Nada Jecmenica - Communication


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Nada Jecmenica - Communication

  1. 1. Communication
  2. 2. <ul><li>The process of transferring messages through symbols. It is a process in which information and understanding of information transmitted from one person to another.This means sending, receiving and understanding the message. This means that persuade, inform, motivate and lead an individual to the group. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Elements of communication <ul><li>Sender-who speaks Message - what spesks Channel - a way to spread the message Recipient - which take the message Feedback-effect of message Perception </li></ul>
  4. 4. The main factors of verbal communication <ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of sentences </li></ul>
  5. 5. The main factors of nonverbal communication <ul><li>The tone of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Jib </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interference in communication <ul><li>Physical noise </li></ul><ul><li>Mental disability </li></ul><ul><li>Misunderstanding of the elections words </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice, stereotypes, negative attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Social anxiety (introvert, insecurity, inferiority) </li></ul><ul><li>Failure adopted decorum </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation / playing games (drag someone language) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Obstacles to communication <ul><li>1.Communication offensive that (criticism, accusations, sumnjičenja, gossip, teaser,       mock, irony, threat, lack of tact </li></ul><ul><li>2.Communication that lose mind (violation of the agreement, avoidance of answers, ambiguity, inconsideration others desire, seeking hidden meaning .. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Dishonest communication-enforcement stereotypes, to put words in the mouth tudja, constantly changing the topic, blame, abuse of statistical data, threats, humiliation, causing a feeling of guilt, ignorance, mock </li></ul>
  8. 8. Main factors of effective communication <ul><li>1.Connection verbal and nonverbal communication-that are harmonized, if not, most will believe nonverbal messages, the good sender combines them and they are complementary 2.lisening-active 3.ask the questions 4.pozitiv views </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pozitiv attitude <ul><li>That mean giving feedback and others, without his critics the Personal, but express dissatisfaction with the behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis and evaluation of activities in a form of`` YOU`` message or`` I`` messages. </li></ul><ul><li>That is the way to give support,motivation and encourage. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Instructions for giving corectly feedbek - It should express with friendly tone -To be associated with check feedback -To be brief and straightforward -Do not make it on personal characteristics, but the behavior -We need to be short. Opširan feedback makes the recipients to understand the message -It should include another public to offer additional perspective -Even an audience should be encouraged to find an alternative path to achieve a certain goal
  11. 11. `` YOU`` and ``I`` messages YOU messages - provide grade-other person -Often cause resentment and defensive behavior I message - describe a message-type behavior that threatens us or disturbing   - Express the results of such behavior - Feelings that cause this kind of behavior               active passive
  12. 12. Types of nonlisening <ul><li>Pseudo (false) listening-essence is not registered </li></ul><ul><li>Listening to the one-level reception of messages (verbal) </li></ul><ul><li>does not rest </li></ul><ul><li>Selective listening to the message-filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Selective refusal-concentrated only on what you do not want to hear, dismiss them </li></ul><ul><li>Interrupting the word constantly-end speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive-listening experience as a personal attack </li></ul><ul><li>Listening in, wait, listen to-the opportunity to attack Speaker </li></ul>
  13. 13. Aktiv e listening <ul><li>Obligations are to listen to </li></ul><ul><li>Listens to us what the other person says ask questions (open, closed to the public, which directs the answer, steer, why,-use, what, and, so, </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase-to show their understanding of the message </li></ul><ul><li>Take comment (really, really .. aha ..) </li></ul><ul><li>Require additional explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Catch notes </li></ul><ul><li>Summaries </li></ul><ul><li>Look in the eyes of the speaker </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stimulative communication <ul><li>stimulative means of communication: 1.not personal but problem-oriented 2.propriate and not inappropriate 3.describe not estimate 4.valuable not make worthless </li></ul><ul><li>5.conectied, not divisive 6.concrete,not general 7.somebody, not nobody 8.Stimulative heard, and not one-way listening </li></ul>
  15. 15. Two obstacles to effective mutual communication <ul><li>1 . DEFANSIVE </li></ul><ul><li>The result of communication to the individual feels endangered or attacked </li></ul><ul><li>Selfprotected becomes the most important </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is spent on the development of defense, rather than receiving information </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression, anger, rivalry or avoidance-occur as a result of 2.NOTCONFIRME </li></ul><ul><li>The result of communication to the individual feels notkompetent, useless or irrelevant </li></ul><ul><li>Have the advantage of efforts to re-establish their own values </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is spent to show their own importance but to receive more information </li></ul><ul><li>Placing indepedence behavior, withdrawal or loss of motivation are common behavior </li></ul>
  16. 16. Personality and communication styles <ul><li>closed </li></ul><ul><li>Analyst Commander Commander </li></ul><ul><li>Low confidence high confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Versatile perfomer Doer </li></ul><ul><li>open </li></ul>
  17. 17. Difficulties in the process of communication - Organizational difficulties - Difficulties related to the formulation of messages - Difficulties related to psychological profile participants
