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Indian Musical Instruments

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Indian Musical Instruments

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Indian Musical Instruments
AEROPHONES
~ An ancient musical 
instrument associated 
with cowherds and the 
pastoral tradition, it is 
intimately linked to the 
love story of Krishna and 
Radha. The Bansuri is 
revered as Lord Krishna's 
divine instrument.
~ The pungi, also called the been, or 
bin is a wind instruments played by 
snake charmers in India and 
Pakistan. The instrument consists of 
a mouth-blown air reservoir made 
from a gourd, which channels air 
into two reedpipes. The pungi is 
played with no pauses, with the 
player employing circular breathing. 
The pungi originated in India and is 
still played by snake charmers in 
street performances. Indian musical 
practices often coincide with 
religious ideals.
SRUTI 
UPANGA 
~ is a type of bagpipe 
played in Tamil Nadu, 
southern India. The 
instrument was often 
used to supply a drone to 
accompany mukha vina 
(Tamil oboe) music.
~ The shehnai, shahnai, shenai 
or mangal vadya is a double 
reed oboe, common in India, 
Pakistan, Bangladesh and 
Iran, made out of wood, with a 
metal flare bell at the end. Its 
sound is thought to create and 
maintain a sense of 
auspiciousness and sanctity 
and, as a result, is widely used 
during marriages, processions, 
and in temples, although it is 
also played in concerts. 
Shenai is similar to South 
India's nadaswaram.

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Indian Musical Instruments

  • 3. ~ An ancient musical instrument associated with cowherds and the pastoral tradition, it is intimately linked to the love story of Krishna and Radha. The Bansuri is revered as Lord Krishna's divine instrument.
  • 4. ~ The pungi, also called the been, or bin is a wind instruments played by snake charmers in India and Pakistan. The instrument consists of a mouth-blown air reservoir made from a gourd, which channels air into two reedpipes. The pungi is played with no pauses, with the player employing circular breathing. The pungi originated in India and is still played by snake charmers in street performances. Indian musical practices often coincide with religious ideals.
  • 5. SRUTI UPANGA ~ is a type of bagpipe played in Tamil Nadu, southern India. The instrument was often used to supply a drone to accompany mukha vina (Tamil oboe) music.
  • 6. ~ The shehnai, shahnai, shenai or mangal vadya is a double reed oboe, common in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Iran, made out of wood, with a metal flare bell at the end. Its sound is thought to create and maintain a sense of auspiciousness and sanctity and, as a result, is widely used during marriages, processions, and in temples, although it is also played in concerts. Shenai is similar to South India's nadaswaram.
  • 8. ~ is a percussion instrument used in the Carnatic music of South India. The ghatam is one of the most ancient percussion instruments of South India. It is a clay pot with narrow mouth. From the mouth, it slants outwards to form a ridge. Made mainly of clay backed with brass or copper filings with a small amount of iron filings, the size of the ghatam varies according to its pitch. The pitch can be slightly altered by the application of plasticize clay or water.
  • 9. ~ also known as Ghunghroo or Ghunghru or Ghungur (Bengali) or Salangai (Tamil) is one of many small metallic bells strung together to form Ghungroos, a musical anklet tied to the feet of classical Indian dancers, and also Pakistani dancers. They are worn immediately above the ankle, resting on the lateral malleolus and medial malleolus. A string of ghungroos can range from 50 to greater than 200 bells knotted together. Ghungroos or Salangais are worn in traditional performances of the classical Indian dance forms: Bharatnatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, and Odissi etc.
  • 10. ~ A khartal or kartal is a percussion instrument of India. Khartal is an ancient instrument mainly used in devotional / folk songs. It has derived its name from Hindi words ‘kara’ means hand and ‘tala’ means clapping. This wooden clapper is a Ghana Vadya which has discs or plates that produce a clinking sound when clapped together. It falls under the class of idiophones of self-sounding instruments that combine properties of vibrator and resonator.
  • 11. ~ Jaltarang, jal-tarang, jal-yantra, jalatarangam or jalatharangam is an Indian melodic percussion instrument. It consists of a set of ceramic or metal bowls tuned with water. The bowls are played by striking the edge with beaters, one in each hand.
  • 13. ~ is a membranophone percussion instrument (similar to their Latin- American/Afro-Cuban relatives bongos), which are often used in Hindustani classical music and in popular and devotional music of the Indian subcontinent. The instrument consists of a pair of hand drums of contrasting sizes and timbres. The term tabla is derived from an Arabic word, tabl, which simply means "drum." The tabla is used in some other Asian musical traditions outside of India, such as in the Indonesian dangdut genre.
  • 14. ~ is a percussion instrument from India of ancient origin. It is the primary rhythmic accompaniment in a Carnatic music and Newa music ensemble. Alternate spellings include "mrudangam", "mrdangam", "mritangam" and "miruthangam in Tamil". Mridangam is used as an accompanying instrument in Yakshagana Himmela (orchestra). However, Mridangam used in Yakshagana is markedly different in structure and acoustics from the ones used in Carnatic music.
  • 15. ~or damru is a small two-headed drum, used in Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism. The drum is typically made of wood, with leather drum heads at both ends; the damaru might also be made entirely out of human skulls. The resonator is made of brass. • In Hinduism - The damaru is known as a power drum, and when played, it is believed to generate spiritual energy. • In Buddhism - the damaru is part of a collection of sacred implements and musical instrument was adopted from the tantric practices of ancient India.
  • 16. ~ is a percussion instrument from Karnataka, India. It is the primary rhythmic accompaniment in a Yakshagana ensemble along with Chande. Maddale used in Yakshagana looks similar to mridangam but is markedly different in structure, acoustics, playing techniques and the rhythm system (Yakshagana Tala). Unlike Mridangam or Tabla, Maddale produces tonic (shruti swara) when played either on rim or on ink. Maddale produces loud sound. Maddale is available in more than three different variations.
  • 18. ~ is a long-necked plucked lute (a stringed instrument) found in different forms in Indian music culture. Hindustani musicians speak of 'tanpura' whereas Carnatic musicians say 'tambura'; 'tamburi' is a smaller instrument used for accompanying instrumental soloists. For practical use, all these types are called 'tanpura' in the text. • Miraj style: the favourite form of tanpura for Hindustani performers. • Tanjore style: this is a south Indian style of tambura, used widely by Carnatic music performers. • Tamburi: small-scale instruments, used for accompanying instrumental soloists.
  • 19. ~ The Seni rebab is a plucked string instrument said to have been developed by, and to have taken its name from, the notable musician Tansen in the time of the emperor Akbar the Great. Today it is most associated with Sikh music. Three types of Sikh musician - rababis, ragis and dhadhis - flourished during the period of the Sikh gurus.
  • 20. ~ is a plucked stringed instrument used mainly in Hindustani music and Indian classical music. The instrument descended from long-necked lutes taken to North India from Central Asia and is also believed to be influenced by the Veena.
  • 21. ~ literally "one-string", also called iktar, ektar, yaktaro gopichand) is a one-string instrument most often used in traditional music from Bangladesh, India, Egypt, and Pakistan. In origin the ektara was a regular string instrument of wandering bards and minstrels from India and is plucked with one finger. The ektara usually has a stretched single string, an animal skin over a head (made of dried pumpkin/gourd, wood or coconut) and pole neck or split bamboo cane neck. Nowadays the ektara is widely used by folk singers especially by Sufi singers in Punjab and Sindh.