Anatomi sistem saraf

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Anatomi sistem saraf

  1. 1. Essentials of Human Anatomy & Physiology Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Seventh Edition Elaine N. Marieb ANATOMI SISTEM SARAF Dr. ANNISA SITI ROHIMA
  2. 2. Anatomi Otak • Cerebrum • Cerebellum • Diencephalon – Thalamus – Hyothalamus • Batang Otak – Midbrain – Pons – Medulla oblongata
  3. 3. Fungsi Sistem Saraf 1. Input sensoris – mengumpulkan informasi  memonitor stimulus perubahan dari dalam dan luar tubuh 2. Integrasi – menyatukan informasi  memproses dan menginterpretasikan input sensoris dan memutuskan aksi output yang akan dilakukan 3. Output motorik  Respons terhadap stimulus yang terintegrasi  Respons dengan aktivasi otot atau kelenjar
  4. 4. Klasifikasi Struktural Sistem saraf • Sistem saraf pusat  otak  medulla spinalis • Sistem saraf perifer  saraf yang berada di luar otak dan medulla spinalis
  5. 5. Klasifikasi fungsional dari Sistem Saraf Perifer Slide 7.3aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Divisi Sensorik (afferent) Serabut saraf yang bertugas membawa infosmasi KE sistem saraf pusat Figure 7.1
  6. 6. Slide 7.3bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Divisi Motorik (efferent) Serabut saraf yang membawa impuls DARI sistem saraf pusat Figure 7.1 Klasifikasi fungsional dari Sistem Saraf Perifer
  7. 7. Slide 7.3cCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Divisi Motorik (efferent) Dua subdivisi Sistem saraf somatik = volunter Sistem saraf autonom = involunter Figure 7.1 Klasifikasi fungsional dari Sistem Saraf Perifer
  8. 8. Organisasi Sistem Saraf Slide 7.4Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.2
  9. 9. Jaringan saraf : sel penunjang (Neuroglia atau Glia) Slide 7.5Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Astrosit Melimpah, sel berbentuk bintang Brace neurons Membentuk barrier antara kapiler dan neuron Mengontrol lingkungan kimiawi dari otak) Figure 7.3a
  10. 10. Slide 7.6Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Microglia (CNS) Fagosit, Spider-like Membuang debris debris Sel Ependymal (CNS) Membatasi rongga dalam otak dan medulla spinalis Mengatur sirkulasi cairan serebrospinalis Figure 7.3b, c Jaringan saraf : sel penunjang (Neuroglia atau Glia)
  11. 11. Slide 7.7aCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Oligodendrosit (CNS) Produksi selubung myelin disekitar serabut saraf di sistem saraf pusat Figure 7.3d Jaringan saraf : sel penunjang (Neuroglia atau Glia)
  12. 12. Neuroglia vs. Neuron • Neuroglia bisa membelah diri. • Neuron tidak mampu membelah diri • Sebagian besar tumor otak adalah “gliomas” yang tumbuh dari neuroglia • Sebagian besar tumor otak melibatkan sel neuroglia , bukan neuron. • Consider the role of cell division in cancer!
  13. 13. Sel penunjang dari sistem saraf perifer Slide 7.7bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sel satelit Proteksi badan sel neuron Sel Schwann Membentuk selubung myelin pada sistem saraf perifer Figure 7.3e
  14. 14. Jaringan saraf: Neuron Slide 7.8Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neuron = sel saraf Sel khusus untuk transmisi pesan impuls Regio mayor dari neuron Badan sel – nucleus dan pusat metabolisme sel Processus – serabut yang menonjol dari badan sel (disebut dendrit dan akson)
  15. 15. Slide 7.9bCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Badan sel Nucleus Large nucleolus Figure 7.4a Anatomi Neuron
  16. 16. Anatomi Neuron Slide 7.10Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prosesus Dendrit – konduksi impuls menuju badan sel Akson – konduksi impuls dari badan sel ke tempat lain (only 1!) Figure 7.4a
  17. 17. Axons dan impuls saraf Slide 7.11Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Axons end in axonal terminals Axonal terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap Synaptic cleft – gap between adjacent neurons Synapse – junction between nerves
  18. 18. Penutup serabut saraf Slide 7.12Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sel Schwann – produksi selubung myelin in jelly-roll like fashion Nodus Ranvier – gaps in myelin sheath along the axon Figure 7.5
  19. 19. Application • In Multiple Scleroses the myelin sheath is destroyed. • The myelin sheath hardens to a tissue called the scleroses. • This is considered an autoimmune disease. • Why does MS appear to affect the muscles?
