PNAIS Culturally Responsive Classrooms Workshop


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5 hour session delivered to members of the Pacific Northwest Association of Independent Schools. In the ever-changing landscape of student demographics and diversity initiatives, teachers face the challenge of creating a classroom environment that goes beyond celebrations of heroes and holidays. Whether we are educators beginning the journey or far down the path into multiculturalism and inclusivity, there is always room to grow. What are some strategies and best practices to become the educator with whom all children thrive?

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PNAIS Culturally Responsive Classrooms Workshop

  1. 1. Stretching the Inclusive Boundaries: Culturally Responsive Classrooms PNAIS Workshop Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  2. 2. About Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  3. 3. Goals Gain a basic understanding of culture Understand how various dimensions of identity feed into cultural competencies Examine how cross cultural communication, power, and privilege affect success in schools Identify positive steps toward inclusive communities - individually, interpersonally, and institutionally Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  4. 4. Agenda Cultural Competencies Dimensions of Identity and Culture Cross Cultural Communication Culture, Power, and Communication Inclusive Classrooms and Communities Open Space Meeting Resources Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  5. 5. Cultural Competencies Everybody has some competencies No one has all competencies Competency is unattainable, competencies are Competencies are individual, fluid, situational, and contextual THERE IS NO ONE ANSWER Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  6. 6. Dimensions of Identity and CultureThis model of identifiers and culture was created by Karen Bradberry and Johnnie Foreman for NAIS Summer Diversity Institute,adapted from Loden and Rosener’s Workforce America! (1991) and from Diverse Teams at Work, Gardenswartz & Rowe (SHRM 2003). Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  7. 7. Exercise: Up-Downs • Stand proudly for your group • Stand for as many groups within one category as applies to you• If you are not standing, cheer and applaud the people who areNational Coalition Building Institute, Seattle Chapter, “Building Bridges Workshop,” Adapted by Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  8. 8. Debrief: Up-Downs How did it feel to stand and claim your identities and experiences? To be applauded for them? To applaud others for their identities and their experiences?Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  9. 9. Identity Development and Schools  Identity Frames  Intractability  Co-Authorship of Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  10. 10. BreakRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  11. 11. Cross Cultural Communication What is it? How is it Different from Intercultural Communication? CCC Theories – Face-Negotiation Theory – Conversational Constraints Theory – Expectancy Violation Theory – Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory – Communication Accommodation Theory Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  12. 12. Dimensions of Variability Individual - Collectivistic Low Context - High Context Masculinity - FemininityHigh Uncertainty - Low Uncertainty Avoidance Avoidance Vertical - Horizontal Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  13. 13. Factors that Influence  Personality Orientation  Individual Values  Self Construal - Independent - Interdependent  Individual Socialization  Cultural Norms and Rules Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  14. 14. Cultural Values Norms, and Rules  Values  Value Priorities  Norms of Behavior  Non-Verbal CommunicationRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  15. 15. RELATIONALCultural Value Differences Individualism self-reliance, independence Collectivism group interdependence (selfis h ) (mindless follower) Informality Formality directness, give and take discussion indirectness, protect "face" (rude and abrupt) (stiff and impersonal) Competition Cooperation individual achievement group achievement (egotistical, show-off) (avoiding doing work or taking responsibility) AUTHORITY Egalitarianism Hierarchy fairness, belief in equal opportunity privilege of status or rank (being picky, on a soapbox) (power hungry or avoiding accountability) TEMPORAL Use of Time Passage of Time "Time is money" "Time is for life" (doesn’t get the important things in life) (lazy and irresponsible) Change/Future Tradition/Past Adaptability ensures survival Stability ensures survival (muckraker, stirs up trouble) (old-school, afraid of change) ACTIVITY Action orientation "Being" orientation "Make things happen" "Let things happen" (rushes without thinkin g ) (indecisive and slow) Practicality Idealism Efficiency is always best Always maintain principles (impersonal and unscrupulous) (naïve and impractical) Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  16. 16. Exercise: Non-Verbal Violations1: Please pick a partner and stand.2: Begin to converse about your out of school hobbies, interests, and passions.3: You will receive a piece of paper describing nonverbal behaviors.4: Scan the piece of paper. Do not share the information.5: INCREMENTALLY dramatize the nonverbal behavior.6: Make note of thoughts or feelings you experience. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  17. 17. Debrief: Nonverbal Violations Did the INTENT of your described behaviors allow you to display them more enthusiastically? What was the IMPACT of the behaviors of your partner? Did knowing that “odd” behaviors may be part of the exercise help you accept your partner’s behavior? In working with people from various communities, what do you take away from this exercise? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  18. 18. BreakRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  19. 19. Identifiers, Power, and CommunicationInternalized Oppression/Dominance Stereotype Threat Accumulated Impact Code/Mode Switching Fish Seeing the Water “Norm” “Normal” “Good” “Intent” versus “Impact” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  20. 20. Exercise: WhispersRosetta Lee, Adapted from “Double Talk,” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  21. 21. Exercise: WhispersForm groups of 3.Decide who will be A, B, or C. Person A reads “whisper script 1.” Based on the instructions, whisper into Person B’s ear. Persons B and C hold a 2-minute conversation about their learning from the workshop that they found most interesting. Rosetta Lee, Adapted from “Double Talk,” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  22. 22. Exercise: WhispersROUND 2 Person B reads “whisper script 2.” Based on the instructions, whisper into Person C’s ear. Persons C and A hold a 2-minute conversation about their respective families. Rosetta Lee, Adapted from “Double Talk,” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  23. 23. Exercise: WhispersROUND 3 Person C reads “whisper script 3.” Based on the instructions, whisper into Person A’s ear. Persons A and B hold a 2-minute conversation about their respective jobs and responsibilities. Rosetta Lee, Adapted from “Double Talk,” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  24. 24. Debrief: Whispers1. How did the whispers in your ear affect your communication?2. How did the whispers in the your partner’s ear affect your interpretation of the his/her words and demeanor?3. Were elements of this exercise familiar? How did (and which of ) your identities make this exercise more/less so?4. Please share a personal experience (if any) as applies to any of the following: a. Internalized Oppression/Dominance b. Stereotype Threat c. Accumulated Impact d. Code/Mode Switching e. Fish Seeing the Water f. Norm to Normal to Good g. “Intent” versus “Impact” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  25. 25. Assumptions and Interpretations• Mental Models• Ladder of Inference Belief Conclusions Selective Data Observable Data• Tools of Action Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  26. 26. Checking Assumptions andInterpretations: Steps to Analyze1. What did you see/hear (raw data)?2. What are your personal filters (cultural values, norms, and identifiers)?3. What was your interpretation of what you saw/heard (inference)?4. How did you feel as a result?5. What do you want? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  27. 27. Lunch Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  28. 28. Next StepsRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  29. 29. Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) Schematic Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  30. 30. Tool: Ally Skills Identity Frames Intent Versus Impact Using Your Voice of Privilege Norm - Normal - Good Heightened Awareness Inclusivity Without Superiority Self-Driven Learning Genuine Relationships Humility and Gratitude Self Love Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  31. 31. Tool: Effective Interventions Reduce Defensiveness – Tone – Body Language – Respect Keep the Conversation Going – Hear Them Out – Ask Open-Ended Questions – Set Aside Your Feeling for the Moment – Dialogue Build the Relationship Win an Ally Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  32. 32. Tool: What Good Teachers Do Classroom Instructional Approaches - Instructional Design - Instructional Variables - Student-Teacher Interactions Contextual Features and Classroom Environment - Teacher-Student Interactions - Classroom Management - Classroom Climate Classroom Assessment Critical Self Assessment Distinguishing Behaviors Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  33. 33. TOOL: The Four Ps of Change• Policy – A diversity mission statement that enumerates identities that are protected, celebrated, and welcome.• Programming - Training for teachers and staff on cultural competency skillsets. Support for teachers and staff in implementing classroom and practice changes. Identity development support for students. Curriculum that teaches young people about and utilizing diversity.• Practice - Consistent and meaningful revisit of policy and programs. Climate assessments, proactive changes, and meaningful responses to incidents.• PEOPLE - Critical mass of people who are supportive AND active on all levels.Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  34. 34. Turning Our Learning Into Actions Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  35. 35. Open Space Technology Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  36. 