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Goca Matović


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Marketing strategy and market research

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Goca Matović

  2. 2. <ul><li>Program of the week-day by day: </li></ul><ul><li>Monday : Marketing strategy and marketing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Tuesday : M arketing strategy and business plan </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday : M arket research </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday : M arketing mix: definition and creation </li></ul><ul><li>Friday : M arketing management and marketing plan </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Programme for Monday </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda – topic of the day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing strategy: definition, form, content, different types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective of the day: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To learn how to d efine marketing strategy: segmentation, differentiation and positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To learn how to c onduct SWOT, PEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working hours 16:00 – 20:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual counselling 20:00 – 21:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexion form </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Is Marketing = Sale? </li></ul><ul><li>Is Marketing = Promotion? </li></ul><ul><li>NO!!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>MARKETING is: </li></ul><ul><li>having the right product </li></ul><ul><li>on the right place </li></ul><ul><li>in the right time </li></ul><ul><li>... satisf ying consumers needs, in relation to competition, with accomplishing business profitability. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Company orientations in relation to market </li></ul><ul><li>Production concept </li></ul><ul><li>Selling concept </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing concept </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Market s egmenta tion ... </li></ul><ul><li>... is p roces s of market partition on particular parts or groups according to mutual criterions, with aim to identify target groups . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Market s egment s : <ul><li>Market s egment s </li></ul><ul><li>Business market segments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>.... </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Steps : </li></ul><ul><li>Market segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>1. Identify basis for segmenting market </li></ul><ul><li>2. Develop segment profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Market Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>3. Develop measure of segment attractiveness </li></ul><ul><li>4. Select target segment s </li></ul><ul><li>Market positioning </li></ul><ul><li>5. Develop positioning for target segment </li></ul><ul><li>6. Develop marketing mix for each segment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Geografical segmentation <ul><li>World, region or country </li></ul><ul><li>City </li></ul><ul><li>Density of climate </li></ul>
  11. 11. Demographical segmentation <ul><li>Dividing the market into groups based on variables such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family size or life cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nacionality </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Psychografic segmentation <ul><li>Divides customers into groups depending on: </li></ul><ul><li>Social class </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Personality </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Behavior segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Divideng the market into groups based on variable such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Occasions </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>User status </li></ul><ul><li>User rate </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty status </li></ul><ul><li>Readiness stage </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude toward product </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Targeting </li></ul><ul><li>First step – segmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Second step – targeting </li></ul><ul><li>M ass marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiated marketing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrated m arketing </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Mass Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>same product to all consumers </li></ul><ul><li>(no segmentation, i.e. Coca Cola) </li></ul><ul><li>Segment marketing </li></ul><ul><li>different products to one or more segments </li></ul><ul><li>(some segmentation, i.e. Marriot) </li></ul><ul><li>Niche marketing </li></ul><ul><li>different products to subgroups within segments </li></ul><ul><li>(more segmentation, i.e. Standard or Luxury car) </li></ul><ul><li>Micro marketing </li></ul><ul><li>products to suit the tastes of individuals and locations </li></ul><ul><li>(complete segmentation) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Dif f erentiation through: </li></ul><ul><li>Produ c t </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul><ul><li>Image </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Positioning Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>… the way the product is defined by potential consumers - the place the product occupies in consumers minds relative to competi tion </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Choosing a positioning strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Identify list of your competitive advantage s </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Select right competitive advantage of your products/services </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Comunicat e with the market and present the position of your company </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Making positioning strategy </li></ul><ul><li>depends on market conditions, on position of competition </li></ul><ul><li>“ me too” </li></ul><ul><li>“ far away of competition ” </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Identifying competitive advantages... </li></ul><ul><li>Key to winning and keeping customers is to unders t and their need s better than competit ion. </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive advantage is an advantage over competitors gained by offering consumers greater value, either through lower prices or by providing more benefits. </li></ul>
  21. 21. More competitive advantages... Product diferentiation i.e: features, performance, Style, design, attributes Services differentiation i.e: Delivery, instalation, repair services, customer training services Image differentiation i.e: symbols, atmospheres, events Personel diferentiation i.e: hiring, training better people than competitiors do
  22. 22. <ul><li>Exercise: Segmenting Your market! </li></ul><ul><li>Time: 60 min </li></ul><ul><li>15 min . – preparing </li></ul><ul><li>10 min . – for presenting of each group </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Break/networking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18:00-18:20 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Marketing environment and competitor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>PEST analysis </li></ul><ul><li>SWOT analysis </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>PEST analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Political factors </li></ul><ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Technological factors </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Political/legal </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental protection laws </li></ul><ul><li>Taxation policy </li></ul><ul><li>Employment laws </li></ul><ul><li>Government policy </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Economic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Disposable income </li></ul><ul><li>Business cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Energy availability and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Socio-cultural factors </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Social mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Lifestyle changes </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of education </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Te c hnological factors </li></ul><ul><li>New discoveries and innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of technology transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of obsolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Information technology </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>SWOT analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Strengths (internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Weaknesses (internal) </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities (external) </li></ul><ul><li>Threats (external) </li></ul>
  31. 31.