  20. 20. Lokasi badan sel neuron Slide 7.13Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sebagian besar terdapat di sistem saraf pusat Substansia grisea – badan sel dan serabut tak bermyelin Nuclei – sekelompok badan sel dalam substansia alba di sistem saraf pusat Ganglia – gabungan dari badan sel di luar sistem saraf pusat
  21. 21. Klasifikasi fungsional neuron SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neuron Sensorik (afferent) Carry impulses from the sensory receptors Cutaneous sense organs Proprioceptors – detect stretch or tension Neuron Motorik (efferent) Carry impulses from the central nervous system
  22. 22. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Interneuron (neuron penghubung) Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system Menghubungkan antara neuron sensorik dan motorik Klasifikasi fungsional neuron
  23. 23. Slide 7.15Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.6 Klasifikasi fungsional neuron
  24. 24. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neuron Multipolar – banyak penonjolan dari badan selnya Figure 7.8a Klasifikasi struktural neuron
  25. 25. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neuron Bipolar – satu akson dan satu dendrit Figure 7.8b Klasifikasi struktural neuron
  26. 26. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neuron Unipolar – memiliki penonjolan prosesus tunggal dan pendek Figure 7.8c Klasifikasi struktural neuron
  27. 27. How Neurons Function (Physiology) Slide 7.17Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Irritability – ability to respond to stimuli Conductivity – ability to transmit an impulse The plasma membrane at rest is polarized Fewer positive ions are inside the cell than outside the cell
  28. 28. Starting a Nerve Impulse Slide 7.18Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Depolarization – a stimulus depolarizes the neuron’s membrane A deploarized membrane allows sodium (Na+) to flow inside the membrane The exchange of ions initiates an action potential in the neuron Figure 7.9a–c
  29. 29. The Action Potential Slide 7.19Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings If the action potential (nerve impulse) starts, it is propagated over the entire axon Potassium ions rush out of the neuron after sodium ions rush in, which repolarizes the membrane The sodium-potassium pump restores the original configuration This action requires ATP
  30. 30. Nerve Impulse Propagation Slide 7.20Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The impulse continues to move toward the cell body Impulses travel faster when fibers have a myelin sheath Figure 7.9c–e
  31. 31. Continuation of the Nerve Impulse between Neurons Slide 7.21Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Impulses are able to cross the synapse to another nerve Neurotransmitter is released from a nerve’s axon terminal The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter An action potential is started in the dendrite
  32. 32. How Neurons Communicate at Synapses Slide 7.22Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.10
  33. 33. The Reflex Arc Slide 7.23Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector Figure 7.11a
  34. 34. Simple Reflex Arc Slide 7.24Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.11b, c
  35. 35. Types of Reflexes and Regulation Slide 7.25Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic reflexes Smooth muscle regulation Heart and blood pressure regulation Regulation of glands Digestive system regulation Somatic reflexes Activation of skeletal muscles
  36. 36. Sistem Saraf Pusat (SSP) / Central Nervous System (CNS) Slide 7.26Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings SSP berkembang dari neural tube embrionik The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles Four chambers within the brain Filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  37. 37. Sistem saraf pusat
  38. 38. Regio Otak Slide 7.27Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hemisfer Cerebri Diencephalon Batang otak (medulla oblongata) Cerebellum Figure 7.12
  39. 39. Hemisfer cerebri (Cerebrum) SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sepasang (kanan dan kiri) bagian superior otak Include more than half of the brain mass Figure 7.13a
  40. 40. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Girus = bagian yang menonjol Sulcus = saluran antara 2 girus Figure 7.13a Hemisfer cerebri (Cerebrum)
  41. 41. Lobus pada Cerebrum SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fisura (saluran yang lebih dalam dari sulcus) membagi cerebrum jadi lobus Lobus di permukaan cerebrum Lobus Frontalis Lobus Parietalis Lobus Occipitalis Lobus Temporalis
  42. 42. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.15a
  43. 43. Area khusus pada Cerebrum Slide 7.30Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Area sensori somatik – menerima impuls dari reseptor sensorik tubuh Area motorik primer – mengirimkan impuls ke otot skeleton Area Broca’s area – terlibat dalam kemampuan berbicara
  44. 44. Area motorik dan sensorik otak Slide 7.31Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.14
  45. 45. Area khusus dalam Cerebrum SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Area otak yang terlibat dalam indera khusus Area Gustatorius: pengecap Area Visual Area Auditorius Area Olfactorius
  46. 46. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Area untuk interpretasi di otak Area bahasa/bicara Area asosiasi bahasa  lebih komprehensif Area asosiasi umum Area khusus dalam Cerebrum
  47. 47. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.13c Area khusus dalam Cerebrum
  48. 48. Lapisan otak SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Substansia grisea Lapisan luar Terdiri atas badan sel neuron Figure 7.13a
  49. 49. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Substansia alba Traktus fibrosa Contoh: corpus callosum yang menghubungkan kedua hemisfer cerebri Figure 7.13a Lapisan otak
  50. 50. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nuklei basalis – kumpulan substansia grisea interna Mengatur motorik volunter dengan modifikasi informasi ke korteks motoris Permasalahan = tidak mampu mengkontrol otot, spastic, jerky Terlibat dalam Huntington’s dan Parkinson’s Disease Figure 7.13a Lapisan otak
  51. 51. Diencephalon SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Berada di batang otak bagian atas stem Tertutupi oleh hemisfer cerebri Tersusun atas: Thalamus Hypothalamus Epithalamus
  52. 52. Diencephalon SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.15
  53. 53. Thalamus Slide 7.35Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dikelilingi oleh ventrikel ketiga The relay station for sensory impulses Transfers impuls ke korteks terkait untuk lokalisasi dan interpretasi
  54. 54. Hypothalamus SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Berada di bawah thalamus Pusat sistem saraf autonom yang penting Membantu regulasi suhu tubuh Kontrol keseimbangan cairan Regulasi metabolisme
  55. 55. Hypothalamus SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bagian penting dalam sistem limbik (emosi) Glandula pituitari melekat pada hypothalamus
  56. 56. Epithalamus Slide 7.37Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Membentuk atap ventrikel ketiga Tempat corpus pinealis (sejenis glandula endokrin) Meliputi juga plexus choroideus – pembentuk cairan cerebrospinal
  57. 57. Batang otak SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Melekat pada medulla spinalis Pembentuk batang otak: Otak tengah Pons Medulla oblongata
  58. 58. Batang Otak SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.15a
  59. 59. Otak tengah Slide 7.39Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Terdiri atas traktus serabut saraf Pusat refleks penglihatan dan pendengaran Terdapat aquaductus cerebri – ventrikel 3rd- 4th
  60. 60. Pons Slide 7.40Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bagian yang menonjol di tengah pada batang otak Sebagian besar terdiri atas traktus fibrosa Meliputi nuclei yang terlibat dalam kontrol pernafasan
  61. 61. Medulla Oblongata Slide 7.41Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bagian paling rendah dari batang otak Akan berlanjut dengan medulla spinalis Includes important fiber tracts Berisi pusat: Kontrol denyut jantung Regulasi tekanan darah Pernafasan Menelan Muntah
  62. 62. Cerebellum SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Terdiri atas dua hemisfer Pusat koordinasi gerakan tubuh involunter
  63. 63. Cerebellum SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.15a
  64. 64. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. CNS: Physical Support Figure 9.2a
  65. 65. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings. CNS: Physical Support Figure 9.2b
  66. 66. Cavitas cranialis
  67. 67. Cavitas cranialis basis cranii
  68. 68. Proteksi SSP SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings SCALP dan kulit Cranium dan columna vertebralis Meninges Figure 7.16a
  69. 69. Proteksi SSP SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cairan serebrospinalis Blood brain barrier Figure 7.16a
  70. 70. Meninges SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Dura mater Lapisan penutup eksterna dua lapis Periosteum – melekat pada permukaan cranium Lamina Meningealis – penutup luar otak Melipat ke dalam pada beberapa tempat
  71. 71. Meninges SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arachnoid layer Lapisan tengah Web-like Pia mater Lapisan interna Langsung melekat pada permukaan otak
  72. 72. Cerebrospinal Fluid Slide 7.46Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Komposisi menyerupai plasma darah Dibentuk oleh pleksus choroideus Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain Bersirkulasi di spatium arachnoideus, ventrikel, dan canalis centralis medulla spinalis
  73. 73. Ventrikel dan Lokasi cairan serebrospinalis SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.17a
  74. 74. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.17b Ventrikel dan Lokasi cairan serebrospinalis
  75. 75. Blood Brain Barrier Slide 7.48Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tersusun oleh kapiler yang dilengkapi kemampuan penyaringan khusus Molekul berbahaya sukar menerobos Molekul ini mampu menerobos: Substansi larut lemak Gas respirasi Alkohol Nikotin Anesthesia
  76. 76. Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) Slide 7.49Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concussion Slight or mild brain injury Bleeding & tearing of nerve fibers happened Recovery likely with some memory loss Contusion A more severe TBI Nervous tissue destruction occurs Nervous tissue does not regenerate Cerebral edema Swelling from the inflammatory response May compress and kill brain tissue
  77. 77. • Cerebral edema – Swelling from the inflammatory response – May compress and kill brain tissue • Subdural hematoma – Collection of blood below the dura • Standards for these conditions were revised in 2004. Please check out TBIs at Mayoclinic.com for more current information on diagnostic terminology.
  78. 78. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) Slide 7.50Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Commonly called a stroke The result of a ruptured blood vessel supplying a region of the brain Brain tissue supplied with oxygen from that blood source dies Loss of some functions or death may result
  79. 79. Alzheimer’s Disease Slide 7.51Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Progressive degenerative brain disease Mostly seen in the elderly, but may begin in middle age Structural changes in the brain include abnormal protein deposits and twisted fibers within neurons Victims experience memory loss, irritability, confusion and ultimately, hallucinations and death
  80. 80. Medulla spinalis Slide 7.52Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Memanjang dari medulla oblongata hingga setinggi T12 Di bawah T12 adalah cauda equina (sekumpulan serabut saraf spinalis) Pelebaran terjadi di regio cervicalis dan lumbaris Figure 7.18
  81. 81. Anatomi medulla spinalis SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bagian eksterior adalah substansia alba – traktus konduksi Figure 7.19
  82. 82. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bagian interna adalah substansia gracia – badan sel Cornu Dorsalis (posterior) Cornu Anterior (ventralis) Figure 7.19 Anatomi medulla spinalis
  83. 83. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Canalis centralis berisi cairan cerebrospinalis Figure 7.19 Anatomi medulla spinalis
  84. 84. Slide 7.54Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Meninges menutupi medulla spinalis Nervus keluar dari setiap foramen vertebra Radiks Dorsalis Associated with the dorsal root ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system Radiks Ventralis Anatomi medulla spinalis
  85. 85. Sistem saraf perifer Slide 7.55Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nervus dan ganglia di luar sistem saraf pusat Nervus = sekumpulan serabut saraf Serabut saraf disatukan oleh jaringan ikat
  86. 86. Struktur Saraf Slide 7.56Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Endoneurium melingkupi setiap serabut Sekelompok serabut saraf diikat menjadi fasikulus oleh perineurium Fasikulus dikumpulkan oleh by epineurium Figure 7.20
  87. 87. Klasifikasi Saraf Slide 7.57Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nervus campuran – memiliki serabut saraf sendorik dan motorik Nervus Afferent (sensorik) – membawa impuls ke sistem saraf pusat Nervus Efferent (motorik) – membawa impuls dari sistem saraf pusat
  88. 88. Nervus Spinalis Slide 7.63Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Terdapat 31 pasang nervus spinalis yang keluar dari vertebra.
