Nervous System: a network of nerve cells andfibers that transmits nerve impulses betweenparts of the body. It acts as a highway for information to travel.It controls movement in the body and alsoconverts information for the brain to readand process. There are two nervous systems: The CentralNervous System & The Peripheral NervousSystem.
Dendrite: neuron branch which detects stimuli (changes in theenvironment) Cell Body: body of the neuron where normal metabolic activitiesoccur Axon: longest branch covered by a myelin sheath(whichprovides electrical insulation) -- carries nerve message or impulseto the axon terminals Myelin Sheath: provides electrical insulation Terminal Branches: release nerve chemicals which stimulateadjacent dendrites on the next neuron or a muscle cell Neurotransmitters: Nerve chemicals released at terminal brances
Sensory Neurons: neurons which only allowinformation to travel one way. They cantransmit information from receptors to the brainand to motor neurons. Motor Neurons: neurons which only allowinformation to travel one way. The transmitinformation from the brain and the spinal cordto the effectors.
Associative Neuron: allows the impulse togo from the Sensory Neurons to the MotorNeurons Receptors: any of the sensory organs (eyes,mouth, skin) Effectors: muscles or glands Ganglion: a group of nerve cells
Reflex Arc: the path an impulse takes 1. Receptor 2. Sensory Neuron 3. Associate Neuron 4. Motor Neuron 5. Effector
The Central Nervous System consists ofthe brain and spinal cord. The Peripheral Nervous System consists ofthe neurons.
The Spinal Cord is the pathway thatinformation travels from receptors to thebrain, and from the brain to the effector.
Cerebrum: The cerebrum controlsthought, language, reasoning,perception and voluntary movement.
Cerebellum: controls movement,balance and posture and is dividedinto two hemispheres.
The Medulla, or Brain Stem, controlsmost of the basic functions of life likebreathing, heart rate and bloodpressure.
The Hypothalamus controls body temperature,emotions, hunger, thirst The Basal Ganglia controls and coordinatesmovement. The PONS connects the brain to the spinal cord. The Hippocampus is important for memory. The Thalamus receives sensory information andmovement information.
1. What is the correct path of a reflex arc?2. Name one function that each of thefollowing controls: The Medulla, TheCerebrum3. Name three parts of a nerve cell.4. Name one part of the Central NervousSystem.5. Besides Central, what is the name for theother nervous system?6. Give an example of one effector and onereceptor.
1. Receptor → Sensory Neuron → AssociativeNeuron → Motor Neuron → Effector2. Medulla: Any involuntary actionCerebrum: Thought, Reason, or any voluntary action3. Axon, Dendrite, Cell Body, Myelin Sheath,Nodes of Ranvier, Terminal Branches4. Brain or Spinal Cord5. Peripheral Nervous System6. Effector: Any muscle or nerveReceptor: Any sensory organ (eyes, skin,etc.)