The value of studying ethics inlife is a must responsibility andsuch, is also obligatory. Notbecause we are purposelydriven nor illuminated by itsessence, it is already deeplyimbued to us. It only needs tobe followed every time weundertake any actions orendeavor in life.
Such actions are consideredethical or unethical depending onthe intention and its effect to thereceiver. Don‟t always leavethings in fate and to quote itproperly, “Let fate take itscourse” or “bahala na” has beenthe uttered line of our mouth.Bear in mind that there is alwaysan effect after every undertaking.
In ethics, we askif it must be. Whatyou think is rightis the bottomline.That‟s ETHICS!
ETHICSoIt is defined as thescience of the moralityof human acts.oDerived from theGreek word ethosmeaning “characteristicway of living.” While inLatin is mos, moresmeaning tradition orcustom.
Human Acts - are actionsperformed byhuman, knowingly and freely - also calledintentional or deliberateactions, or, voluntary. Acts of Man - in contrary to human acts, it is involuntary and instinctive and unintentional.
o Ethics is also said to be the study of human motivation, and ultimately, of human rational behavior.o Ethics is morality. *Morality – is the quality of human acts by which they are determined as good, bad, or indifferent.
Ethics is Moral Philosophy and isdistinguished from Moral Theology.oAs a branch ofphilosophy, it reliessolely on humanreason toinvestigate truths.oOn the otherhand, MoralTheology employsreason insofar as itis enlightened byfaith or divinerevelation.
ETHICS AS VALUES EDUCATIONoIt takes the value ofValue Education byguiding individuals inchoosing wisely his valuesand in acting upon them.oIt is also the rationalfoundation of any attemptat Values Education. Itexplains human values inrelation to the ultimatepurpose of humanexistence.
THE ART OF CORRECT LIVINGIn this context, Ethics is an art.Art, literally means appreciation of beauty.It implies order and harmony of parts in agiven whole.Human life does not imply merely physicalsurvival. The demands of daily lifeincludes and derives meaning from thecultivation of these traits that truly relatesman’s innate dignity.
ETHICS IS AN ART BECAUSE:1. It is the breath of life. -Itpulsates withthe desire forgrowth anddevelopment.
2. It is master plan. - It indicates where man must go and what he/she ought to do in order to live well.
IMPORTANCE OF ETHICSIt is an indespensableknowledge.Moral integrity is the only truemeasure of what man ought tobe.oMorality is the foundation ofevery human society.
This approach assumes that onlymatter exists and that man is onlyresponsible to himself since there isno god who creates and rules theuniverse.It favors science than religion.It tries to centralized scientificideology.Its followers are called atheist.
PROPOSE PRINCIPLES OF THE AETHEISTIC APPROACH:1. Matter is the only reality.2. Man is matter and does not have spiritual dimension.3. Man is free and must exercise his freedom to promote society‟s welfare.4. There is no life after death.5. Man is accountable to the state.
It begins with the assumption that God isthe Supreme Lawgiver.Employs the aid of a favoring religion.God’s will is the core of this approach. Itbelieves that God is the point of origin.With God’s will, man must exercise hisfreedom.
POSTULATED TRUTHS OF THE THEISTIC APPROACH:1. God is the Supreme Creator and Lawgiver.2. Man is free and must use his freedom to promote his personal and social interests along with his fellownmen.3. Man has an immortal soul which cannot die.4. Man is accountable for his actions, both good and evil.
“To one who has faith, no explanation is needed. To one who has no faith,no explanation is possible.” - St. Thomas Aquinas
ETHICS AND RELIGION Ethics is a science and depends upon rational investigation of itstruth. Religion is a system and practices based on faith or revelation.This two is inseperable from one anotherfor religion is a frontrunner of ethics andethics has been a norm for every religion.It teaches the value of religion, presentingit as a duty to the Almighty.On the other hand, religion, composed of aunified hierarchy, teaches ethics andcontinues to enrich with its moral insight.
ETHICS AND LAW Ethics studies human motivation. It goes deeper than the study of external actions. Just like religion, law is also Law is inseperable from ethics.concerned withthe externality Ethics is governed by law of the act. and law is the basis of ethics.
Ethical norms cover thoughts andfeelings. Laws don‟t judge man‟sthoughts and feelings.Morality therefore, has a widerimplication than law, because law canbe moral or immoral.Ethics is not simply a body of do‟sand don‟ts in the manner laws are.It‟s a personal commitment to upholdwhat is true and good.
PROFESSIONAL ETHICSEven professions in every field areregulated by norms so not to produce anyunwanted effect on their side as theypractice it. Each profession is subject to aset of moral code. This Code of Ethicsguides the actuation of a professionalwhere the law is silent and inadequate.
A Code of Ethicsimpliesthat, beforeanything else, aprofessional is aperson who hasthe obligation tolisten to the“dictates ofreason.”
