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UNIT-3
1. ROLE OF EMOTION IN INTER PERSONAL
COMMUNICATION
2. COMMUNICATION STYLES
3. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
4. GATEWAYS TO EFFECTIVE
 By managing motivation to influence interpersonal
communication, individuals will be able to see
rewards for effectively communicating with other.
 As a result, they will work towards having effective
communication skills. Individuals will attempt to
achieve more job opportunities and surround
themselves with friendly people with interpersonal
communication.
NEED HOME JOB
SELF-ACTUALIZATION
Education, religion,
hobbies, personal growth
training, advancement,
growth, creativity
ESTEEM
approval of family,
friends, community
recognition, high status,
responsibilities
BELONGINGNESS
family, friends,
clubs
teams, depts, coworkers, clients,
supervisors, subordinates
SAFETY
freedom from war,
poison, violence
work safety, job security,
health insurance
PHYSIOLOGICAL food water sex Heat, air, base salary
Alderfer classifies needs into three categories, also
ordered hierarchically:
• Growth needs (development of competence and
realization of potential)
• Relatedness needs (satisfactory relations with
others)
• Existence needs (physical well-being)
• NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT, accomplish
something difficult. as kids encouraged to do
things for themselves.
• NEED FOR AFFILIATION, form close
personal relationships. as kids rewarded for
making friends.
• NEED FOR POWER, control others. as kids,
able to get what they want through controlling
others.
 INTRINSIC MOTIVATORS:  Achievement,
responsibility and competence. motivators that
come from the actual performance of the task or
job -- the intrinsic interest of the work.
 EXTRINSIC MOTIVATORS :  pay, promotion,
feedback, working conditions -- things that come
from a person's environment, controlled by others.
• POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.  Strengthening a behavior. This is the
process of getting goodies as a consequence of a behavior. You make
a sale, you get a commission. You do a good job, you get a bonus & a
promotion. 
• NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT. Strengthening a behavior. This is the
process of having a stressor taken away as a  consequence of a
behavior. Long-term sanctions are removed from countries when their
human rights records improve. (you see how successful that is!). Low
status as geek at Salomon Brothers is removed when you make first big
sale.
• EXTINCTION. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting no
goodies when do a behavior. So if person does extra effort, but gets no
thanks for it, they stop doing it.
• PUNISHMENT. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting a
punishment as a consequence of a behavior. Example: having your pay
docked for lateness. 
• Equity theory says that it is not the actual reward that
motivates, but the perception, and the perception is
based not on the reward in isolation, but in
comparison with the efforts that went into getting it,
and the rewards and efforts of others. If everyone got
a 5% raise, B is likely to feel quite pleased with her
raise, even if she worked harder than everyone else.
But if A got an even higher raise, B perceives that she
worked just as hard as A, she will be unhappy. 
• HYGIENE FACTORS. These are factors whose absence motivates,
but whose presence has no perceived effect. They are things that when
you take them away, people become dissatisfied and act to get them
back. A very good example is heroin to a heroin addict. Long term
addicts do not shoot up to get high; they shoot up to stop being sick --
to get normal.  Other examples include decent working conditions,
security, pay, benefits (like health insurance), company policies,
interpersonal relationships. In general, these are extrinsic items low in
the Maslow/Alderfer hierarchy.
• MOTIVATORS. These are factors whose presence motivates. Their
absence does not cause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to
motivate. Examples are all the things at the top of the Maslow
hierarchy, and the intrinsic motivators.
M = E*I*V
(Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence)
• M (motivation) is the amount a person will be motivated by the situation they find
themselves in. It is a function of the following.
• E (expectancy) = The person's perception that effort will result in performance.
In other words, the person's assessment of the degree to which effort actually
correlates with performance.
• I (instrumentality) = The person's perception that performance will be
rewarded/punished. I.e., the person's assessment of how well the amount of
reward correlates with the quality of performance. (Note here that the model is
phrased in terms of extrinsic motivation, in that it asks 'what are the chances I'm
going to get rewarded if I do good job?'. But for intrinsic situations, we can think
of this as asking 'how good will I feel if I can pull this off?').
• V(valence) = The perceived strength of the reward or punishment that will result
from the performance. If the reward is small, the motivation will be small, even if
expectancy and instrumentality are both perfect (high).
Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to
be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to
make an effort to attain a goal.
Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious
factors such as the
(1) Intensity of desire or need,
(2) Incentive or reward value of the goal, and
(3) Expectations of the individual and of his or her peers.
These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way.
An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because
he or she wants a better grade in the class.
 INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
 EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Intrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming
from within. The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its
results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore
importance is attached to it.
Our deep-rooted desires have the highest motivational power. Below are some
examples:
 Acceptance: We all need to feel that we, as well as our decisions, are accepted by our co-
workers.
 Curiosity: We all have the desire to be in the know.
 Honor: We all need to respect the rules and to be ethical.
 Independence: We all need to feel we are unique.
 Order: We all need to be organized.
 Power: We all have the desire to be able to have influence.
 Social contact: We all need to have some social interactions.
 Social Status: We all have the desire to feel important.
• Extrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational
stimuli are coming from outside. In other words, our desires to
perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note that
even though the stimuli are coming from outside, the result of
performing the task will still be rewarding for the individual
performing the task.
• Extrinsic motivation is external in nature. The most well-known
and the most debated motivation is money. Below are some
other examples:
 Employee of the month award
 Benefit package
 Bonuses
 Organized activities
 In psychology and philosophy, emotion is a subjective,
conscious experience characterized primarily by psycho
PHYSIOLOGICAL EXPRESSIONS, BIOLOGICAL
REACTIONS, and MENTAL STATES.
 Emotion is often associated and considered reciprocally
influential with mood, temperament, personality,
disposition, and motivation.
 Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation,
positive or negative. An alternative definition of emotion is
a "positive or negative experience that is associated with a
particular pattern of physiological activity.”
• AFFECTION
• ANGER
• ANGST
• ANGUISH
• ANNOYANCE
• ANXIETY
• APATHY
• AROUSAL
• AWE
• BOREDOM
• CONFIDENCE
• CONTEMPT
• CONTENTMENT
• COURAGE
• CURIOSITY
• DEPRESSION
• DESIRE
• DESPAIR
• DISAPPOINTMENT
• DISGUST
• DISTRUST
• DREAD
• ECSTASY
• EMBARRASSMENT
• ENVY
• EUPHORIA
• EXCITEMENT
• FEAR
• FRUSTRATION
• GRATITUDE
• GRIEF
• GUILT
• HAPPINESS
• HATRED
• HOPE
• HORROR
• HOSTILITY
• HURT
• HYSTERIA
• INDIFFERENCE
• INTEREST
• JEALOUSY
• JOY
• LOATHING
• LONELINESS
• LOVE
• LUST
• OUTRAGE
• PANIC
• PASSION
• PITY
• PLEASURE
• PRIDE
• RAGE
• REGRET
• RELIEF
• REMORSE
• SADNESS
 SATISFACTION
 SCHADENFREUDE
 SELF-CONFIDENCE
 SHAME
 SHOCK
 SHYNESS
 SORROW
 SUFFERING
 SURPRISE
 TERROR
 TRUST
 WONDER
 WORRY
 ZEAL
 ZEST :
ENTHUSIASM
 Values
◦ Describe what managers try to achieve through work and
how they think they should behave
 Attitudes
◦ Capture managers’ thoughts and feelings about their
specific jobs and organizations.
 Moods and Emotions
◦ Encompass how managers actually feel when they are
managing
 Terminal Values
◦ A personal conviction about life-long goals
 Instrumental Values
◦ A personal conviction about desired modes of conduct
or ways of behaving
 Value System
◦ What a person is striving to achieve in life and
how they want to behave
 Attitude
◦ A collection of feelings and beliefs
 Job Satisfaction
 Organizational Commitment
 Job Satisfaction
◦ A collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have
about their current jobs.
 Managers high on job satisfaction have a positive view of
their jobs.
 Levels of job satisfaction tend increase as managers
move up in the hierarchy in an organization.
 Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
◦ Behaviors that are not required of organizational
members but that help the firm in gaining a competitive
advantage.
 Managers with high satisfaction are more likely
perform these “above and beyond the call of
duty” behaviors.
 Managers who are satisfied with their jobs are
less likely to quit
 Organizational Commitment
◦ The collection of feelings and beliefs that managers
have about their organization as a whole
 Believe in what their organizations are
doing
 Proud of what their organizations stand for
 More likely to go above and beyond the call
of duty
 Less likely to quit
 Mood
◦ A feeling or state of mind
 Positive moods provide excitement, elation, and
enthusiasm.
 Negative moods lead to fear, distress, and nervousness.
 Emotional Intelligence
◦ The ability to understand and manage one’s own
moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of
other people.
 Helps managers carry out their interpersonal roles of
figurehead, leader, and liaison.
 Managers with a high level of emotional
intelligence are more likely to understand how
they are feeling and why
 More able to effectively manage their feelings so
that they do not get in the way of effective
decision-making
Shared set of beliefs, expectations, values,
norms, and work routines that influence how
members of an organization relate to one
another and work together to achieve
organizational goals
 When organizational members share an intense
commitment to cultural values, beliefs, and
routines a strong organizational culture exists
 When members are not committed to a shared
set of values, beliefs, and routines,
organizational culture is weak
Attraction-Selection-Attrition Framework
◦ A model that explains the role that founders’ personal
characteristics play in determining organizational
culture.
 Founders of firms tend to hire employees whose
personalities that are to their own, which may or may not
benefit the organization over the long-term.
 Terminal values – signify what an organization
and its employees are trying to accomplish
 Instrumental values – guide the ways in which
the organization and its members achieve
organizational goals
Managers determine and shape organizational
culture through the kinds of values and norms
they promote in an organization
Organizational socialization – process by which
newcomer’s learn an organization’s values and
norms and acquire the work behaviors
necessary to perform jobs effectively
 Formal events that recognize incidents of
importance to the
organization as a
whole and to
specific employees
What are examples of events that recognize
employees and their importance to the
organization? Which of the following would be
the most meaningful to the employee and to
the organization?