  32. 32. <ul><li>S trengths : </li></ul><ul><li>experience in production </li></ul><ul><li>wide as s ortm ent of products </li></ul><ul><li>high level of capacity utilization </li></ul><ul><li>high quality of product </li></ul><ul><li>quality services </li></ul><ul><li>location </li></ul><ul><li>qualified management team </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>Weaknesses : </li></ul><ul><li>hang-over technology </li></ul><ul><li>small production capacity </li></ul><ul><li>high costs of human resources </li></ul><ul><li>uncompetitive product </li></ul><ul><li>poor design and packaging </li></ul><ul><li>poor quality system </li></ul><ul><li>location </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Opportunities : </li></ul><ul><li>revival of economy activities </li></ul><ul><li>regulations modifications </li></ul><ul><li>tendency of consuming product growth </li></ul><ul><li>market development – via internet </li></ul><ul><li>bigger purchasing power of population </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Threats : </li></ul><ul><li>new competitor on domestic market </li></ul><ul><li>price war with competitors </li></ul><ul><li>competition has new product/service </li></ul><ul><li>new technology development </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Exercise: SWOT analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Time: 50 min . </li></ul><ul><li>10 min . – preparing </li></ul><ul><li>10 min . – for presenting each group </li></ul>
  37. 37. Thanks for your attention <ul><li>Final remarks </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to speak on your own business idea: 20:00 hours is the time (max 21:00 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow’s theme is Marketing strategy and business plan </li></ul><ul><li>See you tomorrow 16:00 hours </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Program me of the week-day by day: </li></ul><ul><li>Monday : Marketing strategy and marketing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Tuesday : M arketing strategy and business plan </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday : M arket research </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday : M arketing mix: definition and creation </li></ul><ul><li>Friday : M arketing management </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Programme for W ednesd ay </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda – topic of the day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective of the day: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1) To understand the importance of market research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) To learn how to conduct market research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working hours 16:00 – 20:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual counselling 20:00 – 21:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexion form </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Market research <ul><li>Market research is process of gathering and analyzing information about customers, competitors and market , in order to develop best possible product/service for customers. </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Research help You determine : </li></ul><ul><li>Target market </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Sales projections </li></ul><ul><li>Demanded product and service </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Credit policy </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>The purpose of market reseach is to help companies make better business decisions about the development and marketing of new products. </li></ul><ul><li>Market research represents the voice of the consumer in a company </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>A list of questions that can be answered through market research: </li></ul><ul><li>What is happening in the market? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the trends? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the competitors? </li></ul><ul><li>How do consumers talk about the products in the market? </li></ul><ul><li>Which needs are important? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the needs beign met by current products? </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Types of market research: </li></ul><ul><li>Primary research (collecting original data) </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary research (using already made research) </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Primary research </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal in-dept interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projective techniques </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>Where to f i nd information? </li></ul><ul><li>Republic Statistical office </li></ul><ul><li>Government of Republic of Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Chamber of Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>Computer databases </li></ul><ul><li>Trade associations </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>Lack in secondary research </li></ul><ul><li>Expired information </li></ul><ul><li>Questionable data </li></ul><ul><li>Data is rarely available in requested form </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Research instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-ended questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close-ended questions (yes/no) </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>The Market research process </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the problem and research objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Developing the research plan for collecting information </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing the research plan and analyzing the data </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting and reporting the findings </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Defining the problem and research objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory research (gathers preliminary information that will help define the problem) </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive research (describe things as marke t potential, consumer attitudes etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Casual research (cause and effect relationships) </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>2. Developing research plan </li></ul><ul><li>Research plan development follows these steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Determining specific information needs </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering secondary information </li></ul><ul><li>Planning primary data collection </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Planing primary data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Preparing sampling plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choise a data Collection Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephon research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail research </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Personal interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to get and hold attention > more questions can be asked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits question clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be supplemented by personal observation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical and administrative planning and supervision needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May allow interviewer bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May allow respondent bias </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Surveying by telephone </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits question clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be cheaper than mail, if restricted to local area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted to telephone owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be short and not too personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May allow interviewer bias </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Direct mail </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No interviewers bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economical for large geographic area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondent anonymous > more truthful responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require simple and clearly worded questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Return rate low and/or slow (can introduce a bias) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need good and up-to-date mailing list </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>3. Implementing the research plan </li></ul>COLLECTING THE DATA PROCESSING THE DATA ANALYZING THE DATA RESEARCH
  58. 58. <ul><li>Collect data </li></ul><ul><li>Questionary should consist: </li></ul><ul><li>Demografic information (age, gender , occupation, income range, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation that the respondent uses the product /services you are testing </li></ul><ul><li>Which brand is used </li></ul><ul><li>How often brands are used </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of different brand images </li></ul><ul><li>Purchase intent ion on a five-point scale ( definitely, maybe, indifferent, maybe not, definitely not) </li></ul><ul><li>What c ould be done to change existing product </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>When you prepare questionary: </li></ul><ul><li>be short </li></ul><ul><li>be careful if you ask about personal information </li></ul><ul><li>use close -ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>use standard language </li></ul><ul><li>do not use negativ e questions </li></ul><ul><li>do not ask more than one question in the same time </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Survey Questions and Answer Tipes </li></ul><ul><li>a) The Dishotomous question (Yes/No) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever purchased a product or service from our web-site? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Survey Questions and Answer Tipes </li></ul><ul><li>b) Multiple choi c e questions </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>How did you hear about our web site? </li></ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>Word of the mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Other (p lease specify ) .................... </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Survey Questions and Answer Tipes </li></ul><ul><li>c) Rank Order Scaling </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Based upon what you have seen and experienced, please rank the following brands according to their reliability. Place “1” next to the brand that is most reliable, and so on. Remember no two cars can have same ranking. </li></ul><ul><li>_ Honda </li></ul><ul><li>_ Toyota </li></ul><ul><li>_ Mazda </li></ul><ul><li>_ Ford </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Survey Questions and Answer Tipes </li></ul><ul><li>d) The Rating scale </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Which of the following categories best describe your last experience purchasing a product or service on our website? Would you say that your experience was: </li></ul><ul><li>Very pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Neither pleasant nor unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Very unpleasant </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>4. Interpreting/reporting the findings </li></ul>STEP 1. INTERPRET THE FINDINGS STEP 2. DRAW CONCLUSIONS STEP 3. REPORT TO MANAGEMENT
  65. 65.
  66. 66.
  67. 67. <ul><li>Write a Research Report </li></ul><ul><li>Keep reports short and precize, that is use the concept: </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis-analyses-results </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>H: Most probably, customers know your brand </li></ul><ul><li>A: A questionary was submitted to 100 people at the shoping centre xx </li></ul><ul><li>R: 45% knew our brand </li></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>Break/networking </li></ul><ul><li>18:00-18:20 </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>Exercise: Role playing </li></ul><ul><li>Research your colleges and describe what th e y like/dislike </li></ul><ul><li>Time: 50 min . </li></ul><ul><li>20 min. – Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>20 min. – Presentation </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>Exer c i s e: </li></ul><ul><li>Research Serbian market in the field of manufacturing .................. </li></ul><ul><li>Time: 50 min . </li></ul><ul><li>15 min . for preparing </li></ul><ul><li>8 min . for each group for presenting </li></ul>
  71. 71. Thanks for your attention <ul><li>Final remarks </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow’s theme is Marketing mix </li></ul><ul><li>See you tomorrow at 16:00 h </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Program of the week-day by day: </li></ul><ul><li>Monday : Marketing strategy and marketing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Tuesday : Marketing strategy and business plan </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday : Market research </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday : Marketing mix: definition and creation </li></ul><ul><li>Friday : Marketing management </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>Programme for Thursday </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda – topic of the day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Marketing mix : definition and creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective of the day: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide basic understanding how to create appropriate marketing mix according to marketing strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To set up right price, place and promotion for selected segments/niches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working hours 16:00 – 20:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual counselling 20:00 – 21:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexion form </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. <ul><li>The Marketing mix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the mix of controllable variables that the firm uses to reach desired sales level in target market, including price, product , place and promotion – 4P`s </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76.