  18. 18. BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS <ul><li>What is a good business communication ? </li></ul>Communication (communicator, direct, indirect, mass, sender and the recipient of a message)   Business communication (subject to achieve business goals, exchange of information, focused on the specific case, direct or through mass-media)
  19. 19. General types of business communication <ul><li>Communication business entity with the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Communication within the business entity </li></ul><ul><li>What is the nucleus, spine, the essence of communication? I N F O R M A C I O N </li></ul>
  20. 20. Prerequisites good business communication <ul><li>The source (who sent the message) </li></ul><ul><li>Content (what is sent, the structure) </li></ul><ul><li>How is it spread messages (directly, through the media)? </li></ul><ul><li>Who sent the message? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the effect, the effect of messages? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Determination of the objectives of communication 1. Best of companies 2.Better information within the organization and in the environment 3.Motivation employees 4.Motivation customers, customer 5.Increase sales, demand for service
  22. 22. <ul><li>6. Informing users, consumers of news, shares 7. Placing new products, services 8. Improving the image of organizacion </li></ul>
  23. 23. The choice of channels of communication <ul><li>1.directly transferred (in writing,orally) </li></ul><ul><li>2.Personal presentacion </li></ul><ul><li>3.Media </li></ul><ul><li>4.Internet </li></ul><ul><li>5.Events and exhibitions </li></ul><ul><li>6. The choice of channels of communication </li></ul>
  24. 24. Determining the results of the success of communication <ul><li>How are the target group reaction to the message? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it changed their attitude towards the sender of the message and its action? </li></ul><ul><li>Whether they promote the message of the activity to you? </li></ul><ul><li>How to actions on the environment and competitors? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Public Relations <ul><li>Create that better cooperation between the company and the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Make corporate image and identity </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with the media </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of special events </li></ul><ul><li>Organization meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsorship </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Customer relations </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on target groups </li></ul><ul><li>Communication with the holders of public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with financial institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with the community </li></ul><ul><li>Relations with civil organizations, associations and movements </li></ul>
  27. 27. Relations with the media <ul><li>If you are not in the media, as that no existing </li></ul><ul><li>Print (local-national, publication of special importance) Electronic media (reports, reviews, interviews, press conferences, news, positive examples) </li></ul><ul><li>How to reach the media? (lists of media and journalists, meetings, receptions and lunches, regular reporting, photography and accompanying material) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Image of company <ul><li>Character of (personality) </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate identity </li></ul><ul><li>Name (reputation) </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted value (business ethics)           (Harrison with: &quot;Public relations&quot;) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Time management <ul><li>&quot;A good manager will not leave for tomorrow what his subordinate can do today. &quot;                                   George Odiorne </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Efficient management of time-determine how it currently use Track spending time at least three days in succession The Greatest &quot;time consumers&quot; are: -meetings -papers -unfinished business </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>-insufficient number of people or their uneducated </li></ul><ul><li>-social and instant messaging at work </li></ul><ul><li>-unknown authority or responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>- low quality-control system and reporting </li></ul><ul><li>-incomplete information </li></ul><ul><li>-travel </li></ul>
  32. 32. Why is necessary to manage the time ? <ul><li>Time management gives the hour or two times the surplus. It is not goal to control of time, but a way to improve your life in the following domains: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Reduce stress-lack of time leads to stress- make hurry decisions and actions, there is no planning not rational, exceeds the limits .... a body suffering terrible pressure. 2.Balance between personal and business life It is overtime because they can not finish in time to reflect on family and social life. Well-organized means more energy for family, work, themselves. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>3.Increase productivity Since the time is a unique resource that can not be returned and spent the same moment when you receive, since its effective use depends on your productivity, if at the same time do more business you are productive. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Achieved goals People who do not have goals, do not have a problem with the time, nothing is achieved Those who have clear goals, they need time to achieve. Time management is the most-because people can not manage time for themselves in relation to time, the way we use it. </li></ul>
  34. 34. PROPOSALS FOR TIME MANAGMENT <ul><li>1.Ask What business am I doing 2.Analyze Crisis 3. Think about how and when you are disconnected 4. Make p lan 5.Make self disacipline 6. Take administrative help 7.Administer(control) time 24 hours. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs <ul><li>autor modula:Nada Ječmenica </li></ul>
  36. 36. Why are we here? YOU?           WE ? - to inform you, and not persuaded?          - To help you analyze             your own values!
  37. 37. <ul><li>ENTERPRENEURSHIP </li></ul>I s it for me ?
