16. Fish Seed Production
  17. 17. Groups of Freshwater Species
  18. 18. CatlaCatla LabeoRohita Mrigal
  19. 19. Labeobata Labeocalbasu CyprinusCarpio (Common Carp)
  20. 20. OsphronemusGoramy(Gowramy) Ctenopharyngodon Idella (Grass Carp)
  21. 21. HypophthalmichthysMolitrix (Silver Fish) Tilapia Mossambicus Murrel Fishes ChannaPunctatusor Ophiocephalus(Snake head)
  22. 22. Catfishes Walking Catfish (ClariasBatrachus)
  23. 23. HeteropneustesFossilis ClariasMacrocephalus(Broadhead Catfish) Anabas Testudineus(Climbing Perch)
  24. 24. EtroplusSuratensis (Green Chromide) Wallago Attu
  25. 25. MystusSeenghala ColdWater Fishes Salmogiardneri(Rainbow Trout)
  26. 26. Tor Tor (Mahseer) TincaTinca (Doctor Fish)
  27. 27. Guppy (Poecilia Reticulata) [ Gambusia Butterfish (Stromateidae)
  28. 28. Skates & Rays Tuna Fish (Mackerels) Gold Fish
  29. 29. Fish cum Duck Farming

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