  77. 77. <ul><li>4 P`s ... </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>+3P </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff selection, motivation ,training and customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical evidence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The decor and ambience are very much part of the product offer – as are costumer testimonials and celebrity endorsement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The efficiency of the process is what provides benefits for the costumer. It could be measured in many ways, for example by surveying the buyers </li></ul></ul>
  79. 79. Marketing mix – Product <ul><li>Product life cycle </li></ul>
  80. 80. Summary of Product Life Cycle Strategies Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Strategies Product Offer a basic product Offer product extensions, services, warranty Diversity brands and items Phase out weak models Price Charge cost-plus Price to penetrate market Price to match or best competitors Cut price Distribution Build selective distribution Build intensive distribution Build more intensive distribution Go selective phase out unprofitable outlets Advertising Build product awareness among early adopters and dealers Build awareness and interest in the mass market Stress brand differences and benefits Reduce to level needed to retain hard-core loyals Sales Promotions Use heavy sales promotion to entice trial Reduce to take advantage of heavy consumer demand Increase to encourage brand switching Reduce to minimal level
  81. 81. Marketing strategy development Business analysis Product development Market testing Commercialization Concept development and testing Idea screening Idea generating New product development process
  82. 82. <ul><li>Reasons for new product failure </li></ul><ul><li>failing to offer a unique benefit </li></ul><ul><li>underestimating the competition </li></ul><ul><li>product design not as good as it could be </li></ul><ul><li>product development costs are higher than expected </li></ul><ul><li>slow or poor timing in product introduction </li></ul>
  83. 83. Marketing mix – Product <ul><li>Tree levels of the Product </li></ul>
  84. 84. Marketing mix – PRICE <ul><li>Price is the sum of all the values that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service. </li></ul><ul><li>Price is sometimes the major factor affecting buyer choice; </li></ul><ul><li>Price is the only element in the marketing mix that produces revenues ; all others represent costs. </li></ul>
  85. 85. <ul><li>What is the right price? </li></ul><ul><li>Right for You </li></ul><ul><li>Right for Your customer </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>Right price for customers </li></ul><ul><li>Your customers will maybe be ready to pay only very low price, and you wont be able to make profit </li></ul><ul><li>That could be right price for customer, but is it for You too? </li></ul>
  87. 87. <ul><li>Right price for You </li></ul><ul><li>How big profit you want? </li></ul><ul><li>How much sales you can make? </li></ul><ul><li>How fast you want to grow? </li></ul><ul><li>What part of the market you want to take over? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of quality picture you want to project? </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>Right price for You and customers </li></ul><ul><li>2 basic points for observation: </li></ul><ul><li>DEMAND – what customers are ready to pay </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES – what YOU want to achieve with your business </li></ul>
  89. 89. <ul><li>How important is to form the right price? </li></ul><ul><li>Small price change could make big change in profit </li></ul><ul><li>It is IMPORTANT to form the right price! </li></ul>
  90. 90. <ul><li>Factors affecting pricing decision </li></ul>Internal factors: 1. Marketing objectives 2. Marketing mix strategy 3. Costs External factors: 1. Nature of the market and demand 2. Competition 3. Other factors (governemnt regulation) Pricing decision
  91. 91. <ul><li>Internal factors Affecting Pricing Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Company must decide on its strategy for the product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Objectives: Survival, curent profit maximization, market share leadership, and product quality leadership. </li></ul></ul>
  92. 92. <ul><li>Internal factors Affecting Pricing Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Costs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs that do not vary with production or sales level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Varible cost: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs that vary directly with the level of production </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. <ul><li>External factors Affecting Pricing Decision </li></ul><ul><li>The market and demand: </li></ul><ul><li>Costs set the lower limit of prices </li></ul><ul><li>The market and demands set the upper limit </li></ul>
  94. 94. <ul><li>External factors Affecting Pricing Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Competition: </li></ul><ul><li>Direct competitor price </li></ul><ul><li>More than competitor </li></ul><ul><li>Less than competitor </li></ul>
  95. 95. <ul><li>External factors Affecting Pricing Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Other External Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Economic condition (affect production costs) </li></ul><ul><li>Government may restrict or limit pricing options </li></ul>
  96. 96. <ul><li>Cost-plus pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Adding a standard markup to the cost of the product </li></ul><ul><li>Popular because: </li></ul><ul><li>Sellers more certain about cost than demand </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifies pricing </li></ul><ul><li>When all sellers use, prices are similar and </li></ul><ul><li>c ompetition is minimized </li></ul><ul><li>- Some feel it is more fair to both buyers and sellers </li></ul>