  38. 38. What are the frequently reasons that lead to enterprenuourship? <ul><li>Dramatic changes in personal / family situation        (loss of job, Exile, divorce) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of resources for starting job       (material resources, ideas) </li></ul><ul><li>Former personal experience </li></ul>
  39. 39. I nformation sources that reflect enterpreneuor 's perspective: <ul><li>>Professional / technical publications </li></ul><ul><li>>Various articles on entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>>Resumes / Autobiographical successful entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>>Periodic publications institutions </li></ul><ul><li>>Government publications </li></ul>
  40. 40. What are the advantages and risks of entrepreneurship? ? <ul><li>- Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Independence and autonomy – </li></ul><ul><li>The permanent-job challenges (Crafts and surprise) </li></ul><ul><li>Or i ginal personal-freedom of expression </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity-business opportunities -Satisfaction profession (successful entrepreneurs are happy pearsons) -There are no restrictions in the paper in earnings -Humanity entrepreneurial profession </li></ul>
  41. 41. Risks <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><li>Family and social </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological stress </li></ul>
  42. 42. Please note! <ul><li>70% of new entrepreneurs are not preparing for a new role and responsibility 90% of new entrepreneurs do not check your idea through the prism of market 50% of new business venture in Europe fall in the first 5 years of established </li></ul>
  43. 43. What is it? <ul><li>ENTREPRENEURSHIP: </li></ul><ul><li>- C r ae t oning something from nothing </li></ul><ul><li>- the ability to identify opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>- Constantly changing economic structure for the realization of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>  - The introduction of new products and technologies </li></ul><ul><li>- Aimed at results </li></ul><ul><li>- Not stay on the achieved level      always ask -what is next? </li></ul>
  44. 44. ENTREPRENEURS: <ul><li>- Has the idea </li></ul><ul><li>     - Able to identify opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>      - Defines how and resources             for the realization of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>      - Relies on personal initiative </li></ul><ul><li>      - Ready to assume responsibility and           risk </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Enterprise is a business entrepreneur, focused on starting, managing and innovation of business or operations with the primary purpose of creating new markets and achieving profit. (Rep. law of private entrepreneurs ). Enterprise-dynamic process constant changing economic structure and its efficiency in which individuals assume the risk results of action . Person invest capital and time, employ other people, designs business project, implemented it and control to the end, when payment of all participants, </li></ul><ul><li>he account with the rest of the profit, but when it relies on your own abilities, because he can gain no guarantee. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>The entrepreneur is a person's spirit and business management skills, extensive knowledge of business and people, resolute and ready to take risk management company or act on the basis of innovation and ongoing development. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneur is innovator, who see a new challenge and profit. </li></ul><ul><li>The entrepreneur is a person ready to own the risk of introduction of new ideas and technologies (production, market, management) take and make new, profit-oriented economic projects. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Enterprise and entrepreneur <ul><li>Enterprise - the totality of enterpreneur”s organizing ability , control, leadership and management functions. Ent e rpreneur - the person who has the means necessary for a particular economic activity, which alone makes economic decisions related to the activity, organized and combined factors of production, co-ordinate their activities, monitors, manages and controls the overall performance and features working.E nt e rpreneur can, or may delegate part of his associates. The best definition of entrepreneurship is creating or insight , </li></ul><ul><li>SEARCH GOOD Opportunity regardless of financial resources CREATION somthing from nothing </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Enterprise depends on the will and determination of individuals who recognize the opportunity to enter the market and persistently trying to stay. individuals are willing to outstanding risks in the market where nothing is certain in the business environment in which all multilayered and annon . M ust be creative and innovative and willing to live and downs disappointmentThey are strongly motivated to achieve something and are ready to gain necessary experience and knowledge to be successful. , SMALL ENTREPRENEURS, in one person is incorporated conduct of the business policy, management, organization and control of small companies, which means that, a small entrepreneur, also is the owner and manager. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Certain characteristics and skills <ul><li>- Important entrepreneurial traits: </li></ul><ul><li>-Analytical review of existing state </li></ul><ul><li>-Anticipations of future events </li></ul><ul><li>-The ability of quick and correct decision </li></ul><ul><li>-Willingness to risk </li></ul><ul><li>-Taking responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>-Openness to new ideas </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>- Capacity-development ideas and their finalization -The ability of the organization and improving business -Leaders abilities -Willingness to team work -The ability to motivate staff -Developing good interpersonal relations </li></ul>
  51. 51. By Harper, basic enterpreneuors quality: <ul><li>1. Enterpreneuors the &quot;crawlers&quot; for new opportunities 2.Orijent ed on the future 3. Always trying to be the best 4. Market oriented 5. They know to value their collaborators 6.Real are 7. Diligent and accept all jobs 8 &quot;full of life&quot; </li></ul>
  52. 52. W.D.Bygrave-”10 D “-atributes of enterpreneuor <ul><li>1. D ream - has a vision of business and is able to achieve 2 .D ecisiveness - quick decision-making 3. D oer - quickly realized 4.D etermination rarely abandon </li></ul><ul><li>5. D edication to complete business 6.D evotion - love what they do, it helps them to survive 7.D etails - insists on the details 8. Destiny - holds in his hands 9.D ollar is not the primary motivational factor-it is a measure of success 10.D istribut e of proprietary features in accounts </li></ul>
  53. 53. Main entrepreneurial skills: <ul><li>PERSONAL ASPECTS - self consciousness                                                 - Ability to manage stress – </li></ul><ul><li>-solving problem creative </li></ul><ul><li>  HUMAN ASPECTS -successful communication </li></ul><ul><li>-authority, influence on other                                       -ability to motivate others                                              -management conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>GROUP ASPECTS - the ability delegation, giving authority                           - The creation of successful teams </li></ul>
  54. 54. Why are required entrepreneurial skills and behavior? <ul><li>Due to the acceptance of need for Change:      (Skill Assessment)-skill assessment Understanding what should change: (Skill Learning)-skill learning (Behavioral Guidelines)-conduct guidelines (Skill Analysis) - skill analysis Training changes: (Skill Practice)-skill exercise APPLICATION changes: (Skill Application)-application of skills </li></ul>
  55. 55. Formula: S UCCES in life: C = G X K X A SUCCESS entrepreneurship:                             C = W X A X E . C .
