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Stylistic devices

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Stylistic devices

  1. 1. Stylistic devices By Atyha Rahman
  2. 2. Stylistic devices  A stylistic device is a particular characteristic of a text that makes it distinctive in some way.  ―Stylistic devices can include such things as character ,settings ,language techniques ,plot ,use of color ,subject matter ,or particular musical instruments used‖ by F. pollock
  3. 3. Stylistic/literary devices Writers often use words in special ways to help readers "see" things in a different way.  Devices are tools, so literary devices are tools that writers use to improve their writing and make it more interesting.  Literary devices include figurative language, imagery, and sound devices.
  4. 4. Complex text ???  A complex text is a text that needs some experience , knowledge or effort to understand it properly .  A complex text is not always easy to identify.  Some text look or sound quite simple , however if they are studied deeply , they may show deeper meanings .
  5. 5. diction       The word choices made by a writer can be described as Formal Semi formal Ornate Informal Technical slang
  6. 6. Figurative language  Figurative language is language using figures of speech.  A figure of speech is any way of saying something other than the ordinary way.
  7. 7. Figurative language Figurative language (or figures of speech) provides descriptions or comparisons that go beyond the literal meaning of the words. It helps us make connections between things and see the world in new ways. Some examples of figurative language are: simile, metaphor, personification, idiom, and hyperbole (exaggeration)
  8. 8. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: IT’S LIKE A SIMILE – a comparison of two unlike things using the words like or as. Examples of simile:  ―Life is like a box of chocolates.‖  ―The girl is as beautiful as a rose.‖  ―The willow is like an etching…‖
  9. 9. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: IT IS A METAPHOR – a comparison of two unlike things without using the words like or as. Examples of metaphor:  ―My father is a tall, sturdy oak.‖  ―The hotel is a diamond in the sky.‖  ―who know’s if the moon’s a balloon…‖
  10. 10. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: PERSONIFICATION – the giving of human qualities to an animal, object, or idea. Examples of personification:  ―Hunger sat shivering on the road.‖  ―The flowers danced on the lawn.‖  ―SpongeBob SquarePants‖ and ―Smokey the Bear‖ are personified characters.
  11. 11. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: HYPERBOLE - an exaggerated statement used to make a point. Examples of hyperbole:  ―An apple a day keeps the doctor away.‖  ―I could sleep for a year.‖  ―This book weighs a ton.‖
  12. 12. Oxymoron  A small crowd  Silent crow  Cruel kindness  Make haste slowly  The wisest fool A rhetorical figure in which incongrous or contradictory terms combine
  13. 13. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: IMAGINE THE IMAGERY -figures of speech or vivid descriptions used to produce mental images (appeal to the five senses). Examples of imagery:  ―Her clammy back felt like bark of the tree after a summer’s rain.‖  ―…the small pond behind my house was lapping at it’s banks…‖  ―The willow’s music is like a soprano…‖
  14. 14. Imagery can be visual: ―a blinding sun.‖
  15. 15. Imagery can also be auditory: ―the chiming of the bells.‖
  16. 16. Imagery can convey a scent: ―the aroma of dirty sweat socks.‖
  17. 17. CONFLICT where things get complicated…
  18. 18. The Four Types of Conflict: Man vs. Man Man vs. Nature Man vs. Society Man vs. Himself
  19. 19. Man vs. Man
  20. 20. Man Vs. Nature
  21. 21. Man vs. Society
  22. 22. Man Vs. Himself  Should I do my homework or check my myspace? Hmmm…
  23. 23. Irony
  24. 24. The Three Types of Irony  Situational Irony: An event of outcome of events opposite to what was or might naturally have been expected.  For example:When John Hinckley attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan, all of his shots initially missed the President; however a bullet ricocheted off the bullet-proof windows of the Presidential limousine and struck Reagan in the chest. Thus, the windows made to protect the President from gunfire were partially responsible for his being shot.
  25. 25. Dramatic Irony This is when one of the characters is unaware of important information that the audience is made aware of. For example: In Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet Romeo believes Juliet to be dead when she is merely asleep. This turns into tragic irony when he decides to end his life to be with her.
  26. 26. Verbal Irony  The speaker or writer of verbal irony says one thing while INTENDING the reader to get a different meaning.  For example, when using Sarcasm, the speaker says one thing but his tone implies another meaning.
  27. 27. Paradox: A seeming contradiction. For example, ―It was the best of times. It was the worst of times.‖
  28. 28. Personification: Giving inanimate object human characteristics. For example, ―The flames reached for the child hovering in the corner.‖
  29. 29. Pun: The use of a word in a way that plays on its different meanings. For example, ―Noticing the bunch of bananas, the hungry gorilla went ape.
  30. 30. Satire: A work that makes fun of something or someone.
  31. 31. Symbolism: The use of one things to represent another. For example, a dove is a symbol of peace.
  32. 32. Flowers can symbolize youth or beauty.
  33. 33. Tone: The author’s attitude toward his or her subject. For example, a tone could be pessimistic, optimistic, or angry.
