Assessing of Children’s Behaviour toward CartoonAdvertising in Pakistan.Abdullah (11056,B morning)Anayat UllahKhan(11034,B morning)National University of Modern Languages IslamabadAbstractThe purpose of this study was to explore Pakistani children’s attitude toward TV Cartoonadvertisement, their awareness about add and influence of add on their purchase behaviour.In Pakistan, most advertising agencies now target children through advertisement especiallywhen advertising consumer products like children’s toys, chocolates, candy bars, tooth pasteetc. Study shows that Pakistani children are very much aware about TV commercial’sfeatures like: truthfulness, annoyingness, taste and influencing characteristics of the ad. Theirbehaviour Is also different about advertised and non-advertised brandsKeywords: Children attitude, Advertising, Consumer Product.1. IntroductionThe aim of this study to find out the impact of cartoon advertising regarding the factor ofentertainment and credibility among children’s of age group 6- 10 years in Pakistan .Thisform of advertising could be persuasive in nature , like purchase brands of goods or servicesor influence buying decision of parents as compare to adults. Practitioner have an urge tostudy the impact of various advertising methods on the attitude of children’s in order toimprove the effectiveness of their ads. Thus, the assessing of children’s attitude towardscartoon and advertising in Pakistan could be improve to be useful in the related set ofcircumstances.Children’s segment is now being target by many consumers’ product companies, becausechildren are important potential customers as they not only decide about their own buying asthey can influence the buying decisions of their parents. A greater percentage of parent’sincome is spent on purchase of products only because of children’s influence.Especially due to the usage of Cartoons in advertisements, children’s develop differentattitude towards them that can be favourable or non-favourable in terms of entertainment andcredibility. On the other hand, such studies are required by advertising control authorities tokeep a check and balance on advertising techniques and ensure the safe and healthy exposureof advertising towards children’s. In this case there is a good probability that such advertisinghave a greater affect on children’s than on adults.
1.1 When are kids watching.To a large extent, kids are watching when they want. Most kids talked about watching TV:In the morning before school;As soon as they get home from school;During dinner;While doing their homework;Weekend morning;Early evening weekdays;Early and late evening weekends.These all are the Prime times for kids advertising.Kids are functionally literate; children do not access the written information available throughprint advertising, packaging, and labels. Children often lack information about price, aprimary consideration so the Cartoon is the best option for them to understand the depth andpurpose of the Ads.1.2 Objective of the StudyThe objectives of this study are as follows:To study children’s attention towards television cartoon advertising.To compare children’s response to different types of television Cartoon and NonCartoon commercials.To compare children’s response to their favourite commercials and their most dislikedads.To compare children’s perception of advertised and non-advertised brands.The purpose of the research is to find out that which type is more attractive and persuasivefor Children’s. The Children’s likes or dislike the Cartoon ads and how they are evolving itaccording to their own perception.1.3 Hypothesis of the StudyH1: Children’s are in favour and entertaining the cartoon advertising.Most of companies which they targeting kids only for the purpose to entertain them with fulljoy and happiness and create awareness.They are in favour of cartoon advertising the did’t buying or believe on it but only for fewcharacters and favourite like, the whole clip of Safeguard, in which one cartoon playing therole of Commander Safeguard, but few of Kids are trying to buy it.H2: Children’s have fully credible on cartoon advertising.