  56. 56. <ul><li>Activity = search action - share-market Desire - the most powerful force of thought, </li></ul>proactive attitudes Reactive attitudes Nothing can make me look at what alternatives I am such,                                                                            I control my feelings This make me nervose I can not Is not yet the time I choose appropriate solution                                                                            That we do all we can for                                                                                                                                                    missed time is lost time
  57. 57. Whether the entrepreneur birth or becomes ? <ul><li>Both ! -existing potentials to be determined, wake up and develop further </li></ul>
  58. 58. Estimate-Is entrepreneurship for you ? <ul><li>Would you like to make succes </li></ul><ul><li>Did you know that note and take advantage of the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a vision </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Are you ready to take the risk </li></ul><ul><li>Whether submitting uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Do you prefer to have control </li></ul><ul><li>That you have persistent </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Whether you are an optimist </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know with the people </li></ul><ul><li>If the majority answers is-” yes ” you have to! What has been ” N o” – You will learn. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Motivation
  62. 62. Importance of motivation Importance of Motivation talent Work efects motivation chance
  63. 63. The notion and importance of motivation <ul><li>Motivation is a set of processes that encourage, direct and maintain human behavior to pinpoint </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of motivation: motivation starts every human activity in the organization and outside it </li></ul>unsatisfied ten sion a ction Satisfy a need
  64. 64. Dimension of motivation <ul><li>Direction of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The intensity of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>The existence of motivation </li></ul>
  65. 65. THEORIES of Motivation <ul><li>Theory of content (needs): explain that the needs of the people running the activities in the organization Left-Maslow`s hierarchy of needs theory Alderfer`s erg model Hertzberg theory of two factors McClelland theory of three needs The theory of the process: explain the process by which human activity is running in the organization The theory of goal The theory of equality The theory of expectations </li></ul>
  66. 66. Hierarchy needs - Maslow <ul><li>Employees run five groups of needs Physiological needs Security needs The needs to belong The needs of self -respect Of personal needs The needs are arranged in a hierarchy needs a higher order can not be as motivators appear until meet the needs of lower order When you meet the needs of lower order to stop the be motivators and the role needs to take a higher order. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Hierarchy needs Physiological NEEDS SECURITY NEEDS NEEDS to belong NEEDS of self- respect NEEDS of personal
  68. 68. ERG MODEL - ALDERFER <ul><li>Three groups need Existential (existential) Connections (Relatedness) Development (Growth) </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity to the theory of hierarchy of needs </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in relation to the Theory of hierarchy of needs </li></ul><ul><li>- Relativites in hierarchical organization needs for different power needs of some people, depending on personal and social factors </li></ul><ul><li>- In addition to the principles of satisfaction through progression introduces the principle of regression through frustration </li></ul><ul><li>-Implications for managers Need differentiated approach to motivating employees It is possible motivation based on the needs of lower when you can not meet more needs </li></ul>
  69. 69. T HEORY Two Factors -HERTZBERG <ul><li>Different factors cause satisfaction and dissatisfaction of employees </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene factors determining the presence and absence of dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational factors determining the presence and absence of satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Employees can be motivated and satisfied only if they are included motivators </li></ul><ul><li>The presence of only hygienic factors will not achieve a lot of motivation and use of human resources </li></ul>
  70. 70. HERTZBERG `S S cale Hygiene FACTORS Salary Terms and conditions Policy and procedure Relations with managers Job security Relations with colleagues Bad good unsatisfied No satisfaction Motivation factors Achievement Recognition Work by themselves Progress Development and learning Bad good unsatisfied satisfaction
  71. 71. CATEGORIES FOR BUSINESS Hertzberg <ul><li>Employees pay a small, poo </li></ul><ul><li>benefits, poor working conditions, bad </li></ul><ul><li>relationships with colleagues, </li></ul><ul><li>the organization is bad, work is </li></ul><ul><li>tedious, no chanse for Development and </li></ul><ul><li>progress, there is no autonomy and </li></ul><ul><li>responsibility </li></ul>low high Job satisfaction high low Dissatisfaction AFTER Employees pay a small, poor working conditions and benefits as well as poor organization but has autonomous position, opportunities for advancement and development Employees have good wages and working conditions, organization good relations with colleagues, but tedious work that does not provide the possibility for progress and development, there is no autonomy and responsibility at work Employee is paid well, has good working conditions, good relations with colleagues, the organization is good, work is challenging, has the possibility of progress and development and low autonomy and responsibility