COMPONENTS OF PROFESSIONAL ETHICS1. Honesty - this refers to the truthfulness and straightforwardness along with the absence of lying, cheating or theft.2. Integrity - the honesty and truthfulness or accuracy of ones actions.
3. Transparency - impliesopenness, communication, andaccountability.4. Accountability - is blameworthiness, liability, and theexpectation of account-giving.5. Confidentiality - is a set of rules or a promise thatlimits access or places restrictions oncertain types of information.
6. Respect - gives a positive feelingof esteem or deference fora person or other entity.7. Obedience to the law - faithfulness and beingtruthful to the law.
REFLECTION: MORALITY IS BEST FORM OFGOVERNMENT “No system of power can replace morality, which is necessary in any human society.” For me, that line discusses everything in the passage. Morality is the means of change used by Mikhail Gorbachev to lift his country‟s peace. Nowadays, there are lot of types of government in the world. Unfortunately, morality can‟t be observed in any of the government. There is this big issue of corruption in any country in this world today, specially, in our country Philippines. This corruption really drag us down even if our country has a big potential in excelling in every aspect. I think if morality is observed in our community, it might lead our country to a big lift in every aspect. Also, morality will bring peace and order to our society. That‟s why people should work on their morality if they really want a peaceful and happy living.
According to KenLevine, “We all make choices, butin the end our choices make us.”We have to admit thatwe, humans have imperfections.However, we could minimizethose imperfections. We onlyhave to control ourselves in doingsuch actions and be mindful ofthe possible consequences of theactions that are done.
Human act is defined asthose actions which manperforms knowingly, freely, andvoluntarily. These are the actionsperformed with presence ofknowledge and the control of thewill. We refer these actions asdeliberate, intentional orvoluntary.
Distiction is made between human acts andacts of man. Human acts are action which man performs knowingly, freely, and voluntarily. Acts of man are those actions which happen in man; They are instinctive and are not within the control of the will.
•Conscious agent(knowing)•Performed by agent where actingfreely(free)•Performed by agent who decidewillfully to perform the act (willful)
Human act are either elicited actsor commanded acts•Elicited acts are thoseperformed by the will and are notbodily externalized.
ACCORDING TO PAUL GLENN ENUMERATES THE FF. ELICITED ACTS:Wish - the tendency of will towardssomething, whether this be realizable or not.Intention - something that is attainable butwithout necessarily committing oneself to attain it.Consent - the acceptance of the will of thoseneeded to carry out the intention.
Election- the selection of the willof those means elected to carry outthe intention. Fruition- the enjoyment of the willderived from the attainment of thething he had desired earlier.
Commanded acts arethose done either by man „smental or bodily powers underthe command of the will. It iseither internal or externalactions.
1. Moral actions are those actions which are in conformity with the norms of morality. They are good and permissible actions.2. Immoral actions are not conformity with the norm of morality. They are bad or evil and are not permissible.3. A moral actions are those actions w/c stand neutral in relation to the norm of morality. They neither be good or bad in themselves. But certain moral actions may become good or bad because of the circumstances attendant to them.
The imputability of human actsmeans that the person performingthe acts is liable of such acts. Itinvolves the notion of guilt orinnocence. Thus actions are eitherpraiseworthy or blameworthy. Actionsare attributed to the doer as theirprincipal cause.
Voluntarinesscome from theLatin word“Volunias”, referring to the will.Voluntariness isessential to an act.
•Perfect Voluntariness -present inthe person who fully knows andfully intends an act.•Imperfect Voluntariness -present in an action who actsw/o fully realizing what hemeans to do or without fullyintending the act.
•Conditional Voluntariness - is present inthe person who is force by thecircumstances beyond his control toperform an act w/c he would not dounder normal condition.•Simple Voluntariness - present in aperson doing an act willfull, regardless ofwhether he likes to do it or not. It iseither positive or negative.
DirectVoluntariness -accompanies an actwhich is primarilyintended by thedoer, either as a means toachieve something else.
Indirect Involuntariness- accompanies an act orsituation which is themere result of directlywilled act.
A person considers accountable for indirectvoluntary result of his acts when: 1. The doer is able to see the evil result oreffects, at least in general way. 2. The doer is free to refrain from doing thatwhich would produce the foresee evil. 3. The doer has mortal obligation not to dothat which produces an evil effect.
1. A person is held morally responsible for any evil effect w/c flows from the action itself directly and necessary as natural consequences, though the evil effect is not directly willed or intended.2. Human act from w/c two effects may result, One good and one is evil, Is morally permissible under four conditions. If any of this conditions is violated, then the action is not justifiable and should not be done.