A. Money
B. Stock Options
C. Plaque
D. Parking Space
 Rites of passage – determine how individuals
enter, advance within, or leave the organization
 Rites of integration – build and reinforce
common bonds among organizational members
 Rites of enhancement – let organizations
publicly recognize and reward employees’
contributions and thus strengthen their commitment
to organizational values
 Communicate organizational culture
 Stories reveal behaviors that are valued by the
organization
 Includes how people dress, the offices they
occupy, the cars they drive, and the degree of
formality they use when they address one
another
 Assertive
 Aggressive
 Passive-aggressive
 Submissive
 Manipulative
BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS
 Achieving goals without hurting others
 Protective of own rights and respectful of others' rights
 Socially and emotionally expressive
 Making your own choices and taking responsibility for
them
 Asking directly for needs to be met, while accepting the
possibility of rejection
 Accepting compliments
NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR
 Voice – medium pitch and speed and volume
 Posture – open posture, symmetrical balance,
tall, relaxed, no fidgeting
 Gestures – even, rounded, expansive
 Facial expression – good eye contact
 Spatial position – in control, respectful of others
LANGUAGE
 "Please would you turn the volume down? I am
really struggling to concentrate on my studies."
 "I am so sorry, but I won't be able to help you with
your project this afternoon, as I have a dentist
appointment."
PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL
 They can take the person at their word
 They know where they stand with the person
 The person can cope with justified criticism and
accept compliments
 The person can look after themselves
 Respect for the person
 This style is about winning – often at someone
else's expense. An aggressive person behaves as
if their needs are the most important, as though
they have more rights, and have more to
contribute than other people. It is an ineffective
communication style as the content of the
message may get lost because people are too
busy reacting to the way it's delivered.
Behavioural Characteristics
• Frightening, threatening, loud, hostile
• Willing to achieve goals at expense of others
• Out to "win"
• Demanding, abrasive
• Belligerent
• Explosive, unpredictable
• Intimidating
• Bullying (Harassment)
NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR
 Voice – volume is loud
 Posture – 'bigger than' others
 Gestures - big, fast, sharp/jerky
 Facial expression – scowl, frown, glare
 Spatial position - Invade others' personal space,
try to stand 'over' others
LANGUAGE
 "You are crazy!"
 "Do it my way!"
 "You make me sick!"
 "That is just about enough out of you!"
 Sarcasm, name-calling, threatening, blaming,
insulting.
PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL
• Defensive, aggressive (withdraw or fight back)
• Uncooperative
• Resentful/Vengeful
• Humiliated/degraded
• Hurt
• Afraid
• A loss of respect for the aggressive person
• Mistakes and problems are not reported to an aggressive
person in case they "blow up'. Others are afraid of being
railroaded, exploited or humiliated.
 This is a style in which people appear passive on the
surface, but are actually acting out their anger in indirect
or behind-the-scenes ways.
 Prisoners of War often act in passive-aggressive ways in
order to deal with an overwhelming lack of power.
 People who behave in this manner usually feel powerless
and resentful, and express their feelings by subtly
undermining the object (real or imagined) of their
resentments – even if this ends up sabotaging
themselves.
 The expression "Cut off your nose to spite your face" is a
perfect description of passive-aggressive behaviour.
BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS
• INDIRECTLY AGGRESSIVE
• SARCASTIC
• DEVIOUS
• UNRELIABLE
• COMPLAINING
• SULKY
• PATRONISING
• GOSSIPS
• TWO-FACED - Pleasant to people to their faces, but poisonous behind
their backs (rumours, sabotage etc.) People do things to actively harm
the other party e.g. they sabotage a machine by loosening a bolt or put
too much salt in their food.
NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR
 Voice – Often speaks with a sugary sweet voice.
 Posture – often asymmetrical – e.g. Standing with
hand on hip, and hip thrust out (when being sarcastic
or patronising)
 Gestures – Can be jerky, quick
 Facial expression – Often looks sweet and innocent
 Spatial position – often too close, even touching other
as pretends to be warm and friendly
LANGUAGE
• Passive-aggressive language is when you say
something like "Why don't you go ahead and do it;
my ideas aren't very good anyway" but maybe
with a little sting of irony or even worse, sarcasm,
such as "You always know better in any case."
• "Oh don't you worry about me, I can sort myself
out – like I usually have to."
PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL
 Confused
 Angry
 Hurt
 Resentful
 This style is about pleasing other people and
avoiding conflict. A submissive person behaves as
if other peoples' needs are more important, and
other people have more rights and more to
contribute.
BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS
 Apologetic (feel as if you are imposing when you ask for what you want)
 Avoiding any confrontation
 Finding difficulty in taking responsibility or decisions
 Yielding to someone else's preferences (and discounting own rights and
needs)
 Opting out
 Feeling like a victim
 Blaming others for events
 Refusing compliments
 Inexpressive (of feelings and desires)
NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR
 Voice – Volume is soft
 Posture – make themselves as small as possible, head down
 Gestures – twist and fidget
 Facial expression – no eye contact
 Spatial position – make themselves smaller/lower than others
 Submissive behaviour is marked by a martyr-like attitude
(victim mentality) and a refusal to try out initiatives, which
might improve things.