  72. 72. THEORY McClelland NEEDS <ul><li>People in organization run three groups need -Needs of belonging, acceptance of other -Needs for power and influence, control other -The needs of achievement, success, results </li></ul><ul><li>People with high expressed the need for achievement prefer job that offers: -Autonomy -Responsibility -Challenge -Risk -Feedback on success </li></ul><ul><li>  Such individuals should pay Recognition -Challenging new task with more autonomy -The ability to learn and develop the </li></ul>
  73. 73. THEORY goal setting <ul><li>People work better THEORY goal setting when you have a set goal instead is to say that &quot;Do the best you know.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The aim allows you to determine who should make an effort. Each employee should have specified, clear, if possible, quantification goal The aim should be to be difficult but feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Unfeasible and easily feasible goals are unstimulatative       Employees should receive constant feedback about how       achieves its goals Participation in setting goals and motivation Self-esteem and motivation </li></ul>
  74. 74. EQUALITY THEORY <ul><li>Motivation of employees does not depend only on awards already and Investment relations efforts and obtained awards Comparisons of their own efforts and with prize amounts of effort and reward reference person Employees are motivated when perception equitable distribution of awards to the insert effort Fair distribution of awards when there is a balanced relationship between work and reward all employees Unmotivated when employees are perceived unequal distribution of any award in the form of to overpay either in the form of to bribe. </li></ul>
  75. 75. EQUALITY THEORY Person who compares Inputs that the person investing in the organization: work, experience, education Outputs that the person receives investment inputs: financial and non-financial rewards (recognition, status) Reference person or group - a person or group for comparison The experience of the person or organization from outside Colleagues from the same organization Colleagues outside the organization Inputs reference person Outputs reference person
  76. 76. EQUALITY THEORY <ul><li>Faced with a situation of inequality employees can: - Change their inputs (for example, to reduce the effort made) - Changes in the Output (to seek larger wage) - Changes in perception of their own inputs and outputs - Changes in perception of inputs and outputs reference person - Changes reference to the person that compare - Changes in business and enterprise in work </li></ul><ul><li>Overpay some people in the organization usually does not increase their motivation, but reduces the motivation of other employees </li></ul>
  77. 77. THEORY of Expectations Motivation as a cognitive process in which individual rational and freely decide (real elections) that I will take that behavior and, depending on its assessment of the effects of behavior Motivation as a resultant of three factors: - Expectation - the belief that a certain individual behavior and investment efforts lead to the results of the first order (performance) - Instrumental - perception of the probability that the results of the first order lead to the results of the second order (award) - Valence - preferences that individual has a certain type of award
  78. 78. THEORY of Expectations <ul><li>Implications for managers : </li></ul><ul><li>Employees should ensure that their efforts will lead to the target results and that they will be able to achieve the tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Training increases the motivation for increasing perception that the investment efforts lead to results </li></ul><ul><li>Employees should ensure that the result will surely lead to awards. Important is consistency and consistency in compensation. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees should know and know that award for each individual has value </li></ul>
  79. 79. THEORIES motivation RECOMMENDATIONS for M anageres <ul><li>Get to know your people - the same people have different needs of different importance. You must know exactly what your employees run: money, friendship, status and power, challenge and freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Please note motivator s . With pay, man will never be satisfied. </li></ul><ul><li>Take the people with very pronounced need for achievement, freedom and give them challenging tasks - that's all they're looking for </li></ul>
  80. 80. NATIONAL CULTURE AND M OTIVATION National culture with a high Uncertainty Avoidance cause strong security needs with the motivation of employees With the so-called culture. &quot;Male values&quot; which are in addition to individual imply a high intensity of the needs of achievement, development and implementation. And the so-called collectivist. &quot;Women's&quot; culture in favor of the needs of its members over other types of needs .
