By: Emma Mariz Garcia
Integumentary System
Function of the Skin
Protection
 Covers internal structure and protects them from the
external envir...
Function of the Skin
Sensory reception
 Specialized nerves in the skin
 Receive messages of touch, pressure, pain and
te...
Layers of the Skin
 3 Major Layers
a. Epidermis
b. Dermis
c. Subcutaneous
Epidermis
 Outer layer
 Thin
 Divided into 2 layers
-Stratum Germinativum
 Superior to dermis
 Produce cells of epide...
Dermis
 Region of connective tissue
 Under epidermis
 Contains collagenous and elastic fibers
 There are flexible, but...
Subcutaneous
 Under the dermis
 Fatty layer
 Energy Storage
 Insulation
 Protection
 Can result in obesity
Other parts of skin
Hair
 Project from follicles in the dermis
 Smooth muscles attached to hair root
Nails
 Grow from n...
Other parts of skin
Sweat glands
 Found in all regions of the skin
 Evaporate cooling
Sebaceous glands
 Secrete oil int...
Skin
 A.K.A Integument which means “covering”
 Insulates and cushions the deeper body organ
 Protects the entire body f...
Skeletal System
Function of the Skeletal System
 Supports the body
 Protects innards
 Production of blood cells
 Provi...
Skeletal System
Made up of 206 different bones
4 Basic Shapes
Long bones: Femur
Short bones: wrist and ankle
Flat bones : ...
Skeleton is divided in to
Parts
 Axial Skeleton : 80 bones. Which forms the
longitudinal axis in the body (skull, vertebr...
Parts of the Bone Structure
Parts of the Bone Structure
 Periosteum
 tough outer cover of the bone
 Contains blood vessels
 Compact bone
 Dense b...
Parts of the Bone Structure
 Spongy bone
 Lighter and less dense than compact bon
 Still strong
 Marrow
 Red and yell...
Parts of the Bone Structure
 Epiphysis
 Expanded part of long bone at each end
 Diaphysis
 Part between epiphysis
 Ar...
Three Types of Bone Cells
 Osteoblast ( Bone forming)
 Osteocytes (Mature Bone Cells)
 Osteoclasts ( Bone Dissolving)
Fractures
 Breaks in bones
 Body able to repair
 Possible problems if not set by the doctor
 Main descriptors used wit...
Types of Fractures
 Comminuted: Bone breaks into many fragments
 Compression: Bone is crushed
 Depressed: broken bone p...
Muscular System
 Functions
 Produce movement
 Maintaining Posture
 Stabilizing joint
 Generalizing heat
Types of Muscles
 Smooth
 Involuntary
 Walls of hollow organs
 Cardiac
 Involuntary
 Skeletal
 Voluntary
 Attached...
Structure of Skeletal
Muscle
 Fascia
 Covering of muscle
 Become the tendons
 Myofibrils
 Muscle fibers
 Contraction
Parts of Myofibrils
 Actin
 Thin filaments
 Contraction
 Myosin
 Thick filaments
 Contraction
Nervous System
 Master controlling and communicating
system of the body
 3 functions
 Monitor changes occurring both in...
Nervous System
 Does not work alone in regulating and
maintaining body homeostasis
 Endocrine system is the 2nd
importan...
Structural Classification
 Central Nervous System
 consists of the brain and spinal cord
 act as integrating and comman...
PNS Functional Classification
 Sensory(afferent) Division
 keeps the CNS constantly informed of events going on both ins...
2 Principal types of cells
 Supporting cells
 Neurons
Supporting Cells in CNS
 “lumped together” as NEUROGLIA
 Has many types of cells that support,
insulate, and protect the...
CNS Glia
 Astrocytes
 star shaped cells
 account nearly half of the neural tissue
 form a living barrier between capil...
CNS Glia
 Microglia
 Spiderlike phagocytes
 It dispose debris, including dead brain cells and
bacteria
 Ependymal Cell...
CNS Glia
 Oligodendrocytes
 Wrap the flat extensions tightly around the nerve
fibers
 Produce fatty insulating covering...
PNS Glia
 Schwann Cells
 form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that
are found in CNS
 Satellite Cells
 Act as pr...
Functional Classification
and Structural
Classification
Sa book Lang lantaw. Kapoi Type
2 Major Functions of
Neurons
Irritability
the ability to respond to a stimulus and
convert it into the nerve impulse
Condu...