LANGUAGE
 "Oh, it's nothing, really."
 "Oh, that's all right; I didn't want it anymore."
 "You choose; anything is fine."
PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL
 Exasperated
 Frustrated
 Guilty
 You don't know what you want (and so discount you)
 They can take advantage of you.
 Others resent the low energy surrounding the
submissive person and eventually give up trying to help
them because their efforts are subtly or overtly rejected.
 This style is scheming, calculating and shrewd.
Manipulative communicators are skilled at
influencing or controlling others to their own
advantage. Their spoken words hide an
underlying message, of which the other person
may be totally unaware.
BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS
 Cunning
 Controlling of others in an insidious way – for
example, by sulking
 Asking indirectly for needs to be met
 Making others feel obliged or sorry for them.
 Uses 'artificial' tears
 Non-Verbal Behaviour
 Voice – patronising, envious, ingratiating, often
high pitch
 Facial expression – Can put on the 'hang dog"
expression
LANGUAGE
 "You are so lucky to have those chocolates, I wish
I had some. I can't afford such expensive
chocolates."
 "I didn't have time to buy anything, so I had to
wear this dress. I just hope I don't look too awful in
it." ('Fishing' for a compliment).
PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL
• Guilty
• Frustrated
• Angry, irritated or annoyed
• Resentful
• Others feel they never know where they stand with a
manipulative person and are annoyed at constantly
having to try to work out what is going on.
 It will also help you recognize when you are not
being assertive or not behaving in the most
effective way.
 always have a choice as to which
communication style you use. Being assertive is
usually the most effective, but other styles are,
of course, necessary in certain situations – such
as being submissive when under physical threat
(a mugging, hijacking etc.).
 Good communication skills require a high level of
self-awareness. Once you understand your own
communication style, it is much easier to identify
any shortcomings or areas which can be improved
on, if you want to start communicating in a more
assertive manner.
 If you're serious about strengthening your
relationships, reducing stress from conflict and
decreasing unnecessary anxiety in your life,
practice being more assertive.
 It will help you diffuse anger, reduce guilt and
build better relationships both personally and
professionally.
 (1) status differences,
 (2) gender differences,
 (3) cultural differences,
 (4) prejudices,
 (5) the organizational environment.
 (6) language
 (7) physical seperation
 SEMANTIC BARRIERS
 PSYCHOLOGICAL OR EMOTIONAL BARRIERS
 ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS
 PERSONAL BARRIERS
There is always a possibility of misunderstanding the feelings
of the sender of the message or getting a wrong meaning
of it. The words, signs, and figures used in the
communication are explained by the receiver in the light of
his experience which creates doubtful situations. This
happens because the information is not sent in simple
language.
Badly Expressed Message
Symbols or Words with Different Meanings
Faulty Translation
Unqualified Assumptions
Technical Jargon
Body Language and Gesture Decoding
 The importance of communication depends on
the mental condition of both the parties. A
mentally disturbed party can be a hindrance in
communication. Following are the emotional
barriers in the way of communication:
Premature Evaluation
Lack of Attention
Loss by Transmission and Poor Retention
Distrust
• Organisational structure greatly affects the
capability of the employees as far as the
communication is concerned. Some major
organizational hindrances in the way of
communication are the following:
Organisational Policies
Rules and Regulations
Status
Complexity in Organisational Structure
Organisational Facilities
 The above-mentioned organizational barriers are important
in themselves but there are some barriers which are
directly connected with the sender and the receiver. They
are called personal barriers. From the point of view of
convenience, they have been divided into two parts:
 Barriers Related to Superiors: These barriers are as follows
 Fear of Challenge of Authority
 Lack of Confidence in Subordinates
 Barriers Related to Subordinates: Subordinates-related barriers are the
following:
 Unwillingness to Communicate:
 Lack of Proper Incentive:
 Physical separation gateways
◦ Periodic face-to-face interactions
◦ Regular meetings for interrelated units
 Status differences gateways
◦ Effective supervisory skills
◦ Feelings of security for employees
◦ Informational technology communication methods
Communication Gateways – ffactors that
are antidotes to communication problems
GENDER DIFFERENCES GATEWAYS
◦ Awareness of gender-specific differences in communication
CULTURAL DIVERSITY GATEWAYS
◦ Increased awareness and sensitivity
LANGUAGE GATEWAYS
◦ Simple, direct, declarative language
◦ Use brief sentences
◦ Speak in the language of the listener
◦ Avoid jargon or technical language
 Plan the message
 Use Proper language
 Don’t be evaluative
 Give proper Orientation
 Be an active listener
 Have an unbiased attitude
 Respond don't re-act
 Promote congruence
 Use the grapevine
 Transmit the message in
Installments
 Provide feedback
 Overcome bypassing
 Maintain semantic
accuracy
 Add some eloquence
 Improve the ambience
 Use proper etiquette
 Watch your language
Managerial communication unit-3

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Managerial communication unit-3

  • 2. 1. ROLE OF EMOTION IN INTER PERSONAL COMMUNICATION 2. COMMUNICATION STYLES 3. BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION 4. GATEWAYS TO EFFECTIVE
  • 3.  By managing motivation to influence interpersonal communication, individuals will be able to see rewards for effectively communicating with other.  As a result, they will work towards having effective communication skills. Individuals will attempt to achieve more job opportunities and surround themselves with friendly people with interpersonal communication.