1. The action w/c produce double effect must be good in itself, or at least morally indifferent.2. The good effect must not come from the evil effect. To do evil in order to achieve something good is not justifiable.3. The motive of the doer must be towards the attainment of the good. The evil effect is permitted only as an incidental result.4. The good effect must not out weigh the evil effects in its importance.
EXAMPLES:•An elder brother who puts hot sauce ona cake before giving it to a beggingyounger brother, so that the youngerwill not ask for more, and the elder canhave the cake all to himself.•A teenager who is yawning alot, showing how uninterested she is tolisten in her professor.
Factors that influence man’s innerdisposition towards certain actions arecalled modifiers of human acts. Theyaffect the mental or emotional state of aperson to the extent that thevoluntariness involved in an act is eitherincreased or decreased. This issignificant because the accountability ofthe act is correspondingly increased ordecreased.
1. IGNORANCE - Is the absence of knowledge which aperson ought to possess. TYPES OF IGNORANCE a. Vincible ignorance -can easily be reminded through ordinary diligence and reasonable efforts. b. Invincible ignorance -is the type which a person possesses without aware of it, or , having awareness of it, lacks the means to rectify it. c. Affected ignorance -is the type which a person keeps by positive efforts in order to escape responsibility or blame.
PRINCIPLES OF IGNORANCE Invincible ignorance renders an act involuntary. Vincible ignorance does not destroy, but lessen the voluntariness and the corresponding accountability over the act. Affected ignorance, though it decreases voluntariness, increases the accountability over the resultant act.
2. PASSION-are either tendencies away, from underundesirable or harmful things.-positive emotions , the former includelove, desire, delight, hope and bravery.-Negative emotions, the latter includehatred, horror, sadness, despair, fear andanger.
TYPES OF PASSIONAntecedent Passion -are those that precede an act.Consequent Passion -are those that are intentionally aroused and kept.
PRINCIPLES OF PASSION Antecedent passions do not always destroy voluntariness, but they diminish accountability for the resultant act. Consequent passions do not lessen voluntariness, but may increase accountability.
3. FEAR - is the disturbance of the mind of a person who is confronted by an impending danger or harm to himself or loved ones. - is an instinct for self- preservation.
PRINCIPLES OF FEAR Acts done with fear are voluntary. Acts done out of fear, however ,great, is simply voluntary, although it is also conditionally voluntary. Acts done because of intense fear or panic are involuntary.
4. VIOLENCE - refers to any physical force exerted on a person by another free agent for the purpose of compelling said person to act against his will.
PRINCIPLES OF VIOLENCEExternal actions, or commandedactions, performed by a person subjected toviolence, to which reasonable resistance hasbeen offered, are involuntary and are notaccountable.Elicited acts, or those done by the willalone, are not subject to violence and aretherefore voluntary.
5. HABITS -as defined by Glenn “ is a lastingreadiness and facility, born offrequently repeated acts, for actingin a certain manner.”
PRINCIPLE OF HABITS Action done by force of habit are voluntary in cause, unless a reasonable effort is made to counteract the habitual inclination.
6. ACTION AND EMOTION -Emotions are generally instinctive in origin. Neither thedegree of their intensity, clarity or awareness makes themhuman acts to be judged as good or evil. They becomegood or evil by the attitude of the person manifesting them.A person who nourishes his feeling of hostility towardsanother is more prone to acquire the motive for inflictingharm on the object of his hatred. This is not to say that manis helpless in the tide of his emotions and that man‟sresponses to action are emotionally motivated. It meanssimply that man‟s thoughts and actions are colored by hisemotions.
7. REFINEMENT OF EMOTIONS Ethics deals with emotions as factors affecting human motivation and behavior. Instead of repressing them, it calls for their refinement. This means that man is expected to act not only with his mind and body, but precisely with his heart and soul. Doing good for another is not a virtue unless it comes from the “love” of what is good.
End -it is the purpose or goal of an act. - it is the act which completes or finishes an act.End of the act – it is the natural termination of an activity.End of the doer – it is the personal purpose intended by the person performing the act. – it is called the motive.Motive – is the reason why a person performs an act. – it is the force that sustains the act and brings it to completion.
KINDS OF ENDS Proximate or Remote End - Proximate end is the purpose which a doer wishes to accomplish immediately by his actions. (eg. The proximate end of eating is the satisfaction of hunger.) - Remote end is the purpose which a doer wishes to accomplish in a series of acts. (eg. The remote end of the proximate end of eating is the promotion of health.)
Intermediate or Ultimate End - Intermediate end is the purpose which is desired as a means for obtaining another thing. (eg. All of those activities leading towards graduation...) - Ultimate end is the purpose which is desired for its own sake and not because of something else. (eg. A student may assign his graduation as an ultimate end.)
Alfredo Pizano gives us opportunity to cite principles according to human principles: Every agent that performs an action acts for the sake of an end or purpose to be attained. Every agent act towards an ultimate end. Every agent has the power to move himself towards an end which he finds suitable for him.