Central Nervous System
(Functional Anatomy of the Brain)
 Cerebral Hemispheres
 Called Cerebrum
 Most superior part of ...
 Parietal Lobe
 Cognition
 Information Processing
 Pain and Touch Sensation
 Spatial Orientation
 Speech
 Visual Pe...
 Damage to the left parietal lobe
 can result in what is called "Gerstmann's
Syndrome.
 includes right-left confusion
...
 Damage to the right parietal lobe
 can result in neglecting part of the body or space
(contralateral neglect), which ca...
 Bi-lateral damage (large lesions to both sides)
 can cause "Balint's Syndrome," a visual
attention and motor syndrome.
...
Frontal Lobe
 motor function
 problem solving
 Spontaneity
 Memory
 Language
 Initiation
 Judgment
 impulse contro...
 frontal lobe damage exhibit little spontaneous
facial expression, which points to the role of the
frontal lobes in facia...
Occipital Lobes
 center of our visual perception system
 Visual Perception
 Color Recognition
 not particularly vulner...
 trauma to the brain could produce subtle
changes to our visual-perceptual system, such as
visual field defects and scoto...
Temporal Lobe
 Emotional Responses
 Hearing
 Memory
 Speech
8 principle symptoms of
temporal lobe damage
1) disturbance of auditory sensation and perception
2) disturbance of selecti...
Diencephalon (Interbrain)
 Major Structures
 Thalamus
 relay station for sensory impulses passing upward
to the sensory...
Brain Stem
 Major Structures
 Midbrain
 Reflex centers involved w/ vision and hearing
 Pons
 Control of breathing
 M...
Reticular formation
 Involved in motor control of the visceral
organs
 Reticular Activating System (RAS)
 Plays a role ...
Cerebellum
 Provides precise timing for skeletal muscle
activity
 Controls our balance and equilibrium
Protection of the CNS
 Meninges
 connective tissue membranes covering and
protecting the CNS
 Meningeal Layer
 Dura Ma...
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Watery “broth” similar in its makeup to blood
and plasma
Contains less protein, more Vit. C, and ion
c...
Endocrine System
 Uses chemical messenger called HORMONES
Chemistry of Hormones
Hormones – chemical substances that are
secreted by the cells into the extracellular
fluid and regul...
Mechanism of Hormone Action
Target cells / Target organs
hormones affects only certain tissue cells/
organs
Major Endocrine Organs
 Pituitary
 Thyroid
 Parathyroid
 Adrenal
 Pineal
 Thymus glands
 Pancreas
 Gonads
Major Endocrine Organs
Hypothalamus is considered as a major
endocrine organ
Pituitary Gland
 Two functional Lobe
 Anterior Pituitary
 Posterior Pituitary
Hormones of Anterior
Pituitary
Tropic Hormones – stimulates the target organs
to secrete hormones
All AP hormones
 are pr...
Hormones of Anterior
Pituitary
 Growth Hormone
 Metabolic Hormone
 Major effects are directed to:
 Growth of skeletal ...
Hormones of Anterior
Pituitary
 Prolactin (PRL)
 protein hormone
 Known target is the “BREAST”
 Stimulates and maintai...
Hormones of Anterior
Pituitary
 Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
 influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gla...
Hormones of Posterior
Pituitary
 Oxytocin
 release during childbirth and nursing women
 stimulates powerful contraction...
Hormones of Posterior
Pituitary
 Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
 causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water from
the urine
 ...
Thyroid Gland
 Hormone producing gland
 Makes 2 hormones
 Thyroid Hormone – derive from colliod
 Calcitonin
Thyroid Gland
 Thyroid Hormone
 Body major’s metabolic hormone
 2 active iodine containing hormone
 Thyroxine (T4)
 M...
Thyroid Gland
 Calcitonin (Thyrocalcitonin)
 decreases blood calcium level
 made by the so-called C (parafollicular) ce...
Parathyroid Gland
 Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
 or parathormone
 Important regulator of calcium ion homeostasis of
the bl...
Adrenal Glands
 Hormones of Adrenal Cortex
 produces three major groups of steroid hormones
collectively called – CORTIC...