  • 4.
  • 5. NEED HOME JOB SELF-ACTUALIZATION Education, religion, hobbies, personal growth training, advancement, growth, creativity ESTEEM approval of family, friends, community recognition, high status, responsibilities BELONGINGNESS family, friends, clubs teams, depts, coworkers, clients, supervisors, subordinates SAFETY freedom from war, poison, violence work safety, job security, health insurance PHYSIOLOGICAL food water sex Heat, air, base salary
  • 6. Alderfer classifies needs into three categories, also ordered hierarchically: • Growth needs (development of competence and realization of potential) • Relatedness needs (satisfactory relations with others) • Existence needs (physical well-being)
  • 7. • NEED FOR ACHIEVEMENT, accomplish something difficult. as kids encouraged to do things for themselves. • NEED FOR AFFILIATION, form close personal relationships. as kids rewarded for making friends. • NEED FOR POWER, control others. as kids, able to get what they want through controlling others.
  • 8.  INTRINSIC MOTIVATORS:  Achievement, responsibility and competence. motivators that come from the actual performance of the task or job -- the intrinsic interest of the work.  EXTRINSIC MOTIVATORS :  pay, promotion, feedback, working conditions -- things that come from a person's environment, controlled by others.
  • 9. • POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.  Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of getting goodies as a consequence of a behavior. You make a sale, you get a commission. You do a good job, you get a bonus & a promotion.  • NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT. Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of having a stressor taken away as a  consequence of a behavior. Long-term sanctions are removed from countries when their human rights records improve. (you see how successful that is!). Low status as geek at Salomon Brothers is removed when you make first big sale. • EXTINCTION. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting no goodies when do a behavior. So if person does extra effort, but gets no thanks for it, they stop doing it. • PUNISHMENT. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting a punishment as a consequence of a behavior. Example: having your pay docked for lateness. 
  • 10. • Equity theory says that it is not the actual reward that motivates, but the perception, and the perception is based not on the reward in isolation, but in comparison with the efforts that went into getting it, and the rewards and efforts of others. If everyone got a 5% raise, B is likely to feel quite pleased with her raise, even if she worked harder than everyone else. But if A got an even higher raise, B perceives that she worked just as hard as A, she will be unhappy. 
  • 11. • HYGIENE FACTORS. These are factors whose absence motivates, but whose presence has no perceived effect. They are things that when you take them away, people become dissatisfied and act to get them back. A very good example is heroin to a heroin addict. Long term addicts do not shoot up to get high; they shoot up to stop being sick -- to get normal.  Other examples include decent working conditions, security, pay, benefits (like health insurance), company policies, interpersonal relationships. In general, these are extrinsic items low in the Maslow/Alderfer hierarchy. • MOTIVATORS. These are factors whose presence motivates. Their absence does not cause any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate. Examples are all the things at the top of the Maslow hierarchy, and the intrinsic motivators.
  • 12. M = E*I*V (Motivation = Expectancy * Instrumentality * Valence) • M (motivation) is the amount a person will be motivated by the situation they find themselves in. It is a function of the following. • E (expectancy) = The person's perception that effort will result in performance. In other words, the person's assessment of the degree to which effort actually correlates with performance. • I (instrumentality) = The person's perception that performance will be rewarded/punished. I.e., the person's assessment of how well the amount of reward correlates with the quality of performance. (Note here that the model is phrased in terms of extrinsic motivation, in that it asks 'what are the chances I'm going to get rewarded if I do good job?'. But for intrinsic situations, we can think of this as asking 'how good will I feel if I can pull this off?'). • V(valence) = The perceived strength of the reward or punishment that will result from the performance. If the reward is small, the motivation will be small, even if expectancy and instrumentality are both perfect (high).
  • 13. Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal. Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) Intensity of desire or need, (2) Incentive or reward value of the goal, and (3) Expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way. An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the class.
  • 14.  INTRINSIC MOTIVATION  EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
  • 15. Intrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from within. The individual has the desire to perform a specific task, because its results are in accordance with his belief system or fulfills a desire and therefore importance is attached to it. Our deep-rooted desires have the highest motivational power. Below are some examples:  Acceptance: We all need to feel that we, as well as our decisions, are accepted by our co- workers.  Curiosity: We all have the desire to be in the know.  Honor: We all need to respect the rules and to be ethical.  Independence: We all need to feel we are unique.  Order: We all need to be organized.  Power: We all have the desire to be able to have influence.  Social contact: We all need to have some social interactions.  Social Status: We all have the desire to feel important.