  97. 97. <ul><li>Value-based pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Uses buyers perceprtion of value , not the product cost, as the key to pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring perceived value can be difficult </li></ul>
  98. 98. Product Cost Price Value Customer Customer Value Price Cost Product Cost-Based and Value-Based Pricing Cost- based pricing Value-based pricing
  99. 99. <ul><li>Mark-ups and Mark-up chain </li></ul><ul><li>Mark-up per cent is the percentage of the selling price that is added to the cost to get the selling price </li></ul><ul><li>Products may be marked up several times through the distribution channels </li></ul><ul><li>High mark-ups do not always mean high profits </li></ul>
  100. 100. <ul><li>Discount policies </li></ul>Cash Quantity Funcional Seasonal
  101. 101. <ul><li>Pricing strategies </li></ul>
  102. 102. Marketing mix - PLACE /C HANELL <ul><li>Make your product/service available to target market for purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>Channel of distribution </li></ul><ul><li>All in chain – from producer to final user or buyer </li></ul>
  103. 103. <ul><li>Types of Channel Intermediares: </li></ul>Vertical marketing channel Manufacturer Retailer Conventional marketing channel Manufacturer Wholesaler Consumer Consumer Retailer Wholesaler
  104. 104. <ul><li>Marketing mix - PROMOTION </li></ul><ul><li>How you could say to customers about your product/service? </li></ul>
  105. 105. Overview of Eight Steps to Effective Communication <ul><li>Identify target audience </li></ul><ul><li>Determine objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Design the message </li></ul><ul><li>Select communication channels </li></ul><ul><li>Establish communications budget </li></ul><ul><li>Develop communications mix </li></ul><ul><li>Measure results </li></ul><ul><li>Effectively manage the process </li></ul>
  106. 106. <ul><li>PROMOT ION MIX (sinerg y ) </li></ul>Marketing communication Sale promotion Advertising Public Relations E-marketing Direct Marketing Gerilla Marketing Publicity Personal sale
  107. 107. <ul><li>Identifying Target Audience </li></ul>Specific publics Potential buyers General public Current users Deciders and influencers
  108. 108. <ul><li>Buyers pass through these stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive stage (think) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective stage (like) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior stage (do) </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. <ul><li>Designing the Message </li></ul>ction nterest esire ttention
  110. 110. <ul><li>All products have 2 characteristics : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ feature” – what it is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ benefit” – what is offered to buyer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>People buy BENEFIT not CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><li>Sell BENEFIT </li></ul>
  111. 111. <ul><li>Advertising media </li></ul><ul><li>newspapers </li></ul><ul><li>television </li></ul><ul><li>direct mail </li></ul><ul><li>radio </li></ul><ul><li>magazines </li></ul>
  112. 112. <ul><li>The Five Ms of Advertising </li></ul>Mission Money Message Media Measurement
  113. 113. O ther forms of advertising <ul><li>Office material : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B usiness cards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invoices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Envelopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memo s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logo </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Business gifts </li></ul><ul><li>Work uniforms </li></ul><ul><li>Pa ckaging </li></ul><ul><li>Movable adverts </li></ul>
  114. 114. <ul><li>Personal Communication Channels </li></ul><ul><li>Identify influential people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and cater to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use influential people in testimonials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establish electronic forum </li></ul><ul><li>Develop referral channels </li></ul>
  115. 115. <ul><li>Marketing Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Some common methods of budgeting are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentage of sales (expected sales) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives and tasks </li></ul></ul>
  116. 116. <ul><li>Measuring and Monitoring Results </li></ul><ul><li>What are some ways to measure the impact of marketing communication? </li></ul><ul><li>For what measuring should be used? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyses and perception of business activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence on positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs justification </li></ul></ul>
  117. 117. <ul><li>Break/networking </li></ul><ul><li>18:00-18:20 </li></ul>
  118. 118. <ul><li>Exerci s e: </li></ul><ul><li>Creating marketing mix by groups! </li></ul><ul><li>Time: 18:20 – 19:00 </li></ul>
  119. 119. <ul><li>Guest speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Panell discussion about media plan </li></ul><ul><li>19:00 - 19:50 </li></ul>
  120. 120. Thanks for your attention <ul><li>Final remarks </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to speak on your own business idea: 20:00h is the time (max. 21:00h) </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow’s theme is Marketing Management </li></ul><ul><li>See you tomorrow at 16:00h </li></ul>
  122. 122. <ul><li>Program me of the week - day by day: </li></ul><ul><li>Monday : Marketing strategy and marketing environment </li></ul><ul><li>Tuesday : Marketing strategy and business plan </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday : Market research </li></ul><ul><li>Thursday : Marketing mix: definition and creation </li></ul><ul><li>Friday : Marketing management </li></ul>
