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Human Acts and Morality

Human Acts and Acts of Man are both man's actions...Are they moral or immoral? Check out what to learn about the morality and the standard of morality based on the Christian moral perspectives- from Aristotelian to Thomisian...

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Human Acts and Morality

  1. 1. MODIFIERS OF HUMAN ACTS Prof. Chris Pelias Institute of Arts and Sciences Far Eastern University
  2. 2. • Ethics or Moral Philosophy- deals with human activity in as much as the acts are in conformity with the natural end. The medium of knowledge is reason alone, setting out the data of experience and acquired knowledge. • Derived from Greek word ‘ethos’- conscience • Ethics excludes positive revelation of the Old and New Testaments as source of its moral knowledge and guidance. • Ethics is concerned with norms, mores or traditions and principles of behavior insofar as these principles are known by reason.
  3. 3. • Man’s Natural End Once a person reaches maturity, he faces a question for himself: What should I do with my life? What is my purpose in life? Thus, his actions are all directed to his goal, his purpose, his end. Human actions are characteristically an action for an end. The principle of human acts is the end, goal or purpose. If no good (real or apparent) is known by reason, no human act is performed
  4. 4. • The will is a blind faculty – no desire unless the reason shows there is something desirable “ Nothing enters the mind without passing first through the senses.” Aristotle * man’s action is good if it leads him to his end and bad if it drives him away from his ultimate end. 2 kinds of good Apparent Good Real Good
  5. 5. • Attainment of the goal or end- the ultimate end necessitates acts. The ultimate end is a fixed principle but the various means to attain it is not . Freedom of Choice applies to these means. Morally good acts are those which are suitable to the attainment of the end. Morally bad acts are those unsuitable to the attainment of ultimate end.
  6. 6. • Human Acts - actions that are free and deliberate - those that proceeds from the free and conscious acts of man - act that is always done for a purpose - an act that after few deliberation is performed knowledge of the end and consent of the will with
  7. 7. • - acts that are proper to man as man • - acts internal or external,bodily or spiritually performed by a human being • ACTS OF MAN - ACTS THAT MAN PERFORM INDELIBERATELY OR WITHOUT ADVERTENCE - man’s animal act of sensation (use of senses) and appetition ( bodily tendencies)
  8. 8. - acts done abstractedly or with complete inadvertence - acts performed in infancy, infirmity mind or the weakness of senility - acts done in sleep, in delirium, in the state of unconsciousness
  9. 9. • CONSTITUENTS OR ELEMENTS OF HUMAN ACTS KNOWLEDGE _ product of the mind after due intellection _ proceeds from the deliberate will Kinds of Knowledge Abstract- purely speculative, knowledge that is not enough for morals _ it will lead to split level christianity or to legalism _ Oftentimes children and students are guilty of this _ Religion and moral values are learned without appreciating it
  10. 10. • B. Evaluative knowledge _ knowledge applied or knowledge of appreciation is required _ “what is objectively true must be subjectively true and meaningful for me” _ “ True education aims at the formation of the human person with respect to his ultimate goal and simultaneously with respect to the good of the society of which he is a member and in whose responsibilities as an adult he has to share”
  11. 11. • MODIFIERS OF HUMAN ACTS A. IGNORANCE _ the absence of knowledge _ is the absence of knowledge that ought to be there ( privative) _ the absence of intellectual knowledge in man ( negative) _ negation of knowledge
  12. 12. • Kinds of Ignorance A. Ignorance in its Object - Ignorance of the Law – is the ignorance in the existence of a duty, rule or regulation ex. A young freshman comes to class with fever to take an exam in chem not knowing that a memo has been passed prohibiting anyone to attend his class with symptoms manifesting AH1N1
  13. 13. • 2. Ignorance of Fact – ignorance of nature or circumstances of an act as forbidden ex. Pedestrian violates law not knowing that the underpass is in use already B. Ignorance in its Subject 1. Vincible Ignorance (Conquerable Ignorance) - ignorance that can be supplanted by knowledge by the use of ordinary diligence - ignorance is due to lack of proper diligence.
  14. 14. Kinds of vincible ignorance 1.1 Simply vincible- some effort has been done but not enough to dispel the ignorance 1.2 Crass or Supine- result of total or nearly lack of effort to dispel it 1.3 Affected- if positive effort has been done to retain the ignorance. • Past actions cannot be judged with present knowledge
  15. 15. 2. Invincible Ignorance- ignorance that ordinary and proper diligence cannot dispel. this is attributable to 2 causes; (a) the person has no realization of his lack of knowledge (b) the person who realizes his ignorance finds his effort ineffective
  16. 16. • C. IGNORANCE IN ITS Result 1. Antecedent Ignorance – that which precedes all consent of the will ex. The chef served a poisonous mushroom not knowing that it can cause the death of its customers 2. concomitant- accompanies an act that would have been performed even if the ignorance did not exist. ex. A student misses his ethics class but even if he knows, he will still miss it.
  17. 17. 3. consequent- that which follows upon the act of the will ex. A doctor suspects that the patient’s disease is cancerous but deliberately refrain from making sure, and does not inform him.
  18. 18. PRINCIPLES 1. Invincible ignorance destroys the voluntariness of the act 2. Vincible Ignorance does not destroy the voluntariness of an act 3. Vincible Ignorance lessens the voluntariness 4. Affected ignorance is one way lessens and in another way increases voluntariness
  19. 19. ll. ERROR- state of beleiving what is not true Like ignorance is a privation of right knowledge and true insight due to false opinions and convictions because of deficient education, influence of bad company, reading of misleading books and papers, insidous influence of mass Media. Error is positive ignorance. “We all need erasers to our pencils”.Principle of error follow Principle of Ignorance lll. Inattention – momentary deprivation of knowledge
  20. 20. B. FREEDOM – Not the power to do what we like, but the the right of being able to do what we know we ought to do in relation to our ultimate end. Responsibility- the ability of an individual to give a fitting response to a human situation that involves human needs. Both freedom and responsibility are interlinked with each other and as such inseparable – There are many things in man that he would like to do but he cannot do. ex. To stay young forever, to know everything
  21. 21. • Although his freedom is limited , he is free in his choices • His freedom lies on the fact that once he made a decision no one can make him change his mind • When he chooses no power whatsoever can force him to change his choice(dignity of man) • He can be enticed, induced, persuaded but never forced. • His choice is not on his natural end but is free determine himself towards the end and means to attain it
  22. 22. Impairments to Freedom 1. Antecedent or Inculpable Passion- occurs when it springs into action unstimulated by the will. - always lessens the voluntariness of the act and diminishes responsibility since it hinders reflection of reason and weakens attention - the stronger is the passion the weaker is the intellect and will - does not destroys the responsibility of the agent since knowledge and freedom maybe lessened but he is still the master of his act • If passion is so great, as to make control impossible then the agent is temporarily insane and his act is not human act but acts of man
  23. 23. 2. Consequent passion- follows the free determination of the act and is freely admitted and consented to and deliberately aroused. - the will directly or indirectly stirs them up - however great does not lessen the voluntariness since it is willed directly or indirectly. ex. Planned revenge or assassination, reading pornography, singing hymns of praise
  24. 24. • 3. Fear- shrinking back of the mind because of an impending evil Kinds: a. Acts done with fear or inspite of fear as when a person climbs a dangerous mountain at night . Fear in this case accompanies an act whichin itself is voluntary b. Acts done from fear and through fear or because of fear as when a person threatened with a gun yields his wealth to a thief. c. fear maybe slight or grave according to the amount of proximity of the impending evil. The danger of death or losing a big amount of property are cases of grave fear.