Blended intro

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  • Courses with a carefully planned blend of traditional classroom instruction and online learning
  • Traditional classrooms struggle often with Limited opportunities for students to use the target language Limited access to authentic materials Limited input from a variety of sources Integration of language, literature, and culture
  • More language focus in upper-level class Self-evaluations gave students an active role in shaping the course Integration of online components in face-to-face instruction
  • More language focus in upper-level class Self-evaluations gave students an active role in shaping the course Integration of online components in face-to-face instruction
  • Blended intro

    1. 1. Introduction to Blended/Online Learning Angelika Kraemer & Scott Schopieray CLEAR Summer 2010 Workshop
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Rationale for blended instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages, disadvantages, and challenges of blended instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Best practices </li></ul>
    3. 3. Definitions: Blended/Hybrid Education <ul><li>Combining the best of F2F and online learning </li></ul>Sloan-C, 2005
    4. 4. Definitions: Common Terms <ul><li>CALL: Computer-Assisted Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>CMC: Computer-Mediated Communication </li></ul><ul><li>CMS: Course Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 </li></ul>
    5. 5. CALL <ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Extension of class time </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Democratization of participation </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing grading load </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing communication </li></ul><ul><li>Using Generation Web 2.0’s language </li></ul><ul><li>Computer access </li></ul><ul><li>Computer literacy </li></ul><ul><li>Outdated quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment failure </li></ul>Benefits and Challenges CALICO
    6. 6. CMC <ul><li>Communicating via the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronous: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video/voice/text chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual reality ( Second Life ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email/voice mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forums/message boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walls ( MySpace , Facebook ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research Report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvement in language development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learner-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More on task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More target language use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More equal participation </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Benefits of CMC <ul><li>CMC provides </li></ul><ul><li>opportunities for target language use </li></ul><ul><li>a voice to those who do not have one (shyer students) </li></ul><ul><li>a great range of language functions through discourse </li></ul><ul><li>CMC increases </li></ul><ul><li>language productivity and output </li></ul><ul><li>interactive discourse </li></ul><ul><li>willingness to discuss topics openly and honestly </li></ul><ul><li>student motivation </li></ul><ul><li>CMC improves </li></ul><ul><li>reading comprehension and writing ability </li></ul><ul><li>attitude toward language learning in general and cultures </li></ul><ul><li>language development </li></ul><ul><li>CMC decreases </li></ul><ul><li>teacher dominance </li></ul><ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>CMC does not hinder oral proficiency development </li></ul>
    8. 8. CMS <ul><li>Course web sites to manage instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MSU: Angel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other commercial CMS: WebCT, Blackboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free: Nicenet , Wikispaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CMC (chat, discussion board, email) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class roster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grade book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Announcements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance keeper/Activity log </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesson folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online assignments/Tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual office hours </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Web 2.0 <ul><li>Web 2.0: </li></ul><ul><li>Term coined by O’Reilly in 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Signifies web applications that increase user participation, collaboration, interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Entails social networking technologies such as blogs, wikis, and YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Web 1.0: </li></ul><ul><li>Applications such as Email, discussion forums, chat rooms, and instant messaging </li></ul><ul><li>The main difference between Web 1.0 and 2.0 lies in the extent of collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Web 3.0 : </li></ul><ul><li>Immersive environments and virtual realities such as Second Life </li></ul>
    10. 10. Rationale for Blended Instruction <ul><li>Issues in the language classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of language skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classroom practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increase in FL enrollment (Furman, Goldberg, & Lusin, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in blended liberal arts courses (SLOAN-C, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Offer flexibility to students and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Might work better for some </li></ul><ul><li>Desired language/form focus missing in upper division content courses (Polio & Zyzik, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent acquisition of technology skills </li></ul>
    11. 11. Your Experience <ul><li>How have you used technology for your teaching? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What has worked for you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What has not worked for you? </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Advantages of Blended Instruction <ul><li>Flexibility in time & space (Chenoweth, 2006; Goertler & Winke, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost saving – depending on structure (Sanders, 2005; Scida & Saury, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Access to non-traditional students (Chenoweth, 2006; Scida & Saury, 2006; Strambi & Bouvet, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Enrollment increase (Sanders, 2005; Scida & Saury, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing class size (Sanders, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing course offerings: more sections & LCTLs across institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Similar language learning outcomes (Chenoweth et al, 2006; Sanders, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>More time spend with materials (Sanders, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reviews from students (Kraemer, 2008; Strambi & Bouvet, 2003) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Disadvantages of Blended Instruction <ul><li>Oral and written proficiency may suffer (Sanders, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Lower motivation (Chenoweth et al., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Online format not successful with less computer literate students (Scida & Saury, 2006) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Challenges in Blended Instruction <ul><li>Technology failure (Chenoweth et al., 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Buy-in from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students (Goertler et al., under review; Winke & Goertler, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers (Arnold, 2007; Goertler & Uzum, under review; Goertler & Winke, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myths about technology use (Blake, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of normalization (Chambers & Bax, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher preparation (Kessler, 2006, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Student computer literacy and access (Barrette, 2001; Winke & Goertler, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Time commitment: Up to 500% increase (Web-based Education Commission, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of rewards </li></ul><ul><li>High start-up and development costs </li></ul>
    15. 15. Best Practices <ul><li>Blended format is effective </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered format supports the integration of academic content and linguistic skills online and in class </li></ul><ul><li>Students spend more time on task </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative and authentic </li></ul><ul><li>Positive influence on student engagement, collaboration, responsibility, and classroom atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Increases in fluency, confidence, and motivation </li></ul>
    16. 16. Best Practices <ul><li>Instructor involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of online components in face-to-face instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online assignments should enhance learning experience and not be busy work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transparency of functionality, purpose, grading criteria, and due dates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous training and feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation of different assignment types to address students’ differing needs </li></ul>

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