  81. 81. CLIMATE INDICATORS, motivation and work morals <ul><li>Employee job satisfaction dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>the amount of wages </li></ul><ul><li>job security organized food </li></ul><ul><li>material benefits </li></ul><ul><li>relations with colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>leadership style </li></ul><ul><li>atmosphere at work </li></ul><ul><li>the absence of conflicts in the company </li></ul><ul><li>care companies for employees </li></ul><ul><li>organization of enterprise varied work </li></ul><ul><li>challenging work </li></ul><ul><li>the possibility of improving services </li></ul><ul><li>the possibility of learning and training </li></ul>
  82. 82. STRESS
  83. 83. What is stress? <ul><li>Harmful psychological and physical reactions of individuals who were not able to handle the demands imposed by their environment. Stress does not cause problems outside-but the way in which individual trying to deal with them. External events, pressures, given the body of the message to respond to faces with the physical threat. </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>If you often meet with the various pressures become more ranjiviji and perform health problems, symptoms of stress: varenja disorder, nausea,     headache, back pain, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, irritability-long term can lead to diseases of blood vessels, Ćira to želudcu, depression ..... </li></ul>
  85. 85. <ul><li>Each has its own psychological stress, physiological and behavioral side -Physiological-stress in the neuro-uzbudi part of the system (not opod will influence our) coming to increase pressure, headache, dizziness, increase sugar in the blood, tachycardia, muscle tension ... </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>-Psychological side-there is a feeling of fear, unezverenost, tension, tension, depression, job dissatisfaction, so far organism is prepared for flight or fight .. Behavioral-loss of appetite, increased alcohol and cigarettes, insomnia, increased work yhky, making mistakes, aggressive attitude towards colleagues ... </li></ul>
  87. 87. How stress affects the organizam_? <ul><li>After the violent reactions level of cortisol and adrenaline decreases, the heart rhythm, digestion and metabolism returns to normal. If the stress situation frequent organism does not have time to recover, performance chronic stress as a result of poor adaptive response individual. Stress-act differently in different people. </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>Chronic stress-feeling of depression, nelagode, muffled by a neurotic reaction (classical neurosis, phobia) or less intensive Acute stress-strasne more night, flash back, living of the same stress in the present situation, the man thought to come in psychosis. </li></ul>
  89. 89. Sources of stress <ul><li>-Stresovi can be important life events: death of a family member, divorce, illness, pregnancy and buying an apartment or house. Great-life milestones-completion of education, go to the Faculty, job changes ... -contacts with the aggressive, insolent, strict people -Various physical stimulation-noise very light, heat, cramped space, crowded traffic. Mental-trap-negative thinking, unrealistic expectations, too self-criticism, thinking about the future .... </li></ul>
  90. 90. Sources of stress at work <ul><li>1.VREMENSKI stress work-overload -lack of control 2. Stressors oppose -conflicts arising due to defining and solving problems -Interaction conflicts </li></ul>
  91. 91. <ul><li>3. SITUACIONI stress -unfavorable working conditions -Iznenadne and rapid changes 4.OČEKIVANI stress -cheesy expectations -fear </li></ul>
  92. 92. <ul><li>One third of people between 25-44 years as the main cause of stress see your work.   30% of men work is a source of stress, and the woman was about 15%.   family is the source of stress for 29% of women and 9% of men </li></ul>
  93. 93. <ul><li>Research in enterprises showed that the most common sources of stress: Economic situation Development of new technology Political changes Lack of communication Style of management Lack of support in the management Career development Physical condition Job requirements Degree of autonomy in the work </li></ul>
  94. 94. <ul><li>Conflict of Interest Superior Colleagues Own staff Family situation The type of personality Ability to adapt to changes Motivation Physical fear Tolerance to ambiguity (uncertainty) </li></ul>
  95. 95. The objectives of management strategies <ul><li>Eliminating stressors Development of resistance to stress The fight against stress </li></ul>
  96. 96. Eliminating stressors <ul><li>Strategy for the release of stress can be addressed on two levels: individual strategies and strategy at the level of organization INDIVIDUAL strategy: Relaxation techniques Exercises Breathing Exercises Talk with friends </li></ul>
  97. 97. <ul><li>Humor Music Leaving the business environment Self-esteem Individual planning Organization of time Healthy Eating Healthy life, learn to rest </li></ul>
  98. 98. <ul><li>Simplify life Find time for yourself Still sleeping enough Learn to say &quot;no&quot; and set boundaries Change your way of thinking Get real Fun </li></ul>
  99. 99. <ul><li>Smejte the Share your concerns with others, talk Be flexible Frequent work If all this does not help to ask for help psychotherapist, to come to the suppression and Negiranja which will take away vital energy. </li></ul>
  100. 100. <ul><li>At the levels of the organization: Change the responsibility of the individual more or less Allow greater autonomy in the Set goals work Provide training about self-confidence and organization of time </li></ul>
  101. 101. <ul><li>Make adaptive-time Reduce the time spent on business travel Prevent sexual / racial abuse Have a clear policy on the issue of abuse Establish a reliable system for sign of abuse, mobinga Improve working conditions </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>Make process jobs Provide the conditions for counseling Provide a center for recreation and recreation programs Relaxation classes Team workshops Ensure conditions for sports and social Canteens and provide room for rest. </li></ul>