Hormones of Adrenal Cortex
 Mineralocorticoids
 mainly aldosterone
 important in regulating the mineral (salt) content
...
Hormones of Adrenal Cortex
 Glucocorticoids
 include cortisone and cortisol
 promote normal cell metabolism
 help the ...
Hormones of Adrenal Cortex
 Sex Hormones
 produced in relatively small amounts
 androgens ( male sex hormones)
 estrog...
Hormones of Adrenal Medulla
 Stimulated by sympathetic hormone
 Releases two similar hormones referred as
CATECHOLAMINES...
Pancreatic Islets
 Formerly called the “Islets of Langerhans”
 2 important hormones it produced:
 Insulin
 release by ...
Pineal Gland
 Function is still a mystery
 Secretes Melatonin
 it levels rise and fall during the course of the day and...
Thymus Gland
 Large in infants and children
 Decreases size throughout adulthood
 Produce a hormone THYMOSIN
 During c...
Anatomy and physiology
Anatomy and physiology
Anatomy and physiology
Anatomy and physiology
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Anatomy and physiology

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Anatomy and physiology

  1. 1. By: Emma Mariz Garcia
  2. 2. Integumentary System Function of the Skin Protection  Covers internal structure and protects them from the external environment Synthesizes Vit. D  Exposure to UV light causes skin to make vit. D  Liver and Kidney turn Vitamin D into calcitriol  Calcitriol regulates calcium and phosphorous production
  3. 3. Function of the Skin Sensory reception  Specialized nerves in the skin  Receive messages of touch, pressure, pain and temperature Temperature Regulation  Sweat gland w/in the skin  Evaporate cooling
  4. 4. Layers of the Skin  3 Major Layers a. Epidermis b. Dermis c. Subcutaneous
  5. 5. Epidermis  Outer layer  Thin  Divided into 2 layers -Stratum Germinativum  Superior to dermis  Produce cells of epidermis -Stratum Corneum  Tough layer of epidermis  Protects body from water loss and gain
  6. 6. Dermis  Region of connective tissue  Under epidermis  Contains collagenous and elastic fibers  There are flexible, but also resilient Sensory Nerves  Take nerve impulses from the skin
  7. 7. Subcutaneous  Under the dermis  Fatty layer  Energy Storage  Insulation  Protection  Can result in obesity
  8. 8. Other parts of skin Hair  Project from follicles in the dermis  Smooth muscles attached to hair root Nails  Grow from nail root  Visible part of the nail is nail body  Cuticle covers nail root
  9. 9. Other parts of skin Sweat glands  Found in all regions of the skin  Evaporate cooling Sebaceous glands  Secrete oil into the hair follicle  Waterproofing
  10. 10. Skin  A.K.A Integument which means “covering”  Insulates and cushions the deeper body organ  Protects the entire body from any damage  Upper most layer is full of “KERATIN and CORNIFIED”  Rich in capillary network and sweat gland
  11. 11. Skeletal System Function of the Skeletal System  Supports the body  Protects innards  Production of blood cells  Provide place for muscle attachment  Store various minerals and salts
  12. 12. Skeletal System Made up of 206 different bones 4 Basic Shapes Long bones: Femur Short bones: wrist and ankle Flat bones : Skulls and scapula Irregular Bones: Vertebrae
  13. 13. Skeleton is divided in to Parts  Axial Skeleton : 80 bones. Which forms the longitudinal axis in the body (skull, vertebrae, & bony thorax)  Appendicular Skeleton : composed of 126 bones of the limbs and the pectoral and pelvic girdles, which attach the limbs to the axial skeleton
  14. 14. Parts of the Bone Structure
  15. 15. Parts of the Bone Structure  Periosteum  tough outer cover of the bone  Contains blood vessels  Compact bone  Dense bone  Made of osteocytes
  16. 16. Parts of the Bone Structure  Spongy bone  Lighter and less dense than compact bon  Still strong  Marrow  Red and yellow
  17. 17. Parts of the Bone Structure  Epiphysis  Expanded part of long bone at each end  Diaphysis  Part between epiphysis  Articular Cartilage  Cartilage at a joint
  18. 18. Three Types of Bone Cells  Osteoblast ( Bone forming)  Osteocytes (Mature Bone Cells)  Osteoclasts ( Bone Dissolving)
  19. 19. Fractures  Breaks in bones  Body able to repair  Possible problems if not set by the doctor  Main descriptors used with fractures