  • 16. • Extrinsic motivation means that the individual's motivational stimuli are coming from outside. In other words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source. Note that even though the stimuli are coming from outside, the result of performing the task will still be rewarding for the individual performing the task. • Extrinsic motivation is external in nature. The most well-known and the most debated motivation is money. Below are some other examples:  Employee of the month award  Benefit package  Bonuses  Organized activities
  • 17.  In psychology and philosophy, emotion is a subjective, conscious experience characterized primarily by psycho PHYSIOLOGICAL EXPRESSIONS, BIOLOGICAL REACTIONS, and MENTAL STATES.  Emotion is often associated and considered reciprocally influential with mood, temperament, personality, disposition, and motivation.  Emotion is often the driving force behind motivation, positive or negative. An alternative definition of emotion is a "positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity.”
  • 18.
  • 19. • AFFECTION • ANGER • ANGST • ANGUISH • ANNOYANCE • ANXIETY • APATHY • AROUSAL • AWE • BOREDOM • CONFIDENCE • CONTEMPT • CONTENTMENT • COURAGE • CURIOSITY • DEPRESSION • DESIRE • DESPAIR • DISAPPOINTMENT • DISGUST • DISTRUST • DREAD • ECSTASY • EMBARRASSMENT • ENVY • EUPHORIA • EXCITEMENT • FEAR • FRUSTRATION • GRATITUDE • GRIEF • GUILT
  • 20. • HAPPINESS • HATRED • HOPE • HORROR • HOSTILITY • HURT • HYSTERIA • INDIFFERENCE • INTEREST • JEALOUSY • JOY • LOATHING • LONELINESS • LOVE • LUST • OUTRAGE • PANIC • PASSION • PITY • PLEASURE • PRIDE • RAGE • REGRET • RELIEF • REMORSE • SADNESS
  • 21.  SATISFACTION  SCHADENFREUDE  SELF-CONFIDENCE  SHAME  SHOCK  SHYNESS  SORROW  SUFFERING  SURPRISE  TERROR  TRUST  WONDER  WORRY  ZEAL  ZEST : ENTHUSIASM
  • 22.  Values ◦ Describe what managers try to achieve through work and how they think they should behave  Attitudes ◦ Capture managers’ thoughts and feelings about their specific jobs and organizations.  Moods and Emotions ◦ Encompass how managers actually feel when they are managing
  • 23.  Terminal Values ◦ A personal conviction about life-long goals  Instrumental Values ◦ A personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving
  • 24.  Value System ◦ What a person is striving to achieve in life and how they want to behave
  • 25.  Attitude ◦ A collection of feelings and beliefs  Job Satisfaction  Organizational Commitment
  • 26.  Job Satisfaction ◦ A collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their current jobs.  Managers high on job satisfaction have a positive view of their jobs.  Levels of job satisfaction tend increase as managers move up in the hierarchy in an organization.
  • 27.  Organizational Citizenship Behaviors ◦ Behaviors that are not required of organizational members but that help the firm in gaining a competitive advantage.
  • 28.  Managers with high satisfaction are more likely perform these “above and beyond the call of duty” behaviors.  Managers who are satisfied with their jobs are less likely to quit
  • 29.  Organizational Commitment ◦ The collection of feelings and beliefs that managers have about their organization as a whole
  • 30.  Believe in what their organizations are doing  Proud of what their organizations stand for  More likely to go above and beyond the call of duty  Less likely to quit
  • 31.  Mood ◦ A feeling or state of mind  Positive moods provide excitement, elation, and enthusiasm.  Negative moods lead to fear, distress, and nervousness.
  • 32.  Emotional Intelligence ◦ The ability to understand and manage one’s own moods and emotions and the moods and emotions of other people.  Helps managers carry out their interpersonal roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison.
  • 33.  Managers with a high level of emotional intelligence are more likely to understand how they are feeling and why  More able to effectively manage their feelings so that they do not get in the way of effective decision-making
  • 34. Shared set of beliefs, expectations, values, norms, and work routines that influence how members of an organization relate to one another and work together to achieve organizational goals
  • 35.  When organizational members share an intense commitment to cultural values, beliefs, and routines a strong organizational culture exists  When members are not committed to a shared set of values, beliefs, and routines, organizational culture is weak
  • 36. Attraction-Selection-Attrition Framework ◦ A model that explains the role that founders’ personal characteristics play in determining organizational culture.  Founders of firms tend to hire employees whose personalities that are to their own, which may or may not benefit the organization over the long-term.
  • 37.  Terminal values – signify what an organization and its employees are trying to accomplish  Instrumental values – guide the ways in which the organization and its members achieve organizational goals
  • 38. Managers determine and shape organizational culture through the kinds of values and norms they promote in an organization
  • 39. Organizational socialization – process by which newcomer’s learn an organization’s values and norms and acquire the work behaviors necessary to perform jobs effectively
  • 40.  Formal events that recognize incidents of importance to the organization as a whole and to specific employees
  • 41. What are examples of events that recognize employees and their importance to the organization? Which of the following would be the most meaningful to the employee and to the organization? A. Money B. Stock Options C. Plaque D. Parking Space
  • 42.  Rites of passage – determine how individuals enter, advance within, or leave the organization  Rites of integration – build and reinforce common bonds among organizational members  Rites of enhancement – let organizations publicly recognize and reward employees’ contributions and thus strengthen their commitment to organizational values
  • 43.  Communicate organizational culture  Stories reveal behaviors that are valued by the organization  Includes how people dress, the offices they occupy, the cars they drive, and the degree of formality they use when they address one another
  • 44.  Assertive  Aggressive  Passive-aggressive  Submissive  Manipulative
  • 45. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS  Achieving goals without hurting others  Protective of own rights and respectful of others' rights  Socially and emotionally expressive  Making your own choices and taking responsibility for them  Asking directly for needs to be met, while accepting the possibility of rejection  Accepting compliments
  • 46. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR  Voice – medium pitch and speed and volume  Posture – open posture, symmetrical balance, tall, relaxed, no fidgeting  Gestures – even, rounded, expansive  Facial expression – good eye contact  Spatial position – in control, respectful of others
  • 47. LANGUAGE  "Please would you turn the volume down? I am really struggling to concentrate on my studies."  "I am so sorry, but I won't be able to help you with your project this afternoon, as I have a dentist appointment."