  103. 103. <ul><li>Health Training on stress management Line for help employees Determine the staff cares about the well-being of employees In the economic nestašici believes that these measures additional cost, but they should be viewed as investment for the reduction of izostajanja better results at work. </li></ul>
  104. 104. Strategy to eliminate stress <ul><li>TYPE stressors Strategy elimination Time-management time                                                 -delegation Suprostavljajući-delegation                                                 -ability in relations                                                   with others Situation-reallocation of labor                                                   time Expected-giving priority to                                                    -Planning </li></ul>
  105. 105. Dilemmas manager ! ! <ul><li>Why deal with personal problems of employees? If I trained to advise other? (and if not, find the time to hear it, suggest the professional help) Do you encourage and accept self-workers? How to recognize workers under stress? Is it my job? Do you arrange counseling work? </li></ul>
  106. 106. TEAMS Team leader Conflicts
  107. 107. Form of organizing work-a relatively new (often used as a synonym for the group) TEAM formal group whose members have complementary skills and competencies, gathered around a common goal or set of objectives for the achievement of which all are equally responsible.
  108. 108. Why is established team? <ul><li>More effective than any form of work </li></ul><ul><li>Allows solving complex problems </li></ul><ul><li>Gives more than the sum of individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the maximum individual contribution to the maximum of interdependence </li></ul>
  109. 109. <ul><li>Dimensions of team work 1.Realization set target 2. Make good climate (mutual respect, help, support and encouragement) (authoritative-only results; only good climate for the social club, the team must include both dimensions) </li></ul>
  110. 110. Typology of teams <ul><li>By Mohrman teams differ in terms of: 1. Tasks or purposes: a) working teams dealing with the business (development of new products, providing customer service), which is one of the purposes of the organization    b) Teams for the improvement of the task-oriented to increase the efficiency of that organization uses </li></ul>
  111. 111. <ul><li>2.Time duration : temporary or permanent 3. terms of connection with the team structure of the organization may be superior (when the activity team functioning over the business units in the organization) Intact-teams that do not exceed the scope of their work </li></ul>
  112. 112. E. SUNDRSTOM different s <ul><li>4 types of teams: - Advisory - committees, boards, advisory body - Production-teams production, flying .. - Developer-group research, development, - Action-sports, fun group, surgical </li></ul>
  113. 113. Efficiency teams Since teams are one type of group, factors that affect the performance of groups affected by the efficiency of the team. According to one: 1. Education to attend team members 2. Readiness management to share information with team 3. Giving the authority team needed for making decisions and independence of the work 4. Awarding
  114. 114. WHAT threatened EFFICIENCY TEAM <ul><li>ERRORS of M ANAGEMENT -working unclear goals, lack of confidence, poor quality of staff .. </li></ul><ul><li>ERRORS-MEMBER TEAM providing resistance, conflicts, styles of work </li></ul><ul><li>GROUP attitude -conformism </li></ul>
  115. 115. ROLES IN Team by Belbin <ul><li>ROLES focused Action:     challenger, outstanding worker , concluder </li></ul><ul><li>ROLES focused on People:     coordinator, team worker, researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Rational Actors:      innovator, grader, spe c i alist </li></ul>
  116. 116. Problems of management <ul><li>What is leadership? </li></ul>The process of managing certain tasks, or systems for more efficient to reach the goal. Subsystems: - Planning - Organizing - Management - Control (monitoring activities and employees)
  117. 117. WHO is Manager ? <ul><li>Head-mena ger -member group, which affects the a ctiviti . He need to have the authority, prestige, material gain. </li></ul>
  118. 118. Types of managers <ul><li>T ypes of managers (head-Mekabi): - Craftsman - Fighter in a j ungl e - A man of company </li></ul><ul><li>- The Gambler - Builder's own personality </li></ul>
  119. 119. Types of managers (A d izes ): - Lone rider - Bureaucrat -Incendiary (always new ideas) - Super-follower -Useless man
  120. 120. <ul><li>Types of managers: </li></ul><ul><li>Dictator </li></ul><ul><li>Bureaucrat </li></ul><ul><li>Man from the higher layers </li></ul><ul><li>Performer </li></ul>
  121. 121. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Types of managers on the basis of knowledge process used in </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collecting and evaluating information </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jungov model: Sensing Managers (The participative) Intuitive Managers (predictive) Thinking Managers (thought) Feeling Managers (sensational) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  122. 122. M ANAGER `S ROLE <ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Role in the decision-making </li></ul>
  123. 123. SKILLS Managers and management at various levels <ul><li>Senior management lower level of management                         Technical skills                                                   </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal skills </li></ul>Conceptual skills
  124. 124. Management styles <ul><li>Style commanding </li></ul><ul><li>Style of managing </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraging style </li></ul><ul><li>Style of delegating </li></ul>
