Orchard School Cross Cultural Communication


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Humans communicate on many levels: spoken language, tone, body language, style and personality. The fact that we have complex cultural identities and a host of differing past experiences increases the probability of cross-cultural miscommunications. This workshop presents major cross-cultural communication theories, ways that cultural values, power, privilege and differences affect the way we communicate, tools for questioning assumptions, and ways to improve cross-cultural communications skills.

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Orchard School Cross Cultural Communication

  1. 1. What I Said and What I Meant:Cross Cultural Communication The Orchard School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  2. 2. About Seattle Girls’ School Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  3. 3. Goals Learn cross cultural communication theories and dimensions of variability among cultures. Examine how power, privilege, and difference affects communication Identify skills and tools to increase cross-cultural effectiveness Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  4. 4. Agenda Cross Cultural Communication Discussion: Cross Cultural Conflict Break Cultural Identifiers, Power, and Communication Exercise: Whispers Break Cross Cultural Communication Skills Discussion: How Can I Apply All This? Resources Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  5. 5. Cross Cultural Communication What is it? How is it Different from Intercultural Communication? CCC Theories – Face-Negotiation Theory – Conversational Constraints Theory – Expectancy Violation Theory – Anxiety/Uncertainty Management Theory – Communication Accommodation Theory Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  6. 6. Dimensions of Variability Individual - Collectivistic Low Context - High Context Masculinity - FemininityLow Uncertainty - High Uncertainty Vertical - Horizontal Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  7. 7. Factors that Influence Personality Orientation Individual Values Self Construal - Independent - Interdependent Individual Socialization Cultural Norms and Rules Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  8. 8. Cultural Values Norms, and Rules  Values  Value Priorities  Norms of Behavior  Non-Verbal CommunicationRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  9. 9. RELATIONALCultural Value Differences Individualism self-reliance, independence Collectivism group interdependence (selfis h ) (mindless follower) Informality Formality directness, give and take discussion indirectness, protect "face" (rude and abrupt) (stiff and impersonal) Competition Cooperation individual achievement group achievement (egotistical, show-off) (avoiding doing work or taking responsibility) AUTHORITY Egalitarianism Hierarchy fairness, belief in equal opportunity privilege of status or rank (being picky, on a soapbox) (power hungry or avoiding accountability) TEMPORAL Use of Time Passage of Time "Time is money" "Time is for life" (doesn’t get the important things in life) (lazy and irresponsible) Change/Future Tradition/Past Adaptability ensures survival Stability ensures survival (muckraker, stirs up trouble) (old-school, afraid of change) ACTIVITY Action orientation "Being" orientation "Make things happen" "Let things happen" (rushes without thinkin g ) (indecisive and slow) Practicality Idealism Efficiency is always best Always maintain principles (impersonal and unscrupulous) (naïve and impractical) Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  10. 10. Discussion: Cross Cultural Conflict Think about a recent conflict which you now know to be true to be at culturalcommunication difference. Using some ofthe terminology introduced, discuss with a partner or group of three what was going on to cause the conflict. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  11. 11. BreakRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  12. 12. Identifiers, Power, and CommunicationInternalized Oppression/Dominance Stereotype Threat Accumulated Impact Code/Mode Switching Fish Seeing the Water “Normal” versus “Good” “Intent” versus “Impact” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  13. 13. Exercise: WhispersRosetta Lee, Adapted from “Double Talk,” Thiagi.com Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  14. 14. Exercise: WhispersForm groups of 3.Decide who will be A, B, or C. Person A reads “whisper script 1.” Based on the instructions, whisper into Person B’s ear. Persons B and C hold a 3-minute conversation about their learning from the workshop that they found most interesting. Rosetta Lee, Adapted from “Double Talk,” Thiagi.com Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  15. 