Chapter 12 heredity and siblings


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Chapter 12 heredity and siblings

  2. 2. Heredity Gene – Basic unit of heredity Chromosome – A string of many genes Mutations – Chemical change in genes Dominant – Gene whose effect is noticed when combined with any other gene Recessive – Gene that will manifest itself only when paired with a similar gene Autosomes – The chromosomes that are alike in both the male and female Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – Chemical composing a human chromosome.
  3. 3. Sibling Relationships Siblings – people who have the same parents. Many siblings have close relationships while growing up, they’ve shared many of the same experiences. Relationships among siblings are affect by many factors and are unique:  Location  Parent  Multiple siblings
  4. 4. Single-Parent: Family Structure In a single-parent family, the parent has many responsibilities. The amount of time the single parent can spend with his or her children may be limited. Siblings in this family structure may form close relationships.
  5. 5. Stepfamily: Family Structure  When a single parent remarries, the few stepfamily often includes stepsiblings.  Stepsiblings – a stepparent’s child from a former marriage.  Relationships among stepsiblings may be strained at first.  A stepsibling can be a built- in friend.
  6. 6. Stepfamilies: Family Structure Many stepfamilies include half siblings. Half siblings – a sibling who has only one parent in common with a brother or sister.
  7. 7. Family Size  Family size can affect relationships between siblings.  In smaller families, children may be together often and in so form close bonds.  In larger families, children are likely to spend more time with siblings about their age.
  8. 8. Spacing Between Siblings Spacing refers to the number of years between children in a family. The bonds between siblings can be affected by spacing. Siblings who are close in age may have a lot in common however, these siblings are more likely to compete with each other creating rivalry which prevents the siblings from being close. Siblings who are spaced more than 6 years apart may be treated almost like only children. They may have few shared interests because of the large age difference.
  9. 9. Sibling Gender Gender – Sex as a male or female. Sex Role – The way a person is expected to act based on his or her sex. Girls tend to imitate the female sex roles they see their mothers model. Boys tend to copy the male sex roles they see their fathers model.
  10. 10. Sibling Vocabulary Terms Role – A socially expected behavior pattern. Peer Group – People of about your own age. Authority Figures – People who make final decisions. Culture – The total social environment of a people or group. Peer Pressure – The influence exerted on a person by other people in his or her age group.
  11. 11. Birth Order  Birth Order – A child’s place in relation to other children in the family.  It has an effect on personality as well as on sibling relationships.  Firstborn, middle, and youngest children may not be treated the same by their family members.
  12. 12. Firstborn Child The firstborn child has a unique place in the family. For a while, a firstborn child is an only child. Parents are often eager to see their firstborn child grow up. They may push the child to learn new skills. Independence and self-confidence may prompt firstborn children to be leaders in their families. Because these children grow up first, they may be given more responsibilities.
  13. 13. Youngest Child The youngest child in a family often receives care from older siblings as well as from parents. A youngest child often learns to talk and get along with people at an earlier age than other children. In some families, parents and older siblings routinely make decisions for the youngest child. This may cause the youngest child to be less independent than older siblings.
  14. 14. Middle Child A middle child is neither the youngest nor the oldest. While all the children are living at home, middle children sometimes feel left out. Feeling left out may cause middle children to work harder. They might become good students or show talent in music or a sport. Middle children often become peacemakers among their friends and family members.
  15. 15. Only Child The only child has no siblings. Some of these children may feel lonely. However, many only children enjoy growing up alone. Only children seem to learn quickly. Because of all the attention and help to succeed, most only children form strong self- images. Only children must learn how to get along with others by spending time with friends.
  16. 16. Twins Twins have a special kind of sibling bond. They are born at the same time. Identical Twins – Siblings born at the same time who inherit the same set of characteristics from their parents. Fraternal Twins – Siblings born at the same time who do not inherit the same set of characteristics from their
  17. 17. Twins Even thought twins may look and act alike, each twin is a unique person. Each has his or her own needs, wants, and goals. Parents, siblings, friends, and teachers need to remember to treat twins as individuals. Identical twins do not have the same fingerprints.
  18. 18. Multiple Births When a mother has… – Three infants at the  Triplets same time.  Quadtruplets – Four infants at the same time.  Quintuplets – Five infants at the same time.  Septuplets – Six infants at the same time.  Septuplets – Seven infants at the same time.  Octuplets – Eight infants at the same time.
  19. 19. Sibling Rivalry  Sibling rivalry – Competition between brothers and sisters.  Rivalry often begins when a new baby arrives.  Some children resent the extra attention given to special siblings.
  20. 20. The End