END AS SOMETHING GOODThe concept of end coincides of that of good. According to Aristotle, good means either: good as an end itself or good as a means to another end.Apparent good – it is evil viewed or disguised as good.When someone desires evil as an end, it is only because he views it, subjectively, as something good. Every human activity is intended for the attainment of something good.
THE MEANING OF GOOD Good is that which fits a function.“The good of man proves to be activity of social conformitywith excellence; and if there is more than one excellence, it willbe the best and the most complete of these.” -Aristotle
Needs are those goods which are essential to man as man.Wants are those goods that an individual requires because of his particular circumstance in life.
KINDS OF GOOD Essential and Accidental good -Essential good are those that fit the natural needs of man as man. It is also called as perfective. (eg. NEEDS: food, shelter, health, knowledge, virtue, life...) -Accidental good are those that fit the wants of an individual because of his circumstance. It is also called as non-perfective. (eg. WANTS: money, car, good name...) Real and Apparent good -Real good is something which has an intrinsic value. It includes both essential and accidental goods. (eg. good acts and habits, parents and parenthood, pleasure and joy...) -Apparent good is actually an evil thing but is viewed as “good” under certain aspects. (eg. diseases, sadness, death, worry, crimes...)
Perfective and Non-perfective Good -Perfective good is that which contributes to the integral perfection of a person. (eg. education, virtue, food, exercise, medicine...) -Non-perfective good is that which merely contributes to the external appearance or convenience of a person. (eg. clothes, wealth, social status, political power...) Perfect and Imperfect Good -Also called unlimited or limited goods respectively, absolute and relative goods. -Perfect good has the fullness of qualities enabling it to fully satisfy human desire. -Imperfect good possesses only certain qualities so that it does not fully satisfy human desire except in a relative of limited sense.
THE GREATEST GOOD In the language of thephilosophers, the greatest good isSummum Bonum. For Aristotle, thegreatest good is happiness. Happinessis what man aims to achieve in all hisactivities. The ultimate purpose of lifeis the attainment of happiness. As apsychological state, happiness is thefeeling of contentment arising fromthe possession of a good.
SOME ERRORS CONCERNING HAPPINESS:Some people give the impression that money orwealth can buy happiness.Some people equates health with happiness.Sensual people vainly seeks happiness in earthlypressures.Certain people cling to their public image as ifGod Himself was made after their illusion.Some dedicate their lives to science and art.Some propose that the final purpose of man isthe promotion of the state of government.
Natural happiness is that which is attainable by man through the use of his supernatural powers. Supernatural happiness is that which is attainable by man through the use of his natural powers as these are informed and aided by God’s infusion of grace. Natural happiness consists in the perfection that can be attained by man through the employment of his body and soul and the powers inherent in them.
ForAristotle, natured happiness does not rest on one single object. Rather, it consists in the attainment of all development. Complete happiness, in the natural order, consists in those goods pertaining to the soul. The highest good, according to Aristotle, belongs to the intellect: the contemplation of truth.
Christian philosophers, notably St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas teach that man in every deliberate action acts toward an end and ultimately, to an absolute ultimate end: happiness. Man cannot attain perfect happiness in his life, because God can never be known.
FIRST LESSON: (COINCIDENCES) “It is because the human spirit knows, deep down, that all lives intersect. That death doesn’t just take someone, it misses someone else, and in the small distance between being taken and being missed, lives are changed... Strangers are just family you have yet to know.” – The Blue Man SECOND LESSON: (PROMISES) “Sacrifice is a part of life. It‟s supposed to be. It‟s not something to regret. It‟s something to aspire to. Little sacrifices.Big sacrifices. A mother works so her son can go to school. A daughter moves home to take care of her sick father. A man goes to war.” – The Captain
THIRD LESSON: (FORGIVENESS) “People don‟t die because of loyalty.” “They don‟t? religion? government? Are we not loyal to such things, sometimes to death? To be loyal to one another..” – Ruby FOURTH LESSON: (LOVE) “Lost love is still love, Eddie. It takes a different form, that‟s all. You can‟t see their smile or bring them around a dance floor. But when those senses weaken, another heightens. Memory. Memory becomes your partner. You nurture it. You hold it. You dance with it. Life has to end. Love doesn‟t.” – Marguerite THE FIFTH LESSON: (ACCEPTANCE) The purpose of life...
HEALTH ETHICSGROUP 1MEMBERS: M Ambay, Rose Ann V. Badajos, Kristel Mae E. Barajan, Lois Sandrine B.Bautista, Kristine Bernadette S. Guan, Almira N. Guttierez, Rochelle L. Matienzo, Kent Raphael M.Soledad, Ferdinand Christian L.