1.They are done in deliberately. The agent
performing the act is not conscious of his
actions going on. The action he is doing is not
under the command of his consciousness.
2. The acts are not done freely. They may be
done by force, that is without the freedom of
choice of the person.
3. The acts are done involuntary. The acts do
not emanate from the heart of the agent.
1.The act must be deliberate.
2.The act must be free.
3.The act must be voluntary.
♥==an act of decision to select a degree
♥==an act of killing someone
♥==an act of marriage
♥==choice of life partner
♥==to vote for a candidate
♥==act of teaching or studying etc.
♥ ELICITED ACTS
emanate from the will of the agent. It is a will act
begin and completed in the will without bodily
♥ COMMANDED ACTS
are body mind acts done to carry out the elicited
act of the subject or agent.
- natural inclination of the will towards
- the wills tendency towards something,
attainable but not obligatory.
- is the acceptance of the will to
implement the agent’s attention.
- agent chooses from among a variety of
means what he believes to be the most
effective to carry out of intention.
- wills command to make use of the
selected means in carrying out the
- enjoyment of the will as a result of the
attainment of the object desired earlier.
- refer to the purely mental facilities
under the command of the will.
- acts are done by the body as
commanded by the will.
- mixed acts are those done by bodily and
1.There was dictatorship in the regime.
2. There was rampant violation of
human rights here and there.
3. Graft and corruption in government
officers and agencies.
HUMAN ACT AND
Responsibility is the ability of a person
to respond to a need or problem in a given
situation. A responsible person has that
feeling of moral obligation to do an act as a
response to the demand of the situation.
INVINCIBLE IGNORANCE MAKES AN
VINCIBLE IGNORANCE DOES NOT
RENDER THE ACT INVOLUNTARY,
BUT REDUCES THE
VOLUNTARNESS AND THE
OVER THE ACT
AFFECTED IGNORANCE IN AWAY
REDUCES AND IN ANOTHER WAY
CONCUPISCENE a modifier of human acts,
refers to bodily tendencies (appetite) of
man sometimes called the passions
DIMINISHES THE VOLUNTARINESS
DOES NOT ELIMINATE
VOLUNTARINESS OF AN ACT
-refers to a person’s perturbed state of mind
due to an impending danger or evil that
might befall anytime .
ACTS DONE IN FEAR ARE
VOLUNTARY [GLENN; 41]
AN ACT DONE OUT OF FEAR
HOWEVER GREAT ,IS SIMPLY VOLUNTARY
,ALTHOUGH IT IS ALSO
INVOLUNTARY [GLENN; 41]
-refers to a physical external force
inflicted on a person by a free agent for the
purpose of compelling said person to do
an act against his will
EXTERNAL ACT WHICH ARE
COMMANDED ,PERFORMED BY A
PERSON UNDER PENDING VIOLENCE
WHICH COULD BE REASONABLY
RESISTED ,ARE INVOLUNTARY AND
,THEREFORE, NOT IMPUTABLE
-refers to repeatable acts of a person
done with facility and ease.
THE INDIRECT VOLUNTARY ACT
-acts when perform can have multiple
effects other than those directly
intended by the agent.
AN AGENT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE
EVIL EFFECT HIS INDIRECT
THE PRINCIPLE OF DOBLE EFFECT
♥=The act must be good in itself or at least
♥=The good effect must be greater than the
evil one, or equally important at least.
♥=The act is the only means to attain the good
♥=The evil effect must be the last to happen .
♥=The agent must be honest in his intention .