Most of kids have believe on cartoon and it’s ads. The are liking the characters of ads andtrying to follow them and the waiting for that moments, a example of cartoon is Tom andJerry, which aim is only to entertain the Kids and Now most of advertising agencies trying tofollow the sequence of that; the simple example of Cartoon advertising is the Ding DongBubble Gum, which is very appreciate by Kids, another Example of Safeguard Soap and theKids are in favour of Commander Safeguard. Tiger, Prince and peddle pop.H3: Children’s have zero interest in Cartoon advertising.The one category comprises that they neither like the Cartoon nor cartoon advertising. Theyhave zero interest in ads and televisions, or they have no access to television without theparents permission, so the not involve to watch consistently and not waiting curiously for anytype of ads.2. Literature Review.In 2008 companies spend nearly $17billion annually marketing to kids. That is more thandouble what it was in 1992 (Lagorio 2007).The trends leads to clustering of advertisementtowards the audience. Children form a sensitive and vulnerable part of the TV advertisementaudiences. American children view an estimated 40000 commercial annually .They alsomakes approximately 3,000 requests for products and services each year (schor, 2004).Children’s under age 10, have not fully developed their abilities to acquire, encode, organize,and retrieve information (O’Barr 2008). Some attempts have been made in the past to studythe attitude of children towards advertisement, but they did not end up in proposing scaleswhose validity was fully assessed (Riecken and Samali 2009). Although the age of age of 8,children might be able to understand a lot about the intention behind advertisement but theystill have problems until the age of 12 years(Marshall 2010).While looking at the children’s response to TV advertisement, a research experiment revealedthat children’s food choices especially in snacks are based on their exposure to TVcommercials (Gorn and Goldberg, 1982). Children’s tend to believe what they see and hearbut from the age of 8 onward, children’s develop some knowledge about advertising, someskepticism as they realize that ads are not only entertaining and informative but are sometime untruth (Roedder john, 1999).The finding tends to give an idea about the assessment of children’s attitude in terms ofcredibility. In last 20years, impact of TV advertisement on children’s behaviour has been themajor topic of debates in countries open for market competition (Boddewyn,1984). Childrenuse the ad for the sake of getting acquaintance with the new brands and products, how thatparticular brand can be used. Children also keep the realities and belief about the productsand show their priorities accordingly. These realities and belief further help them to makepurchase or they ask from their parents what is to purchase.(Mcneal & Ji, 1999).Children age 10 or younger feel difficulty to recall previous stored information and in makingcomparative decision (Kobasigawa, 1977). Therefore rather than comparing alternatives and
choosing from its, young children usually prefer to make attitude toward the advertisedproduct and make decision about purchase based on this. (Wartella et al., 1979).States that children do not believe many Cartoon ads claims and they do not always keeppositive attitude towards these ads, they are aware, how is to deal with ads clutter, theyremain skeptic about the truthfulness of these ads. They always keep a room about thecredibility of advertised products.( Reiken and Yavas1990).Young children are more inclined towards funny and song –oriented ads, and while olderchildren like and pay attention on funny, meaningful ads and ads based on public serviceannouncements. Younger children are more confident about the advertised product ascompared to the older children. Older children do not rely on the quality of the advertisedproduct. (Chan & McNeal,2005)This explain that TV advertisement have huge impact on the attitude as well as behaviour ofchildren’s. Finding in another experimental study found that the children’s with heavyexposure to TV advertisements are more likely recall those brands while shopping in themarket with the parents. (Farooq,et al,2000)2.1 The modelThis model contain the three variables, like the One is the independent and the two are theDependent variables.The Entertainment and Credibility are the dependent variables and the Cartoon advertisinghas a huge influence on it, may be positively or negatively.The kids have two purposes to watch the cartoon advertising in both, but some have strongtendency toward one of them.Actually most of companies who’s target are children’s so the trying to make the adsaccording to the kids requirements and 80% of children’s(6-10) are not clearly understandingthe verbal and the stars, so they putting the cartoon instead of actors, which creating moreinterest among children’s.3. Research Design and MethodologyA major strength of this study is its use of data on key independent and dependent variablesfrom separate sources to avoid common method bias. We obtained the advertising, cartoonadvertising and children’s behaviour data from different sources in Pakistan like, Magazines,previous papers, internet and personal experience, which assess the children’s behaviour andresponse toward advertising very care fully and explanatory.This survey involved Pakistani Primary schools from different vicinities of Rawalpindi andIslamabad, The capital. A total of 160 Pakistani children aged 6–10 years were selected onthe basis of, The Convenience sampling method was used according to the convenience ofgetting data from the schools of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The questionnaire was alsotranslated into the Urdu language (domestic language) to bring out better understanding fromthe children.. All the questionnaires distributed were collected with 98.5% response rate.Different dimensions were used to measure children’s television Cartoon advertising responses.Twenty questions were formed and adapted from scale. Two new questions were included. A 5-point Likert scale (Likert, 1932), strongly agree to strongly disagree, was used, and factor-analyzed to determine single dimensions of children’s cartoon advertising responses ofEntertainment and Credibility were realized: children’s awareness of TV cartoon advertising.Likert scale was used to measure the degree of Entertainment and Credibility of Children’sAwareness of TV cartoon advertising. The selected scale focuses on the range of cognitive and
affective reactions towards television advertising in terms of watching of TV, perceivedtruthfulness of commercials, potential annoying qualities, and objectivity in describing advertisedproducts, overall liking, and perceived persuasive power, believability of characters, andtrustworthiness as guidance to product purchases and wants to buy the product after watching TVcommercials.Every question was given five answers strongly disagree agree neutral disagree strongly disagree.Children were given self assistance in filling the questionnaire. Entire study was selfadministered.4. Research ResultsThe sample characteristics for the 155 respondents are summarized in table-2.Table 4 shows that children know that all TV ads do not tell the truth as greater percentage ofrespondent children were disagreeing to the claim that TV add tells the Entertainmentindicated by the Mean value of 3.31. This means that children understand the language ofcartoon advertisement. Similarly Mean results 2.85 shows in table that children feel theannoying qualities of advertisements and are agreeing that most TV commercials are of poortaste and very annoying. As it is a fact that TV advertisement’s purpose is to increase the saleof the product advertised, that’s why it tells only good aspects of the product. Pakistanichildren are aware of this fact and Mean results 2.29 are showing the same. About thelikeliness of TV advertisements in Pakistan, most of the children dislike ads. And responseabout the claim that TV adds influence people to buy the product they don’t need, Mean 3.04shows that they are neither agree nor disagree with the said statement. Mean value forbelievability and always advertised products are best are respectively 3.24 and 3.24 whichshows children are neither agree nor disagree with said statements. TV Advertisings do createpurchase desire as indicated by mean value which is 2.57.Reliability analysis was used that is inter-item correlation among the items listed in theTable-1.Results and findings are summarized in Table-3. According to Guilford (1973) guidelines, fora well constructed test, item Pair wise comparison should be between 0.10 and 0.60. Thepresent findings shows that Rossiter’s (1977) scale can be applied usually among thePakistani children while measuring their understanding of TV commercials as Pairedcomparison correlation not significant i.e. all inter-correlations are negative, it means thatthese items are negatively correlated with each other. On the other hand (annoy, like), (annoy,believe), (annoy, best), also don’t have significant inter-Correlation they are not in the rangeof 0.10 to 0.60 although it is not negative. Remaining items have significant inter-correlation.Table2;Description Frequency PercentageGender Number %BoysGirls866955.4844.52Total 155 100Table;3StronglydislikeDislike neutral like Stronglylike
Entertainment 5 5 5 20 60Credibility 5 4 3 13 35Total 10 9 8 23 954. ConclusionData shows that Children are very much interested of TV cartoon advertisements in Pakistan andadvertising has a impact on their purchase behaviours. We also got that they evaluate andcompare the both variable TV cartoon Advertisements. TV cartoon advertisements influencechildren’s behaviour about on the basis of entertainment and credibility. Aschildren’s behaviour change it also changes their buying pattern and this is the purpose behind theadvertisements. As children are very much aware of TV advertisements and they know good andbadaspects of them. Marketer should understand the children’s psychic before launching anyadvertisement. Children also know the degree of truthfulness in add. So for the advertisers it’sveryimportant to realize that children are not ignorant from the content of their campaigns, and whiledeveloping their campaigns they must address the issues with a professional approach. It is alsoclearthat advertisement can be a good effective media to convey the required message in childsegments ifthey are created professionally. Lastly advertisers can not rely only on comic and colors inchildrenrelated advertisements, they do need to focus on the content of the advertisements, they mustavoidover promising in their advertisement campaigns.