  20. 20. Types of Fractures  Comminuted: Bone breaks into many fragments  Compression: Bone is crushed  Depressed: broken bone portion is pressed inward  Impacted: broken bone ends are into each other  Spiral: Ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to a bone  Greenstick: Bone breaks incompletely, much in the way a green twig breaks
  21. 21. Muscular System  Functions  Produce movement  Maintaining Posture  Stabilizing joint  Generalizing heat
  22. 22. Types of Muscles  Smooth  Involuntary  Walls of hollow organs  Cardiac  Involuntary  Skeletal  Voluntary  Attached to the skeleton
  23. 23. Structure of Skeletal Muscle  Fascia  Covering of muscle  Become the tendons  Myofibrils  Muscle fibers  Contraction
  24. 24. Parts of Myofibrils  Actin  Thin filaments  Contraction  Myosin  Thick filaments  Contraction
  25. 25. Nervous System  Master controlling and communicating system of the body  3 functions  Monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body (stimuli) and then gathered information is the sensory input  Processes and interpret the sensory input and makes decision what should be done (integration)  Effects as response by activating muscle or glands via MOTOR OUTPUT
  26. 26. Nervous System  Does not work alone in regulating and maintaining body homeostasis  Endocrine system is the 2nd important regulating system
  27. 27. Structural Classification  Central Nervous System  consists of the brain and spinal cord  act as integrating and command centers of the nervous system  Peripheral Nervous System  outside the CNS  Consists of nerves  Spinal Nerves – impulses to and from the spinal cord  Cranial Nerves – impulses to and from the brain
  28. 28. PNS Functional Classification  Sensory(afferent) Division  keeps the CNS constantly informed of events going on both inside and outside the body  Motor (efferent) Division  activate muscles and organs, they effect a motor response  2 subdivision  Somatic nervous system  Voluntary  Autonomic Nervous System  involuntary
  29. 29. 2 Principal types of cells  Supporting cells  Neurons
  30. 30. Supporting Cells in CNS  “lumped together” as NEUROGLIA  Has many types of cells that support, insulate, and protect the delicate neurons
  31. 31. CNS Glia  Astrocytes  star shaped cells  account nearly half of the neural tissue  form a living barrier between capillaries and neurons and play a role in making exchanges between the two  Help protects the neurons from harmful substances  Help control the chemical environment in the brain by picking up excess ions and recapturing release neurotransmitters
  32. 32. CNS Glia  Microglia  Spiderlike phagocytes  It dispose debris, including dead brain cells and bacteria  Ependymal Cells  Line the cavities of the brain and the spinal cord  Beating of their cilia helps to circulate the CSF that fills the cavities and forms a protective cushion around the CNS
  33. 33. CNS Glia  Oligodendrocytes  Wrap the flat extensions tightly around the nerve fibers  Produce fatty insulating coverings called myelin sheath
  34. 34. PNS Glia  Schwann Cells  form the myelin sheaths around nerve fibers that are found in CNS  Satellite Cells  Act as protective, cushioning cells
  35. 35. Functional Classification and Structural Classification Sa book Lang lantaw. Kapoi Type
  36. 36. 2 Major Functions of Neurons Irritability the ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it into the nerve impulse Conductivity the ability to transmit the impulse to other neurons, muscles, or glands
  37. 37. Central Nervous System (Functional Anatomy of the Brain)  Cerebral Hemispheres  Called Cerebrum  Most superior part of the brain  Enclose and obscure most of the brain stem  Gyri - elevated ridges of tissue cells  Sulci - shallow grooves that separates Gyri  Fissures – deeper grooves w/c separates large regions of the brain  Broca’s Area – involved in ability to speak
  38. 38.  Parietal Lobe  Cognition  Information Processing  Pain and Touch Sensation  Spatial Orientation  Speech  Visual Perception
  39. 39.  Damage to the left parietal lobe  can result in what is called "Gerstmann's Syndrome.  includes right-left confusion  difficulty with writing (agraphia)  difficulty with mathematics (acalculia).  It can also produce disorders of language (aphasia)  inability to perceive objects normally (agnosia).
