Review paper ms 1 revised2


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Review paper ms 1 revised2

  1. 1. Review ArticleStem cells used for the treatment of Multiple SclerosisLysander Borrero RomeroAbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a degenerative disease caused by the immune system. In MS the T cellattacks the myelin sheath around the axon making it very difficult for a patient to move hisappendages. The type of MS that causes fewer problems, in long-term conditions, is the Benignmultiple sclerosis. The deadliest type of MS is called Marburg Variant that can cause even death.Embryonic stem cells are found in mammal embryos and adult stem cells are present in variousorgans of a mammal. Stem cell treatments are mostly autologous. It is usually done by extractingstem cells from the bone marrow and injecting them into the affected area. The purpose of thispaper is to identify how the stem cells can be used for the improvement of this disease. Theoutcome of this investigation is expected to be that stem cells can reduce the effects of multiplesclerosis, but not cure it completely.Introduction cell is none other than a lymphocyte, also called white blood cell, from the immuneMultiple sclerosis is a degenerative disorder system that matures in the thymus. Thein the nervous system. This is an infiltration of these cells causes theautoimmune disease meaning that your own destruction of myelin. Myelin is present inimmune system is attacking itself. This the neuron and it is a kind of lipid-disease is caused by the infiltration of T containing fiber wrapped around the axon. Itcells into the central nervous system. A T acts like an insulator and facilitates the 1
  2. 2. transmission of nerve signals. This review and Marburg Variant. Benign multiplepaper will be about how multiple sclerosis sclerosis is when a patient can expect littlecan be treated with stem cells, reducing the or no progress since its first attack, andeffects of demyelination. generally they can remain fully functional. Relapsing Remitting Multiple sclerosis There have been many studies showing (RRMS) is the most common form of thethat women are more affected by multiple disease; the patient can suffer a series ofsclerosis than men. For example, studies attacks and then there is a complete orpublished in the Campbell Biology book partial remission stage. Secondaryindicate that gender, genetics, and the Progressive Multiple sclerosis can start asenvironment could influence the the RRMS but has no complete or partialsusceptibility to autoimmune diseases. In remission stage, with just a break in theaddition, women are two to three times more duration of the attacks. Primary Progressivelikely to suffer from multiple sclerosis and Multiple sclerosis is mostly found in menother diseases than men. They also mention and it has no distinct or real periods ofthat there is still no concrete evidence of remission. Progressive Relapsing Multiplewhy do women develop more autoimmune sclerosis is a very rare form of MS, and itdiseases than men, and why there is more produces acute attacks with no relief.frequency of autoimmune diseases in Marburg Variant, or Malignant Multipleindustrialized countries (Reece et al 2011). sclerosis, is the rarest form of MS and after Types of MS the initial attack can usually kill in months There are various types of MS like or even weeks.Benign MS, RRMS, SPMS, PPMS, PRMS, 2
  3. 3. Stem Cells high-dose immunosuppression with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation There are two types of stem cells, (SCT) in selected patients (Openshaw 2000).embryonic and adult stem cells. Embryonic In this investigation they are trying to seestem cells are the stem cells found in the how the body will react to thedeveloping embryo of a mammal. Adult immunosuppressive drugs. They need to usestem cells, also called somatic stem cells, immunosuppression, which is lowering theare present in different organs like bone intensity of protection of the immunemarrow, liver, peripheral blood, brain, and system, in order for the body to accept theheart. Stem cells help repair the body of any stem cells. They are autologous stem cells,kind of disease. There has been treatment meaning from your own body, but since theyeven for cancer using stem cells. In recent are extracted and preserved the immunestudies scientists have extracted stem cells system could mistake them for a pathogenfrom the bone marrow as a treatment for and destroy them.multiple sclerosis. They are trying to use Eighty-five patients with progressiveautologous stem cells. Autologous stem cells Multiple sclerosis were treated withare stem cells from your body but they are autologous HSCT (hematopoietic stem cellextracted and preserved in a laboratory. transplantation) in 20 centers and reported toThey are preserved in a laboratory with the the autoimmune disease working party ofobjective that they can be taken out when the European Group for Blood and Marrowyou need a stem cell transplant. Transplantation (Fassas et al 2002). Fifty- Stem Cell Treatment two of these patients representing 61% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune- the subjects in the study were femalesmediated disease that may be amenable to 3
  4. 4. between the ages of 20 and 58 years old. achieve immunosuppression even if it is anThe outcome of the study was 7 deaths, 5 autologous stem cell transplantation. Thedue to toxicity and 2 of neurological use of intensive stem cell transplantationdeterioration. Neurological deterioration was offers an opportunity to deliver maximallyobserved in 22 patients during the tolerated immunosuppression (Nash et altransplant. The study showed that there was 2003).Once the immunosuppression is done,more progression in patients with primary they can proceed with the insertion of stemprogressive MS than patients with secondary cells in the brain and spinal cord. The stemprogressive or relapsing-remitting MS. cells would be used for the regeneration of myelin sheath around the axon. ThisConclusion regeneration will help the patient have a Among patients with multiple sclerosis, better movement of his appendages. Therelapses do not significantly influence the stem cells would even slow down theprogression of irreversible disability process of multiple sclerosis.(Confavreux 2000). The scientists must 4
  5. 5. ReferencesConfavreux C, Vukusic S, Moreau T, and others. High-dose immunosuppressiveAdeleine P. 2000. Relapses and Progression therapy and autologous peripheral bloodof Disability in Multiple Sclerosis [Internet]. stem cell transplantation for severe multipleN Engl J. [16 Nov 2000]. Volume 343(20). sclerosis. Journal Of The American SocietyAvailable at: of Hematology[Internet]; [2003 October 1]. Doi:10.1182/blood-2002-12-3908 .Vol.M200011163432001#t=abstract 102:[approximately 10 p.] Available at: AS, Passweg JR, Anagnostopoulos A, ntent/102/7/2364.full.pdf+htmlKazis A, Kozak T, Havrdova E, Carreras E,Graus F, Kashyap A, Openshaw H, and Openshaw H, Lund BT, Kashyap A,others. 2002. Hemapoietic stem cell Atkinson R, Sniecinski I, Weiner LP,transplantation for multiple sclerosis A Forman S. 2000. Peripheral Blood Stemretrospective multicenter study(Abstract). Cell Transplantation in Multiple SclerosisJournal of Neurology [Internet]; [2002 Feb With Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide4; 2002 Feb 6]. DOI: 10.1007/s00415-002- Conditioning: Report of Toxicity and0800-7. Volume 249(8). Available at Immunological Monitoring. American Society for Blood and Marrowgyecqvny3w/ Transplantation [Internet]; [2000 Jun 13]. Available at:Nash RA, Bowen JD, McSweeney PA, SZ, Maravilla KR, Park M, Storek enshaw.pdf.J, Sullivan KM, Al-Omaishi J, Corboy JR, 5
  6. 6. Reece JB, Urry LA, Cain ML, WassermanSA, Minorsky PV, Jackson RB. 2011.Biology. 9th Ed. San Francisco (CA):Pearson Benjamin Cummings. 947 p. 6