  34. 34. Irony: Language that conveys a certain ideas by saying just the opposite.
  35. 35. Literal Language: Language that means exactly what it says.
  36. 36. Atmosphere: The overall feeling of a work, which is related to tone and mood.
  37. 37. Conflict: The elements that create a plot. Traditionally, every plot is build from the most basic elements of a conflict and an eventual resolution. The conflict can be internal (within one character) or external (among or between characters, society, and/or nature).
  38. 38. Denouement: The resolution of the conflict in a plot after the climax. It also refers to the resolution of the action in a story or play after the principal drama is resolved—in other words, tying up the loose ends or wrapping up a story.
  39. 39. Archetype: A character who represents a certain type of person. For example, Daniel Boone is an archetype of the early American frontiersman.
  40. 40. Allusion: A reference to something or someone often literary. For instance, if you were trying to instill confidence in a friend and said, ―Use the force,‖ that would be an allusion to Stars Wars. The verb form of allusion is to allude.
  41. 41. Foreshadowing: A technique in which an author gives clues about something that will happen later in the story.
  42. 42. Internal rhyme: A rhyme that occurs within one line such as ―He’s King of the Swing.‖
  43. 43. WHAT IS A SOUND DEVICE?  The effect of a poem can depend on the sound of its words.  HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES…
  44. 44. SOUND DEVICE: SOUNDS LIKE ONOMATOPOEIA - the use of words whose sounds suggest their meanings. Examples of onomatopoeia:  ―The bang of a gun.‖  ―The hiss of a snake.‖  ―The buzz of a bee.‖  ―The pop of a firecracker.‖
  45. 45. SOUND DEVICE: REPETITION - the repeating of sound, words, phrases or lines in a poem used to emphasize an idea or convey a certain feeling. Examples of repetition:  ―Sing a song full of faith that the dark past has taught us, Sing a song of the hope that the present has brought us…‖  ―I think I can, I think I can, I think I can, I think I can…‖  ―The isolation during my vacation created a situation of relaxation.‖
  46. 46. SOUND DEVICE: I RHYME ALL THE TIME AND I GUESS IT SOUNDS FINE… - repetition of sound at the ends of words. (Rhyme occurring within a line is called internal rhyme. Rhyme occurring at the end of a line is called end rhyme) Rhyme Scheme – the pattern of end rhyme in a poem. Lines that rhyme are given the same letter. Example of internal rhyme, end rhyme, and rhyme scheme:  I looked at the shell in the ocean a  I looked at the bell in the sea, b  I noticed the smell and the motion a  Were very peculiar to me.‖ b
  47. 47. SOUND DEVICE: DO YOU HAVE RHYTHM? LET’S CLAP! – the pattern of sound created by stressed (more emphasis, `) and unstressed (less emphasis, υ) syllables. Many poems are given diacritical markings (` and υ) depending on the rhythm. Example of rhythm: ―I looked at the shell in the ocean I looked at the bell in the sea, I noticed the smell and the motion Were very peculiar to me.‖
  48. 48. SOUND DEVICE: ASSONANCE - repetition of VOWEL SOUNDS at the BEGINNING, MIDDLE or END of at least two words in a line of poetry. Examples of Assonance  Repeating the ―eh‖ sound in the words: ―crescent,‖ ―flesh,‖ ―extending,‖ ―medicine‖ and ―death‖
  49. 49. SOUND DEVICE: CONSONANCE - repetition of CONSONANT SOUNDS at the BEGINNING, MIDDLE or END of at least two words in a line of poetry. Examples of Consonance Repeating the ―sh‖ sound in the words: ―shush,‖ ―wish,‖ ―sharp,‖ ―cushion‖ and ―quash‖
  50. 50. SOUND DEVICE: ALLITERATION - repetition of CONSONANT SOUNDS at the BEGINNING of at least two words in a line of poetry. Example of alliteration: Examples of Alliteration  ―the frog frolicked frivolously on the forest floor.‖  ―…Little skinny shoulder blades Sticking through your clothes…‖  ―…struck out by a steed flying fearless and fleet…‖
  51. 51. WHAT IS FORM?  The form of a poem involves the physical arrangement of the words on the page, sometimes involving rhyme and rhythm.  LINE: a sentence or fragment of sentence.  STANZA: a group of more than one line.  HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES OF FORM…
  52. 52. FORM: COUPLET -a pair of lines that rhyme. A couplet may be a poem in itself or part of a larger poem. What is an example of a COUPLET? The artist stirred some blue and green To paint an underwater scene.
