Literary TermsWe will be using these literary terms throughout the Short Story Unit as well as throughout the school year.You need to keep up with your notes. Don’t lose your terms! You will want them when it comes time to study for the final – be RESPONSIBLE!!
We will use the following terms:Character Antagonist ProtagonistDiction Denotation ConnotationImagery Mood PlotExposition Rising Action ClimaxFalling Action Resolution ConflictFlashback Foreshadowing SuspensePoint of View Setting StyleTheme Tone Figures of SpeechMetaphor Simile OxymoronPersonification Alliteration
CharacterA character is a person or an animal that takes part in the action of a literary work.
Protagonist• The Protagonist is the main character in a literary work• Can you name some famous Protagonists that are found in literature?
Antagonist•The Antagonist is a character or force in conflict with a main character, or protagonist.
Do you know your Antagonists???• On your paper take a few minutes to write down some Antagonists that you can recall from movies, television shows, and video games• Remember the Antagonist is in conflict with the Protagonist or, main character!• Helpful hint – you should now know why people use the saying “Don’t antagonize me!”
Static vs. Dynamic• Static – stereotype, only one or two characteristics that never change (wicked stepmother)• Dynamic – many personalities that change, for better or worse by the end of the story
Ways in which a character is revealed• His/her physical appearance• What he/she says, thinks, feels and dreams• What he/she does or does not do• What others say about him/her and how others react to him/her
SettingThe setting of a literary work is the time and place of the action.The setting includes all the details of a place and time – the year, the time of day, even the weather. The place may be a specific country, state, region, community, neighborhood, building, institution, or home.Details such as dialect, clothing, customs, and modes of transportation are often used to establish setting.In most stories, the setting serves as a backdrop – a context in which the characters interact. The setting of a story often helps to create a particular mood, or feeling.
PlotPlot is the sequence of events. The first event causes the second, the second causes the third, and so forth.In most novels, dramas, short stories, and narrative poems, the plot involves both characters and a central conflict.The plot usually begins with an exposition that introduces the setting, the characters, and the basic situation. This is introduced and developed. The conflict then increases until it reaches a high point of interest or suspense, the climax. The climax is followed by the falling action, or end, of the central conflict. Any events that occur during the falling action make up the resolution.
ExpositionThe Exposition is the introduction. It is the part of the work that introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation.
ConflictConflict is the struggle between opposing forces in a story or play. There are two types of conflict that exist in literature.
Internal ConflictInternal conflict exists within the mind of a character who is torn between different courses of action.Man vs. Himself The leading character struggles with himself/herself; with his/her own soul, ideas of right or wrong, physical limitations, choices, etc.
External ConflictExternal conflict exists when a character struggles against some outside force, such as another character, nature, society, or fate.• Man vs. Man (physical) - The leading character struggles with his physical strength against other men, forces of nature, or animals.• Man vs. Circumstances (classical) - The leading character struggles against fate, or the circumstances of life facing him/her.• Man vs. Society (social) - The leading character struggles against ideas, practices, or customs of other people.
Rising ActionRising Action is the part of the plot that begins to occur as soon as the conflict is introduced. The rising action adds complications to the conflict and increases reader interest.
ClimaxThe Climax is the point of greatest emotional intensity, interest, or suspense in the plot of a narrative. The climax typically comes at the turning point in a story or drama.
Falling ActionFalling Action is the action that typically follows the climax and reveals its results.
ResolutionThe Resolution is the part of the plot that concludes the falling action by revealing or suggesting the outcome of the conflict.
ThemeThe theme of a literary work is its central message, concern, or purpose. A theme can usually be expressed as a generalization, or general statement, about people or life. The theme may be stated directly by the writer although it is more often presented indirectly. When the theme is stated indirectly, the reader must figure out the theme by looking carefully at what the work reveals about the people or about life.
Point of ViewPoint of View is the perspective, or vantage point, from which a story is told. It is the relationship of the narrator to the story.First-person is told by a character who uses the first- person pronoun “I”.Third-person limited point of view is the point of view where the narrator uses third-person pronouns such as “he” and “she” to refer to the characters.Third person omniscient The author can narrate the story using the omniscient point of view. He can move from character to character, event to event, having free access to the thoughts, feelings and motivations of his characters and he introduces information where and when he chooses.
FlashbackA flashback is a literary device in which an earlier episode, conversation, or event is inserted into the sequence of events. Often flashbacks are presented as a memory of the narrator or of another character.
Flashback continued…The movie Titanic is told almost entirely in a flashback.What are some other films that contain flashback to help tell stories?HolesWilly WonkaThink of some more…
Irony• Situational irony – contrast between what the reader expects to have happen, and what actually happens in the story.• Dramatic Irony – the reader knows something that a character does not.• Verbal Irony – saying one thing and meaning another.
Imagery Imagery is words or phrasesthat appeal to one or more of the five senses. Writers useimagery to describe how their subjects look, sound, feel, taste, and smell.
SuspenseSuspense is the growing interest and excitement readers experience while awaiting a climax or resolution in a work of literature. It is a feeling of anxious uncertainty about the outcome of events. Writers create suspense by raising questions in the minds of their readers.
ToneTone is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work. Tone may be communicated through words and details that express particular emotions and that evoke and emotional response from the reader.For example, word choice or phrasing may seem to convey respect, anger, lightheartedness, or sarcasm.
MOODMood, or atmosphere, is the feeling created in the reader by a literarywork or passage. Writer’s use many devices to create mood, including images, dialogue, setting, and plot.Often, a writer creates a mood at the beginning of a work and then sustains the mood throughout. Sometimes, however, the mood of the work changes dramatically.
StyleStyle is the distinctive way in which an author uses language.Word choice, phrasing, sentence length, tone, dialogue, purpose, and attitude toward the audience and subject can all contribute to an author’s writing style.
ForeshadowingForeshadowing is the author’s use of clues to hint at what might happen later in the story. Writers use foreshadowing to build their readers’ expectations and to create suspense. This is used to help readers prepare for what is to come.
Figures of SpeechA figure of speech is a specific device or kind of figurative language, such as hyperbole, metaphor, personification, simile, or understatement.Figurative language is used for descriptive effect, often to imply ideas indirectly. It is not meant to be taken literally. Figurative language is used to state ideas in vivid and imaginative ways.
MetaphorA Metaphor is a type of speech that compares or equates two or more things that have something in common. A metaphor does NOT use like or as.Example: Life is a bowl of cherries.
SimileA Simile is another figure of speech that compares seemingly unlike things. Simile’s DO use the words like or as.Example: Her voice was like nails on a chalkboard.
OxymoronAn Oxymoron is a figure of speech that is a combination of seemingly contradictory words.Examples: Same difference Pretty ugly Roaring silence
Personification Personification is a figure of speech in which an animal, object, force of nature, or idea is given human qualities or characteristics. Example: Tears began to fall from the dark clouds.
AlliterationAlliteration is the repetition of sounds, most often consonant sounds, at the beginning of words. Alliteration gives emphasis to words.Example: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers