Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Central nervous-system


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Central nervous-system

  2. 2. Neuron: Nerve Cell <ul><li>Basic structural unit nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nerve fibers /dentrites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>axon </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Nerves <ul><li>Sensory Nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry messages to brain and spinal cord from body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor Nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry messages from brain and spinal cord to body </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Connecting or Mixed Nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry both sensory and motor messages </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Divisions of CNS <ul><li>CNS - central nervous system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consists of brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. any nerves outside the brain and spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Autonomic nervous system: controls involuntary body functions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Central Nervous System <ul><li>1. Brain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Mass of nerve tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Protected by membranes & the cranium or skull </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. C. Cerebrum <ul><li>Largest section of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reasoning, thought, memory, speaking, sensstion, sight, hearing, voluntary body movement </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. D. Cerebellum <ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coordination of muscles, balance, posture, & muscle tone </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. E. Midbrain <ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conducting impulses between brain parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>certain eye reflexes </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pons <ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conducting messages to other parts of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflex actions such as chewing, production of saliva </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. G. Medulla Oblongata <ul><li>Lowest part of brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulating heart beat, respirations, swallowing, coughing, b/p </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. 2. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Goes down back of body from Medulla Oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded and protected by vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for reflex actions </li></ul><ul><li>Carries sensory and motor messages </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3. Meninges <ul><li>Consists of 3 membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Covers and protects the brain and spinal cord </li></ul>
  15. 15. Three Membranes <ul><li>C. Dura mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thick, tough outer layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>D. Arachnoid membrane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>middle delicate weblike layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>E. Pia mater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inner most layer with blood vessels to nourish the nerves </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 4. Ventricles <ul><li>Four hallow spaces located in the middle of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Connected to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Filled with fluid called cerebrospinal fluid </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>Circulates continuously </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as shock absorber to protect brain and spinal cord </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Carries nurients to parts of brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>helps remove metabolic products & wastes </li></ul><ul><li>after circulation, absorbed into the blood vessels of the dura mater. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Made of all nerves outside the brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of cranial and spinal nerves </li></ul>
  20. 20. A. Cranial Nerves <ul><li>12 pairs & their branches </li></ul><ul><li>Some responsible for special senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell </li></ul><ul><li>Others receive sensations: touch, pressure, pain, temperature </li></ul>
  21. 21. B. Spinal Nerves <ul><li>31 pairs & their branches </li></ul><ul><li>carries messages to & from the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Both sensory and motor nerves </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>31 spinal nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 cervical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 thoracic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 lumbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 sacral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 coccygeal </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 3. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Helps maintain a balance in involuntary functions of the body. But allows the body to react in times of emergency. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2 divisions of ANS <ul><li>Sympathetic nervous system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>acts in emergency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>counter acts the sympathetic ns after the emergency </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>SNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase resp. rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase b/p </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease digestive system activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease heart rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease resp. rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decrease b/p </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increase digestive system activity </li></ul></ul>