  40. 40.  Damage to the right parietal lobe  can result in neglecting part of the body or space (contralateral neglect), which can impair many self-care skills  such as dressing and washing. Caused  difficulty in making things (constructional apraxia)  denial of deficits (anosagnosia)  drawing ability.
  41. 41.  Bi-lateral damage (large lesions to both sides)  can cause "Balint's Syndrome," a visual attention and motor syndrome.  inability to voluntarily control the gaze (ocular apraxia)  inability to integrate components of a visual scene (simultanagnosia)  inability to accurately reach for an object with visual guidance (optic ataxia)
  42. 42. Frontal Lobe  motor function  problem solving  Spontaneity  Memory  Language  Initiation  Judgment  impulse control  social and sexual behavior.
  43. 43.  frontal lobe damage exhibit little spontaneous facial expression, which points to the role of the frontal lobes in facial expression  Broca's Aphasia, or difficulty in speaking, has been associated with frontal damage  frontal damage displayed fewer spontaneous facial movements, spoke fewer words (left frontal lesions) or excessively (right frontal lesions).  difficulty in interpreting feedback from the environment
  44. 44. Occipital Lobes  center of our visual perception system  Visual Perception  Color Recognition  not particularly vulnerable to injury because of their location at the back of the brain
  45. 45.  trauma to the brain could produce subtle changes to our visual-perceptual system, such as visual field defects and scotomas  Damage to one side of the occipital lobe causes homonomous loss of vision with exactly the same "field cut" in both eyes.  visual hallucinations and illusions]
  46. 46. Temporal Lobe  Emotional Responses  Hearing  Memory  Speech
  47. 47. 8 principle symptoms of temporal lobe damage 1) disturbance of auditory sensation and perception 2) disturbance of selective attention of auditory and visual input 3) disorders of visual perception 4) impaired organization and categorization of verbal material 5) disturbance of language comprehension 6) impaired long-term memory 7) altered personality and affective behavior 8) altered sexual behavior.
  48. 48. Diencephalon (Interbrain)  Major Structures  Thalamus  relay station for sensory impulses passing upward to the sensory cortex  Hypothalamus  Regulate body temperature, water balance, and metabolism  Center of many drives and emotions  Epithalamus  Important parts  Pineal Body  Choroid Body – form the CSF
  49. 49. Brain Stem  Major Structures  Midbrain  Reflex centers involved w/ vision and hearing  Pons  Control of breathing  Medulla Oblongata  Centers that control  Heart rate  Blood pressure  Breathing  Swallowing  Vomiting
  50. 50. Reticular formation  Involved in motor control of the visceral organs  Reticular Activating System (RAS)  Plays a role in consciousness and the awake/sleep cycles  Damage to this area can result in permanent unconsciousness (coma)
  51. 51. Cerebellum  Provides precise timing for skeletal muscle activity  Controls our balance and equilibrium
  52. 52. Protection of the CNS  Meninges  connective tissue membranes covering and protecting the CNS  Meningeal Layer  Dura Mater  Outermost layer  “tough of hard mother”  Arachnoid mater  Middle layer  Pia Mater  Innermost layer
  53. 53. Cerebrospinal Fluid Watery “broth” similar in its makeup to blood and plasma Contains less protein, more Vit. C, and ion composition is different Forms a watery cushion that protects the fragile nervous tissue from blows and trauma
  54. 54. Endocrine System  Uses chemical messenger called HORMONES
  55. 55. Chemistry of Hormones Hormones – chemical substances that are secreted by the cells into the extracellular fluid and regulate the metabolic activity of other cells in the body
  56. 56. Mechanism of Hormone Action Target cells / Target organs hormones affects only certain tissue cells/ organs
  57. 57. Major Endocrine Organs  Pituitary  Thyroid  Parathyroid  Adrenal  Pineal  Thymus glands  Pancreas  Gonads
  58. 58. Major Endocrine Organs Hypothalamus is considered as a major endocrine organ
  59. 59. Pituitary Gland  Two functional Lobe  Anterior Pituitary  Posterior Pituitary
  60. 60. Hormones of Anterior Pituitary Tropic Hormones – stimulates the target organs to secrete hormones All AP hormones  are proteins (peptides)  act through second messenger systems  regulated by hormonal stimuli and in most cases, negative feedback
  61. 61. Hormones of Anterior Pituitary  Growth Hormone  Metabolic Hormone  Major effects are directed to:  Growth of skeletal muscles and long bones of the body  Play important role in determining final body size