36. Open Space: Four Principles Whoever comes is the right people. Whatever happens is the only thing that could have. When it starts is the right time. When it’s over its over. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  37. 37. Open Space: The Law of Two Feet If you find yourself in a situation where you are neither learning or contributing, move somewhere where you can. This is a law like the Law of Gravity. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  38. 38. BreakRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  39. 39. Open Space: Central QuestionHow does your classroom or school become even more inclusive? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  40. 40. Reminder: Four Principles Whoever comes is the right people. Whatever happens is the only thing that could have. When it starts is the right time. When it’s over its over. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  41. 41. Reminder: The Law of Two Feet If you find yourself in a situation where you are neither learning or contributing, move somewhere where you can. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  42. 42. Twist: Appreciative Inquiry DISCOVER: The identification of organizational processes that work well. DREAM: The envisioning of processes that would work well in the future. DESIGN: Planning and prioritizing processes that would work well. DESTINY (or DELIVER): The implementation (execution) of the proposed design. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  43. 43. Open Space Work Time Please return and post chart paper(s) by 2:40pm Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  44. 44. Open Space Report Outs Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  45. 45. Self Assessment and Goal Setting What did you learn today that was new, helpful, or thought provoking? What are three distinct goals or strategies you would like to apply in the classroom or in your life? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  46. 46. Cultural Effectiveness “To be culturally effective doesn’t mean you are an authority in the values and beliefs of every culture. What it means is that you hold adeep respect for cultural differencesand are eager to learn, and willing toaccept, that there are many ways of viewing the world” Okokon O. Udo Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  47. 47. Final Questions or Comments? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  48. 48. Presenter Information Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee 6th Faculty and Professional Outreach Seattle Girls’ School 2706 S Jackson Street Seattle WA 98144 (206) 805-6562 Eun Ryong Lee (
  49. 49. Identity Resources• Carlos H. Arce, “A Reconsideration of Chicano Culture and Identity”• Atkinson, Morten, & Sue, “Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model (R/CID)”• Mindy Bingham and Sandy Stryker, “Socioemotional Development for Girls”• Vivienne Cass, “Homosexual identity formation: Testing a theoretical model”• William Cross, Shades of Black: Diversity in African American Identity”• Anthony D’Augelli, “ Identity development and sexual orientation: Toward a model of lesbian, gay, and bisexual development” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  50. 50. Identity Resources• Erik Erikson, “Eight Stages of Man”• J. E. Helms, Various Publications on Racial and Ethnic Identity Development• Jean Kim, “Processes of Asian American Identity Development”• James Maricia, “Four Ego and Identity Statuses”• Suzanne Kobasa Ouellette, “The Three C’s of Hardiness”• Jean S. Phinney, “Ethnic Identity in Adolescents and Adults: Review of the Research”• Ponterotto & Pederso, Preventing Prejudice• Maria P. P. Root, Various Works on Multiracial Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  51. 51. Identity Resources• Patricia Romney, Karlene Ferron, and Jennifer Hill, “Measuring the Success of Diversity Directors in Independent Schools”• Pedro Ruiz, “Latino/a Identity Development Model”• Chalmer E. Thompson and Robert T. Carter, Racial Identity Theory• Alex Wilson, “How We Find Ourselves: Identity Development and Two Spirit People”• Christine J. Yeh, “The Collectivistic Nature of Identity Development Among Asian-American College Students” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  52. 52. Communication Resources• “Stereotype Threat” by Joshua Aronson• Brenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity• William Gudykunst, Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Comunication• Milton Bennett, PhD, Intercultural Communication Institute• “Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures” by Erica Hagen, Intercultural Communication Resources•• Thrive! Team Dynamics• history.htm Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (
  53. 53. Miscellaneous Resources• Karen Bradberry and Johnnie Foreman, “Privilege and Power,” Summer Diversity Institute, National Association of Independent Schools, 2009• Po Bronson and Ashley Merryman, Nurture Shock• Kevin Jennings, GLSEN (Gay Lesbian and Straight Education Network)• Allan G. Johnson, Privilege, Power, and Difference• Johnnie McKinley, “Leveling the Playing Field and Raising African American Students’ Achievement in Twenty-nine Urban Classrooms,” New Horizons for Learning, mckinley.htmMichael J Nakkula and Eric Toshalis, Understanding Youth. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (