Hoven Cnie 08

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Hoven Cnie 08

  1. 1. Learning innovation and the individual-community nexus: Intercultural applicability of social networking tools in open and distance education CNIE Reaching new heights: Learning innovation Banff, April 27-30 2008
  2. 2. Previously … <ul><li>Community formation … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Across semesters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From novice to expert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From receiver to reflector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From learner to practitioner to mentor </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Experiences of pedagogy <ul><li>Experiential learning </li></ul><ul><li>Task/project-based learning </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community of mutually-supportive reflective inquirers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extended community of experts-novices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community of learner-practitioners </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Social constructivism & teacher change <ul><li>Self-reflection on beliefs & values </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to choice </li></ul><ul><li>Experience of affordances </li></ul><ul><li>Consciousness of conflict/dysjuncture </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to modelling of effective uses of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Experience & practice in a range of applications </li></ul><ul><li>facilitating change in attitudes/beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>(Richardson & Placier, 2001; King, 2002; Bird & Rosaen, 2005; Brook & Oliver, 2005; Hughes, 2005) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Attitudes towards technology & effective use of it <ul><li>entwined with teacher learning, comprising: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subject matter knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pedagogical knowledge, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pedagogical content knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In other words … </li></ul><ul><li>teachers will only embrace change and innovation when they can see positive benefits in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct relevance to their content area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usefulness from a practical task perspective, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased effectiveness for their day to day classroom teaching. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Hughes, 2005) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Tools used <ul><li>Webquests using SDSU portal <http://www.webquest.org/> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreamweaver + online media & resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hot Potatoes + various other online templating tools + media </li></ul><ul><li>Social communication/networking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki – MediaWiki hosted on university server (www-viewable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual blogs – Blogger (www-viewable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Portfolios </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Expectations vs Use of SN Tools 1 .../2 <ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for internal-remote collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>easily accessible from everywhere (where my students were located) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ownership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reflective space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flexible (& re-purpose-able) space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extensible outside timelines of course </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experimenting with the interface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Group organization: sharing & collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hints & tips (Q & A, quick fixes) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interesting articles/sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posting projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>self-reflection </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>peer evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mutual support & feedback </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community formation & maintenance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Among members of single cohort </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Across continents & oceans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Across semesters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Across cultural & social dysjunctures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Expectations vs Use of SN Tools 2 .../2 <ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for quick changes of plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to check if online </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formal course-related theoretical Qs & responses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synchronous local & international coordination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>formal annotated electronic record of program documents, artefacts, achievements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notification of: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chat entry </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>new posts </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion Forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal course evaluation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal comments on the course & projects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… in response to instructor’s postings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>synchronous remote/ internal communication on: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>catch-up </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socializing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>course-related transactions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Portfolios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created but hardly (yet) used </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly because of formal nature cf digital stories </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Course outcomes: <ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent inquiry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-initiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realization of usefulness of formation of community network </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Products </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Webquests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online media-supported teaching module </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Course-related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post-course/ practitioner </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Social presence: effective interaction & learning community formation <ul><li>No. & frequency of interactions initiated </li></ul><ul><li>No. & frequency of responses to others </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural effects on interactions ** </li></ul><ul><li>Types of communication actions ** </li></ul>
  11. 11. Classification of postings <ul><li>Supportive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compliment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thanks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Musing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complaint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transactional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help Request </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help giving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Announcement </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Features emerging from classification <ul><li>High incidence of supportive comments (1/3): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complimenting, supporting, giving advice, thanking, empathizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High incidence of reflective comments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Musing, photographs, complaints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much less transactional: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking & answering Qs, requesting & receiving help </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smallest category: organizational </li></ul>
  13. 13. Persistence of post-course blog use <ul><li>All but 1 posted on their blogs post-course </li></ul><ul><li>>50% maintained & expanded theirs, creating others, & using with own classes </li></ul><ul><li>>30% maintained blog contact & mentored subsequent cohorts </li></ul><ul><li>Similar patterns across subsequent semesters have shown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience of being mentored seems to engender willingness to mentor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience of becoming reflective, independent & interdependent members of a community promotes willingness to support emerging independence </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. And now the story continues … In fully online mode … - or is it a different story??
  15. 15. New context, similar approach <ul><li>In transition from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>f2f CALL Teacher Ed to … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blended/hybrid CALL Teacher Ed to … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully online mix of CALL & general DE to … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fully online DE Teacher Education </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Online constraints & considerations <ul><li>Intercultural aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Geography & access </li></ul><ul><li>Timezones </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate technology </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tools made available 1 … /2 <ul><li>Synchronous & asynchronous CMC: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moodle: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion forums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IM near-synchronous chat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs (not used) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VoIP (Skype) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elluminate Live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elluminate vRooms </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Tools made available 2 … /2 <ul><li>Instructional technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery/exploratory technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Community-facilitating technologies (Facebook, Me2U, Flickr, tagging applications, RSS etc) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Beginning with a tale of 2 wikis … & 2 Moodles … <ul><li>Exploratory learning - using the available tools for purposes that seem appropriate … </li></ul><ul><li>Learning together … </li></ul>
  20. 20. Choices & constraints 1 …/2 <ul><li>Individual vs community </li></ul><ul><li>“ traditional” personality of DE students </li></ul><ul><li>Role of academic dialogue at Masters level </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation in DE environment? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Choices & constraints 2 …/2 <ul><li>Mismatch between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations (teacher & learners) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching & learning approaches (including intercultural aspects) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment process (in transition) </li></ul></ul>What constitutes PARTICIPATION??
  22. 22. Collaborative Moodle wiki sites <ul><li>CDE Moodle & wiki </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal to course </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locked down by university admin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to add guests or students </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. CDE Moodle wiki site
  24. 24. CDE Moodle wiki site
  25. 25. Collaborative Moodle & wiki sites <ul><li>Education University of Iceland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Moodle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Password protected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guests & students added manually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://moodle.khi.is/course/category.php?id=8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikispaces sites for student-student, student-teacher & teacher-teacher collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http: //athabascakhi . wikispaces .com/Athabasca </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Communications Technologies <ul><li>Elluminate Live </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. elluminate .com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Elluminate vRooms </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. elluminate .com/vroom/ </li></ul><ul><li>Skype </li></ul>
  27. 27. Changing roles <ul><li>Reflective practice </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>Changing assessment practices: e-Portfolios </li></ul>
  28. 28. Some advice from my students
  29. 29. Critical differences in DE 1 …/2 <ul><li>a necessity for lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>“ green”-er (x4) </li></ul><ul><li>Accessibility & openness (x5) </li></ul><ul><li>centrality of CMC </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>importance for lifestyle & commitments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freedom to design your own program & courses according to interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessibility, breaking down barriers & reaching remote locations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>autonomy in experience & direction (x4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Of both experience of learner & direction of studies i.e. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-motivation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-designed courses & program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Keeping up with advancements in technology (x3) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Critical differences in DE 2 …/2 <ul><li>multi-modal techniques to cultivate engagement (x2) </li></ul><ul><li>Move from “compensation model” to “celebration model” (x3) </li></ul><ul><li>DRAGONS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diverse (many and different; distinct and unalike) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requisites (anything indispensable) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessing (obtain or retrieve from a storage device like information on a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global (not limited or provincial in scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities (a possibility due to a favourable combination of circumstances) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-traditionally (not conforming or in accord with the considered norm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustained (supply with necessities and support) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Comments? </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions? </li></ul><ul><li>Advice? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Debra Hoven Centre for Distance Education, Athabasca University http://cde.athabascau.ca/faculty/debrah.php http://deincanada.blogspot.com/ http://lifentheuniverse.blogspot.com [email_address]

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