  • 48. PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL  They can take the person at their word  They know where they stand with the person  The person can cope with justified criticism and accept compliments  The person can look after themselves  Respect for the person
  • 49.  This style is about winning – often at someone else's expense. An aggressive person behaves as if their needs are the most important, as though they have more rights, and have more to contribute than other people. It is an ineffective communication style as the content of the message may get lost because people are too busy reacting to the way it's delivered.
  • 50. Behavioural Characteristics • Frightening, threatening, loud, hostile • Willing to achieve goals at expense of others • Out to "win" • Demanding, abrasive • Belligerent • Explosive, unpredictable • Intimidating • Bullying (Harassment)
  • 51. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR  Voice – volume is loud  Posture – 'bigger than' others  Gestures - big, fast, sharp/jerky  Facial expression – scowl, frown, glare  Spatial position - Invade others' personal space, try to stand 'over' others
  • 52. LANGUAGE  "You are crazy!"  "Do it my way!"  "You make me sick!"  "That is just about enough out of you!"  Sarcasm, name-calling, threatening, blaming, insulting.
  • 53. PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL • Defensive, aggressive (withdraw or fight back) • Uncooperative • Resentful/Vengeful • Humiliated/degraded • Hurt • Afraid • A loss of respect for the aggressive person • Mistakes and problems are not reported to an aggressive person in case they "blow up'. Others are afraid of being railroaded, exploited or humiliated.
  • 54.  This is a style in which people appear passive on the surface, but are actually acting out their anger in indirect or behind-the-scenes ways.  Prisoners of War often act in passive-aggressive ways in order to deal with an overwhelming lack of power.  People who behave in this manner usually feel powerless and resentful, and express their feelings by subtly undermining the object (real or imagined) of their resentments – even if this ends up sabotaging themselves.  The expression "Cut off your nose to spite your face" is a perfect description of passive-aggressive behaviour.
  • 55. BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS • INDIRECTLY AGGRESSIVE • SARCASTIC • DEVIOUS • UNRELIABLE • COMPLAINING • SULKY • PATRONISING • GOSSIPS • TWO-FACED - Pleasant to people to their faces, but poisonous behind their backs (rumours, sabotage etc.) People do things to actively harm the other party e.g. they sabotage a machine by loosening a bolt or put too much salt in their food.
  • 56. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR  Voice – Often speaks with a sugary sweet voice.  Posture – often asymmetrical – e.g. Standing with hand on hip, and hip thrust out (when being sarcastic or patronising)  Gestures – Can be jerky, quick  Facial expression – Often looks sweet and innocent  Spatial position – often too close, even touching other as pretends to be warm and friendly
  • 57. LANGUAGE • Passive-aggressive language is when you say something like "Why don't you go ahead and do it; my ideas aren't very good anyway" but maybe with a little sting of irony or even worse, sarcasm, such as "You always know better in any case." • "Oh don't you worry about me, I can sort myself out – like I usually have to."
  • 58. PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL  Confused  Angry  Hurt  Resentful
  • 59.  This style is about pleasing other people and avoiding conflict. A submissive person behaves as if other peoples' needs are more important, and other people have more rights and more to contribute.
  • 60. BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS  Apologetic (feel as if you are imposing when you ask for what you want)  Avoiding any confrontation  Finding difficulty in taking responsibility or decisions  Yielding to someone else's preferences (and discounting own rights and needs)  Opting out  Feeling like a victim  Blaming others for events  Refusing compliments  Inexpressive (of feelings and desires)
  • 61. NON-VERBAL BEHAVIOUR  Voice – Volume is soft  Posture – make themselves as small as possible, head down  Gestures – twist and fidget  Facial expression – no eye contact  Spatial position – make themselves smaller/lower than others  Submissive behaviour is marked by a martyr-like attitude (victim mentality) and a refusal to try out initiatives, which might improve things.
  • 62. LANGUAGE  "Oh, it's nothing, really."  "Oh, that's all right; I didn't want it anymore."  "You choose; anything is fine."
  • 63. PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL  Exasperated  Frustrated  Guilty  You don't know what you want (and so discount you)  They can take advantage of you.  Others resent the low energy surrounding the submissive person and eventually give up trying to help them because their efforts are subtly or overtly rejected.
