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Literary terms


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Literary terms

  1. 1. Literary Terms
  2. 2. Plot <ul><li>What happens in the story </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conflict <ul><li>External conflict – a character struggles against another person, group of people or force of nature (tornado or a bear). </li></ul><ul><li>Internal conflict – a stuggle that takes place in the character’s mind, like when a character must make a decision. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Complications <ul><li>A series of events that make it very hard for the character to get what he/she wants. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Climax <ul><li>The story’s most emotional or suspenseful moment. The point at which the conflict is decided one way or another. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Resolution <ul><li>The last part of the story. The conflict is resolved and the loose ends of the story are tied up. This is how the story ends. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Subplots <ul><li>Plots that are part of the larger story but are not as important. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Parallel episodes <ul><li>The storyteller repeats the main outline of an episode several times. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Characterization <ul><li>The way a writer reveals a character </li></ul>
  10. 10. Direct Characterization <ul><li>Stating directly what the character is like </li></ul>
  11. 11. Indirect Characterization <ul><li>Describing the appearance of the character </li></ul><ul><li>Showing the character in action </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing us to hear the character speak </li></ul><ul><li>Revealing the character’s thoughts and feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Showing how others react to the character </li></ul>
  12. 12. Motivation <ul><li>Motivation is what makes characters behave the way they do </li></ul>
  13. 13. Foreshadow <ul><li>This makes us feel suspense. The storyteller gives us clues that hint at future events. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Setting <ul><li>Where and when the story takes place </li></ul><ul><li>The customs of the story must fit the time and place </li></ul><ul><li>The setting can play a key role in creating tone and mood (atmosphere) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Simile <ul><li>Figurative language that compares two unlike things and uses “like” or “as.” </li></ul><ul><li>The perfume smelled like a spring day. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Metaphor <ul><li>Figurative language that compares two unlike things directly without using a specific word of comparison. </li></ul><ul><li>The crowd was a storm. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Personification <ul><li>Figurative language that speaks of a nonhuman or inanimate thing as if it has human like qualities. </li></ul><ul><li>The frog cried. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Symbols <ul><li>People, places, events, or things that have meaning themselves but also stand for something beyond themselves. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Dialect <ul><li>A way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular place or group of people. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Mood <ul><li>The writer produces mood by creating images and using sounds that convey a particular feeling. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Tone <ul><li>The attitude a writer takes toward his/her subject, characters, and audience. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Theme <ul><li>The author’s message in a story. The author reveals something about life and people. </li></ul><ul><li>The stories that have a meaning beyond the people and events on their pages-- a meaning that we can use—are the ones that change our lives. This deeper meaning is called THEME. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Style <ul><li>The way a writer uses language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>dialect </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Irony <ul><li>Verbal irony – we say just the opposite of what we mean. </li></ul><ul><li>Situational irony – what happens is different from what we expect. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic irony – we know something a character doesn’t know. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Literary Terms for Poetry
  26. 26. Rhythm <ul><li>The repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables—it provides the poem’s beat. </li></ul><ul><li>Thĭs lŏve ly flów ěr féll tŏ séed </li></ul>
  27. 27. Meter <ul><li>A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. </li></ul><ul><li>Dăy áf těr dáy , dăy áf těr dáy </li></ul>
  28. 28. Rhyme <ul><li>The repetition of the sounds of stressed syllables and any unstressed syllables that follow. </li></ul><ul><li>sport sputtering </li></ul><ul><li>court muttering </li></ul>
  29. 29. Rhyme Scheme <ul><li>A pattern of rhymes in lines </li></ul><ul><li>ABAB or AABB and so on </li></ul>
  30. 30. End Rhymes <ul><li>The rhyming words occur at the end of the line </li></ul>
  31. 31. Internal Rhymes <ul><li>These rhymes occur within lines </li></ul>
  32. 32. Approximate Rhyme <ul><li>These rhymes use sounds that are similar but not exactly the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Fellow hollow </li></ul><ul><li>Bat bit </li></ul>
  33. 33. Alliteration <ul><li>Repetition of consonant sounds in words that are close together. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Assonance <ul><li>The repetition of vowel sounds in words close together. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Onomatopoeia <ul><li>The word imitates the sound it makes. </li></ul><ul><li>Crash bang boom </li></ul><ul><li>Snap crackle pop </li></ul>
  36. 36. Couplet <ul><li>Two rhyming lines are consecutive or together. (One right after other). </li></ul>
  37. 37. Elegy <ul><li>A poem written for someone who has died. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Free Verse <ul><li>This does not have a regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Free verse sounds like ordinary speech. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Ballad <ul><li>Songlike poem that tells a story, often a sad story of betrayal, death, or loss. Ballads usually have a regular, steady rhythm, a simple rhyme pattern, and a refrain, all of which make them easy to memorize. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Epic <ul><li>A long narrative poem about many deeds of a great hero. Epics are closely connected to a particular culture. The hero of an epic embodies the important values of the society he comes from. (Heroes from epics have-- so far-- been male.) </li></ul>
  41. 41. Narrative Poem <ul><li>A poem that tells a story – a series of related events. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Lyric Poem <ul><li>A poem that does not tell a story but expresses the personal feelings of a speaker. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Ode <ul><li>A long lyric poem, usually praising some subject, and written in dignified language. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Sonnet <ul><li>A fourteen-line lyric poem that follows strict rules of structure, meter, and rhyme. </li></ul>