  62. 62. Hormones of Anterior Pituitary  Prolactin (PRL)  protein hormone  Known target is the “BREAST”  Stimulates and maintains milk production  Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)  regulates the endocrine activity of the cortex portion of the adrenal gland
  63. 63. Hormones of Anterior Pituitary  Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland  Gonadotropic Hormone  Regulate the hormonal activity of the gonad  Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)  Stimulates follicle development in the ovaries  Luteinizing Hormone  triggers ovulation of an egg from the female ovary and causes the ruptured follicle to produce progesterone and some estrogen  Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone  LH in men  stimulates tertosterone production
  64. 64. Hormones of Posterior Pituitary  Oxytocin  release during childbirth and nursing women  stimulates powerful contractions of the uterine muscle  Causes milk ejection  Stop postpartum bleeding
  65. 65. Hormones of Posterior Pituitary  Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)  causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the urine  as a result urine volume decreases and blood volume increases  Increase BP by constricting the arterioles  sometimes referred as VASOPRESSIN
  66. 66. Thyroid Gland  Hormone producing gland  Makes 2 hormones  Thyroid Hormone – derive from colliod  Calcitonin
  67. 67. Thyroid Gland  Thyroid Hormone  Body major’s metabolic hormone  2 active iodine containing hormone  Thyroxine (T4)  Major hormone secreted by the thyroid follicle  Triiodothyronine (T3)  controls the rate @ w/c glucose in “burned”, or oxidized, and converted to body heat and chemical energy  important for normal tissue growth and development
  68. 68. Thyroid Gland  Calcitonin (Thyrocalcitonin)  decreases blood calcium level  made by the so-called C (parafollicular) cells found in connective tissue between the follicles  Released directly to the blood  Hypocalcemic hormone
  69. 69. Parathyroid Gland  Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)  or parathormone  Important regulator of calcium ion homeostasis of the blood  a hypercalcemic hormone  Stimulates the kidneys and intestine to absorb more calcium
  70. 70. Adrenal Glands  Hormones of Adrenal Cortex  produces three major groups of steroid hormones collectively called – CORTICOSTERIODS  Mineralocorticoids  Glucocorticoids  Sex Hormones
  71. 71. Hormones of Adrenal Cortex  Mineralocorticoids  mainly aldosterone  important in regulating the mineral (salt) content of the blood  Particularly Na & K concentration  Target is the KINDEY TUBULES that selectively reabsorb the minerals  Help regulate both water and electrolyte balance in body fluids
  72. 72. Hormones of Adrenal Cortex  Glucocorticoids  include cortisone and cortisol  promote normal cell metabolism  help the body to resist long0-term stressors  hyperglycemic hormones  control unpleasant effects of inflammation by decreasing edema  reduce pain by inhibiting some pain causing molecules called – PROSTAGLANDIN  released from the adrenal cortex in response to rising blood levels of ACTH
  73. 73. Hormones of Adrenal Cortex  Sex Hormones  produced in relatively small amounts  androgens ( male sex hormones)  estrogens (female sex hormones)
  74. 74. Hormones of Adrenal Medulla  Stimulated by sympathetic hormone  Releases two similar hormones referred as CATECHOLAMINES:  epinephrine (adrenaline)  norepinephrine  “misplaced sympathetic nervous system ganglion”
  75. 75. Pancreatic Islets  Formerly called the “Islets of Langerhans”  2 important hormones it produced:  Insulin  release by beta cells  acts on all body cells and increases the ability to transport glucose across the plasma membrane  Hypoglycemic effects  Glucagon  antagonist of the insulin  release by alpha cells  stimulated by low blood level of glucose  hyperglycemic effects
  76. 76. Pineal Gland  Function is still a mystery  Secretes Melatonin  it levels rise and fall during the course of the day and night  peak levels occur @ night that make us drowsy  daylight around noon is the lowest level  believe to be “sleep” trigger  plays important role in establishing the body’s day- night cycle  coordinate the hormones of fertility  inhibit the reproductive system
  77. 77. Thymus Gland  Large in infants and children  Decreases size throughout adulthood  Produce a hormone THYMOSIN  During childhood, Thymus acts as an incubator for the maturation of a special group of WBC (T cells)

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