  125. 125. Hierarchy enterpreneours skills Managing stress                  time management                 set of priorities and                              goals self-consciousness
  126. 126. New management philosophy -Man is treated as a complex and unique entity, emotional and irrational, not only will be rational. - Requires the manager-confidence, decentralization and distribution of information and knowledge, education and skills training, clear roles and responsibilities, freedom of action, feedback, motivation and resources necessary for action, a framework for the operation of the business priorities and objectives that all employees must know .                                New management philosophy
  127. 127. Conflicts <ul><li>In one study, managers reported that about 20% of their time spent on solving conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is: </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement between two or more members of the organization or group that appears due to the fact that they share the rare resources, work tasks, have different goals, attitudes and perception </li></ul><ul><li>A process that begins when one side perceived the other to take or intends to take action that threatens its interests </li></ul><ul><li>Situation when individuals or groups working against each other instead of with each other </li></ul>
  128. 128. ELEMENT `S of Conflict <ul><li>Previous conditions for the appearance of conflict: </li></ul><ul><li>- the lack of resources, the wrong policy organization, poor system of compensation, the wrong perception of group </li></ul><ul><li>Affective individual and group: -Stress, tension, hostility, anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>  Processing individual and group : </li></ul><ul><li>- belief, conscience, to know that there is conflict resolution, to the other side may be or have ugrozila interests of the subject </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict behavior (actions) : of passive resistance to aggression on the other side </li></ul>
  129. 129. S ources of conflict <ul><li>Organizational sources of conflict : </li></ul><ul><li>Partition of the limited resources of two or more individuals or groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Interdependence in the performance of business activities </li></ul><ul><li>Mutually opposite goals </li></ul><ul><li>High normal organizational units. </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in criteria and performance evaluation system of compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational ambiguities and shortcomings </li></ul>
  130. 130. Sources of conflict <ul><li>Interpersonal differences can be sources of conflict : </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong perception and atributizacija </li></ul><ul><li>Error in communication, negative criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Mistrust </li></ul><ul><li>Personal characteristics and value system </li></ul>
  131. 131. CATEGORIES conflicts <ul><li>1.Intrapersonal-conflicts within individual - Conflicting motives, needs and possibilities - Provoke emotions, frustration, anxiety 2. interpersonal-between individuals 3. Conflict between the groups 4. Conflict between the organization 5. Conflict role-type conflict intrapersonal roles - Conflict between the demands of a role - Conflict between the different role of the individual - C onflict between personality and the role of </li></ul>
  132. 132. Negative effects of conflict <ul><li>Conflicts interfere with the normal functioning of companies </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts highlight the emotions instead of reason in the decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Please note conflicts with the organization on personal goals </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts cause more human reaction to the extremely negative effects-stress, frustration, </li></ul>
  133. 133. Positive effects of conflict <ul><li>Stimulate critical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate people </li></ul><ul><li>Often the cause and sign the necessary organizational changes </li></ul><ul><li>It cleans the internal environment and eliminate the hidden conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between the groups encourage cooperation within the group </li></ul>
  134. 134. Conflict-solving strategies <ul><li>Parent formulation goal </li></ul><ul><li>Inte nsily social contact </li></ul><ul><li>Coercion </li></ul><ul><li>negotiation: mediation or arbitration </li></ul><ul><li>Straighten out </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Formalization and standardization </li></ul><ul><li>Vote </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive troubleshooting </li></ul><ul><li>C ompromise </li></ul>
  135. 135. How to resolve the conflict personally? <ul><li>On the job are some inevitable conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>If you are quarreling – quarrel constructive, use the conflict to be creative, o pen .Ne allow conflicts to last Infinite. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, open, direct and constructive communication </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is better now than later to resolve end-game waiting to recognize the other's mistake </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of madly reaction kindly ask what is not clear, or seek an explanation for-all make mistakes deliberately </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow emotions at the time to overcome (number to 100 .. ..) </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to accept diversity-not all have to think the same </li></ul><ul><li>Sorry for the error, pointed out why it is important to you to resolve conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Achieve insight into the conflict and set a goal for the solution </li></ul><ul><li>If the personal efforts do not help call-agent-neutral person </li></ul>