15. Exercise: WhispersROUND 2 Person B reads “whisper script 2.” Based on the instructions, whisper into Person C’s ear. Persons C and A hold a 3-minute conversation about their respective families. Rosetta Lee, Adapted from “Double Talk,” Thiagi.com Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  16. 16. Exercise: WhispersROUND 3 Person C reads “whisper script 3.” Based on the instructions, whisper into Person A’s ear. Persons A and B hold a 3-minute conversation about their career hopes and aspirations. Rosetta Lee, Adapted from “Double Talk,” Thiagi.com Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  17. 17. Debrief: Whispers1. How did the whispers in your ear affect your communication?2. How did the whispers in the your partner’s ear affect your interpretation of the his/her words and demeanor?3. Were elements of this exercise familiar? How did (and which of ) your identities make this exercise more/less so?4. Please share a personal experience (if any) as applies to any of the following: a. Internalized Oppression/Dominance b. Stereotype Threat c. Accumulated Impact d. Code/Mode Switching e. Fish Seeing the Water f. Norm to Normal to Good g. “Intent” versus “Impact” Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  18. 18. Cross Cultural Communication Skills • Know Dimensions of Variability • Learn Cultural Values and Norms • Examine Cultural Identities, Power, and Privilege • Know Your Own Place in these Elements • Practice Effective Communication Models • Be able to Adjust and Accommodate for Others Based on Knowledge Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  19. 19. Effective Communication Models Common Threads SUPPORTIVE DEFENSIVE Description Evaluation Problem-Orientation Control Spontaneity Strategy Empathy Neutrality Equality Superiority Provisionalism CertaintyBrenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  20. 20. Assumptions and Interpretations• Mental Models• Ladder of Inference Belief Conclusions Selective Data Observable Data• Tools of Action Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  21. 21. Checking Assumptions andInterpretations: Steps to Analyze1. What did you see/hear (raw data)?2. What are your personal filters (cultural values, norms, and identifiers)?3. What was your interpretation of what you saw/heard (inference)?4. How did you feel as a result?5. What do you want? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  22. 22. Continuum of Cross-Cultural Fluency and Competence Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) Schematic Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  23. 23. TOOL: The Four Ps of Change• Policy – A diversity mission statement that enumerates identities that are protected, celebrated, and welcome.• Programming - Training for teachers and staff on cultural competency skillsets. Support for teachers and staff in implementing classroom and practice changes. Identity development support for students. Curriculum that teaches young people about and utilizing diversity.• Practice - Consistent and meaningful revisit of policy and programs. Climate assessments, proactive changes, and meaningful responses to incidents.• PEOPLE - Critical mass of people who are supportive AND active on all levels. Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  24. 24. Discussion: How Will I Apply All This?1. How do you see materials from this workshop applying to your roles?2. What questions do you still have?3. What are your personal action steps? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  25. 25. Cultural Effectiveness “To be culturally effective doesn’t mean you are an authority in the values and beliefs of every culture. What it means is that you hold adeep respect for cultural differencesand are eager to learn, and willing toaccept, that there are many ways of viewing the world” Okokon O. Udo Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  26. 26. Final Questions or Comments? Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  27. 27. Resources• “Stereotype Threat” by Joshua Aronson• David K. Berlo, The Process of Communication (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1960)• Brenda J. Allen, Difference Matters: Communicating Social Identity• William Gudykunst, Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Comunication• Milton Bennett, PhD, Intercultural Communication Institute www.intercultural.org• National Coalition Building Institute• “Non-Verbal Communication Across Cultures” by Erica Hagen, Intercultural Communication Resources• Thiagi.com• Thrive! Team Dynamics• Nonverbal Violations 
by Stella Ting-Toomey• http://www.analytictech.com/mb021/action_science_ history.htm Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)
  28. 28. Presenter Information Rosetta Eun Ryong Lee 6th Faculty and Professional Outreach Seattle Girls’ School 2706 S Jackson Street Seattle WA 98144 (206) 805-6562 rlee@seattlegirlsschool.org http://tiny.cc/rosettaleeRosetta Eun Ryong Lee (http://tiny.cc/rosettalee)