  53. 53. FORM: HAIKU -an unrhymed poem consisting of three lines and seventeen (17) syllables. These poems are normally about nature. The first line is five (5) syllables. The second line is seven (7) syllables. The third line is five (5) syllables. What is an example of a HAIKU? The autumn wind blows, (5 syllables) Calling the leaves on the ground (7 syllables) To join him in dance. (5 syllables)
  54. 54. FORM: LIMERICK -a humorous five-line poem made up of thirteen (13) beats with an ―AABBA‖ rhyme scheme. The poem is named after the city of Limerick in Ireland. What is an example of a LIMERICK? There was a young boy from Caboo, (3 beats) Who had trouble tying his shoe. (3 beats) He said to his ox, (2 beats) “I’ll just walk in my socks.” (2 beats) Now all of his friends do that, too! (3 beats)
  55. 55. FORM: QUATRAIN -a four-line poem of any kind. They are often combined to form a larger poem. Its rhyme scheme may be ―AABB,‖ ―ABAB,‖ ―ABCB,‖ or ―ABBA.‖ What is an example of a QUATRAIN? A robin sitting in a tree (A) Turned her head and winked at me, (A) She sang a song as if to say, (B) “I’m glad to see you here today.” (B) There is nothing quite so peaceful As the sound of gentle rain, (B) Pitter-pitter-patting (C) Against my window pane. (A) (B)
  56. 56. Dew on grass blades , On petals , make them shine Dry pale scattered leaves, In autmn ,also look fine !
  57. 57. FORM: ENJAMBMENT  The running over of a line or thought into the next line without a strong break or pause  Example: I’m feeling rather sleepy, but I really don’t know why. I guess it is the way the day has spun out of control.
  58. 58. FORM: FREE VERSE  Poetry that does not contain regular patterns of rhyme and rhythm. The lines flow more naturally and have ―everyday speech‖ rhythm. Poets who write in free verse often use the sound devices we have already discussed. Here’s an example from May Swenson’s ―Southbound on the Freeway: They all hiss as they glide, like inches, down the marked tapes. Those soft shapes, shadowy inside the hard bodies – are they their guts or their brains
  59. 59. Allegory: A story in which the characters represent abstract qualities or ideas. For example, in westerns, the sheriff represents the good, and the outlaw represents evil.
  60. 60. Blank verse: Unrhymed lines of poetry usually in iambic pentameter. Plenty of modern poetry is written in blank verse.
  61. 61. Dramatic Monologue: A poem with a fictional narrator addressed to someone whose identity the audience knows, but who does not say anything.
  62. 62. Elegy: A poem mourning the dead.
  63. 63. Epic: A long poem narrating the adventures of a heroic figure—for example, Homer’s The Odyssey.
  64. 64. Fable: A story that illustrates a moral often using animals as the character—for example, The Tortoise and the Hare.
  65. 65. Iambic pentameter: Ten-syllable lines in which every other syllable is stressed. For example: ―With eyes like stars upon the brave night air.‖
  66. 66. Lyric: A type of poetry that expresses the poet’s emotions. It often tells some sort of brief story, engaging the reader in the experience.
  67. 67. Monologue: A long speech by one character in a play or story.
  68. 68. Myth: A legend that embodies the beliefs of people and offers some explanation for natural and social phenomena.
  69. 69. Parody: A humorous, exaggerated imitation of another work.
  70. 70. Quatrain: A four-line stanza.
  71. 71. Soliloquy: A monologue in which a character expresses his or her thoughts to the audience and does not intend the other characters to hear them.
  72. 72. Sonnet: A fourteen-line poem written in iambic pentameter. Different kinds of sonnets have different rhyme schemes.
  73. 73. Guess the figure of speech used???  The tree clawed at Jack with its bony fingers.  Wondrous words are whispered into the window of the waiting world.  Zing! went the speeding baseball.
  74. 74. Guess …..???  The wandering cat was a thief on the prowl.  My sister is as sweet as a Hershey's candy bar.  That box weighs a hundred pounds!
  75. 75. The flowers begged for water
  76. 76. She sleeps like a log
  77. 77. You snore louder than a freight train
  78. 78. Its not your cup of tea
  79. 79. Tongue –twister /alliteration ? A tutor who tooted the flute Tried to tutor two tooters to too Said the two to the tutor ―is it tougher to toot , Or to tutor two tooters to toot.‖
  80. 80. The wind screams as it races around the park
  81. 81.  The light danced across the sky
  82. 82. Another delight to our senses Peter piper picked a peck of pickled pepper A peck of pickeled peppers peter piper picked If Peter piper picked a peck of pickled pepper Where’s the peck of pickled pepper Peter piper picked ?
  83. 83. Analyze the poem ! love is more thicker than forget more thinner than recall more seldom than a wave is wet more frequent than to fail
  84. 84. it is most mad and moonly and less it shall unbe than all the sea which only is deeper than the sea
  85. 85. And guess the writer from the style ! love is less always than to win less never than alive less bigger than the least begin less littler than forgive it is most sane and sunly and more it cannot die than all the sky which only is higher than the sky
  86. 86.  It is E .E . Cummings
  87. 87. Analyze this one ! To sleep on a wintery night A meal of choice A hill station journey A long drive effortless A lake by lush green Napping on a summer noon Walking on dry leaves in autmn Listening their crackling , rustling sound
  88. 88. Guess the author ! Far away that line of horizon Light blue azure , and dripping drops of rain Sight of blooming flowers And wavering waves by rocky beach A flying plane , a far off sailing ship Chirping of sparrows, flight of eagle All seem meaningless , If no second is there But nicest things on earth If someone along is to stare !