  • 64.  This style is scheming, calculating and shrewd. Manipulative communicators are skilled at influencing or controlling others to their own advantage. Their spoken words hide an underlying message, of which the other person may be totally unaware.
  • 65. BEHAVIOURAL CHARACTERISTICS  Cunning  Controlling of others in an insidious way – for example, by sulking  Asking indirectly for needs to be met  Making others feel obliged or sorry for them.  Uses 'artificial' tears
  • 66.  Non-Verbal Behaviour  Voice – patronising, envious, ingratiating, often high pitch  Facial expression – Can put on the 'hang dog" expression
  • 67. LANGUAGE  "You are so lucky to have those chocolates, I wish I had some. I can't afford such expensive chocolates."  "I didn't have time to buy anything, so I had to wear this dress. I just hope I don't look too awful in it." ('Fishing' for a compliment).
  • 68. PEOPLE ON THE RECEIVING END FEEL • Guilty • Frustrated • Angry, irritated or annoyed • Resentful • Others feel they never know where they stand with a manipulative person and are annoyed at constantly having to try to work out what is going on.
  • 69.  It will also help you recognize when you are not being assertive or not behaving in the most effective way.  always have a choice as to which communication style you use. Being assertive is usually the most effective, but other styles are, of course, necessary in certain situations – such as being submissive when under physical threat (a mugging, hijacking etc.).
  • 70.  Good communication skills require a high level of self-awareness. Once you understand your own communication style, it is much easier to identify any shortcomings or areas which can be improved on, if you want to start communicating in a more assertive manner.
  • 71.  If you're serious about strengthening your relationships, reducing stress from conflict and decreasing unnecessary anxiety in your life, practice being more assertive.  It will help you diffuse anger, reduce guilt and build better relationships both personally and professionally.
  • 72.  (1) status differences,  (2) gender differences,  (3) cultural differences,  (4) prejudices,  (5) the organizational environment.  (6) language  (7) physical seperation
  • 73.  SEMANTIC BARRIERS  PSYCHOLOGICAL OR EMOTIONAL BARRIERS  ORGANISATIONAL BARRIERS  PERSONAL BARRIERS
  • 74. There is always a possibility of misunderstanding the feelings of the sender of the message or getting a wrong meaning of it. The words, signs, and figures used in the communication are explained by the receiver in the light of his experience which creates doubtful situations. This happens because the information is not sent in simple language. Badly Expressed Message Symbols or Words with Different Meanings Faulty Translation Unqualified Assumptions Technical Jargon Body Language and Gesture Decoding
  • 75.  The importance of communication depends on the mental condition of both the parties. A mentally disturbed party can be a hindrance in communication. Following are the emotional barriers in the way of communication: Premature Evaluation Lack of Attention Loss by Transmission and Poor Retention Distrust
  • 76. • Organisational structure greatly affects the capability of the employees as far as the communication is concerned. Some major organizational hindrances in the way of communication are the following: Organisational Policies Rules and Regulations Status Complexity in Organisational Structure Organisational Facilities
  • 77.  The above-mentioned organizational barriers are important in themselves but there are some barriers which are directly connected with the sender and the receiver. They are called personal barriers. From the point of view of convenience, they have been divided into two parts:  Barriers Related to Superiors: These barriers are as follows  Fear of Challenge of Authority  Lack of Confidence in Subordinates  Barriers Related to Subordinates: Subordinates-related barriers are the following:  Unwillingness to Communicate:  Lack of Proper Incentive:
  • 78.  Physical separation gateways ◦ Periodic face-to-face interactions ◦ Regular meetings for interrelated units  Status differences gateways ◦ Effective supervisory skills ◦ Feelings of security for employees ◦ Informational technology communication methods Communication Gateways – ffactors that are antidotes to communication problems
  • 79. GENDER DIFFERENCES GATEWAYS ◦ Awareness of gender-specific differences in communication CULTURAL DIVERSITY GATEWAYS ◦ Increased awareness and sensitivity LANGUAGE GATEWAYS ◦ Simple, direct, declarative language ◦ Use brief sentences ◦ Speak in the language of the listener ◦ Avoid jargon or technical language
  • 80.  Plan the message  Use Proper language  Don’t be evaluative  Give proper Orientation  Be an active listener  Have an unbiased attitude  Respond don't re-act  Promote congruence  Use the grapevine  Transmit the message in Installments  Provide feedback  Overcome bypassing  Maintain semantic accuracy  Add some eloquence  Improve the ambience  Use proper etiquette  Watch your language

Editor's Notes

  1. Terminal Values A personal conviction about life-long goals A sense of accomplishment, equality, and self-respect. Instrumental Values A personal conviction about desired modes of conduct or ways of behaving Being hard-working, broadminded, capable.
  2. A manager’s mood affects their treatment of others and how others respond to them. Subordinates perform better and relate better to managers who are in a positive mood. Current situations and a person's basic outlook affect a person’s current mood.
  3. Some examples are promotions, recognition awards, and service awards (time with the company). Students may discuss personal experience and the type of award they would most appreciate – gift cards, money, stock options, plaques, parking space, etc.