  123. 123. <ul><li>Programme for Friday </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda – topic of the day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective of the day: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.To learn about marketing management importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 To learn how to set up contro l process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.To learn how to prepar e marketing plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working hours 16:00 – 20:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual counselling 20:00 – 21:00 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflexion form </li></ul></ul>
  124. 124. <ul><li>Marketing management process </li></ul>Market planning Set objectives Evaluate opportunities Plan marketing strategies Develop marketing plans Develop marketing program Control marketing plans and programs Measure results Evaluate progress Implement marketing plans and programs
  125. 125. <ul><li>Marketing mix planning </li></ul><ul><li>Why is the 4 P s idea helpful? </li></ul><ul><li>provides an organizing framework </li></ul><ul><li>helps to bring many, more detailed decisions together in a logical fashion </li></ul><ul><li>focuses thinking on the idea that ALL marketing decisions must work together as a whole </li></ul>
  126. 126. <ul><li>The Marketing plan </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing plan: a written statement of a marketing strategy and the time-related details for carrying out the strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Spells out, in detail: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What marketing mix is offered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what target market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For how long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What resources (costs) are needed and at what rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What results are expected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What control procedures will be used </li></ul></ul>
  127. 127. <ul><li>Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Product market </li></ul><ul><li>Customer analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Competitor analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of their aspects of external enviro n ment </li></ul><ul><li>Company analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing information requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Product strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Place strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Price strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation problems to be overcome </li></ul><ul><li>Forecast and estimates </li></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul>The marketing plan includes…
  128. 128. <ul><li>Marketing management </li></ul><ul><li> Setting goals </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting </li></ul>Implementing Controlling Planning
  129. 129. <ul><li>Controlling the marketing plan </li></ul><ul><li>Find out WHAT happened </li></ul><ul><li>Find out WHY it happened </li></ul><ul><li>Decide WHAT to do about it </li></ul>
  130. 130. <ul><li>The Marketing Control Proces </li></ul>
  131. 131. <ul><li>There are many approach to control: </li></ul><ul><li>Market share analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Sales analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Quality controls </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing research </li></ul><ul><li>C u st o mers satisfaction </li></ul>
  132. 132. <ul><li>There are many approach to control: </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Relationship Management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cash flow statements </li></ul><ul><li>Distributor support </li></ul><ul><li>Performance of any promotional activities </li></ul><ul><li>Market reaction /acceptance to pricing policy </li></ul>
  133. 133. <ul><li>Types of reports </li></ul><ul><li>To aspect of time : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monthly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on three months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on six months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>annual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To aspect of income level : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>intern al </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>external </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To aspect of decision importance : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tactical moves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>strategic moves </li></ul></ul>
  134. 134. <ul><li>N ever : </li></ul><ul><li>Assume what customer wants </li></ul><ul><li>Ignor e the competition </li></ul><ul><li>Try to be competitive only with prices </li></ul><ul><li>Rely on small group of customers </li></ul><ul><li>Try to grow too fast </li></ul><ul><li>Become satisfied with what You offer and never ignore innovation of Your product/service </li></ul>
  135. 135. <ul><li>Break/networking </li></ul><ul><li>18:00-18:20 </li></ul>
  136. 136. <ul><li>Exer c i s e: MARKETING PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>Time: </li></ul><ul><li>Completion: 40 min . </li></ul><ul><li>Present ation : 50 min . (12 min . for each group) </li></ul>
  137. 137. <ul><li>End of Module </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Reflexion form and action plan </li></ul><ul><li>Complete evaluation form </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to speak on your own business idea: 20:00 hours is the time (max. 21:00 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability for questions - gmkonsalting @ </li></ul><ul><li>Good luck with your company </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks! </li></ul>