  89. 89. Slide 7.64Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.22a Nervus Spinalis
  90. 90. Sistem Saraf Autonom Slide 7.67Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Merupakan cabang involunter dari sistem saraf Hanya terdiri dari serabut motorik Dibagi menjadi dua divisi: Divisi simpatis Divisi parasimpatis
  91. 91. Perbandingan Antara Saraf Somatic dan Autonom Slide 7.69Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.24
  92. 92. Anatomi Sistem Saraf Autonom Slide 7.73Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.25
  93. 93. Fungsi Autonomik SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Simpatis– “fight-or-flight” Respons pada stimulus unusual Takes over to increase activities Remember as the “E” division = exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment
  94. 94. SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Parasimpatis – housekeeping activites Konservasi energi Menjaga fungsi tubuh sehari-hari Remember as the “D” division - digestion, defecation, and diuresis Fungsi Autonomik
  95. 95. Development Aspects of the Nervous System SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonic development Any maternal infection can have extremely harmful effects The hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to develop
  96. 96. Development Aspects of the Nervous System SlideCopyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings No more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues for several years (new evidence!) The brain reaches maximum weight as a young adult However, we can always grow dendrites!
  97. 97. Pelindung Protektif (Meninges) • Dura mater jaringan ikat padat • Arachnoid jaringan ikat nonvaskuler • Pia mater sangat kaya pembuluh darah Covers surface of the brain and spinal cord and invaginates along cortical surface to form perivascular spaces
  98. 98. Cairan Cerebrospinalis • Dibentuk oleh plexus choroideus • Reabsorbsi menuju sinus saggittalis oleh villi arachnoideus • Proteksi otak dari trauma concussive • Membuang sampah metabolisme
  99. 99. Foramen of Monro
  100. 100. NERVUS CRANIALIS
  101. 101. NERVUS CRANIALIS
  102. 102. Nervus Cranialis • I: Olfactorius • II: Opticus • III: Oculomotorius • IV: Trochlearis • V: Trigeminalis • VI: Abducens • VII: Facialis • VIII:Vestibulocochlearis – Acousticicus • IX: Glossopharyngealis • X: Vagus • XI: Accessorius • XII: Hypoglossalis http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio201/cn/cra nial.htm
  103. 103. Nervus Olfactorius Mukosa Olfactorius (SVA)→ Cribriform foramina → Bulbus Olfactory
  104. 104. CN I: OLFACTORIUS • Nervus cranialis I • Fungsi : – penghidu • Clinical test for damage: – determine whether a person can smell something aromatic
  105. 105. Nervus Opticus Sel Ganglion (SSA) → canalis Opticus → Corpus geniculatum lateral
  106. 106. CN II: OPTICUS • Nervus cranialis II • Fungsi: – Vision/penglihatan • Clinical test for damage: – tests peripheral vision and visual acuity • Kerusakan : – kebutaan
  107. 107. Nervus Oculomotorius • Components – General somatic efferent fibers (GSE) – General visceral efferent fibers (GVE) • Main action supplies – Superior, inferior and medial recti; inferior obliquus; levator palpebrae superioris – Sphincter pupillea and ciliary muscle • Ciliary ganglion: lies between optic nerve and lateral rectus Oculomotor nerve
  108. 108. CN III: OCULOMOTORIUS • Nervus cranialis III • Fungsi: – Gerakan mata, membuka kelopak mata, konstriksi pupil, focusing, propriosepsi • Clinical tests for injury: – differences in pupil size; pupillary response to light; eye tracking • Efek kerusakan – dropping eyelid, dilasi pupil, double vision
  109. 109. CN IV: TROCHLEARIS • Nervus cranialis IV • Fungsi: gerakan mata dan propriosepsi • Clinical test for injury: ability to rotate eye inferolaterally • Efek kerusakan – double vision, patient tilts head toward affected side
  110. 110. Nervus Trigeminus
  111. 111. CN V: TRIGEMINUS • Nervus cranialis V • Fungsi: nervus sensoris pada wajah • Clinical test for injury: – corneal reflex; sense of touch, pain, and temperature; clench teeth; move mandible side to side • Efek kerusakan: – Kehilangan sensasi dan gangguan pengunyahan
  112. 112. Nervus Abducens
  113. 113. CN VI: ABDUCENS • Nervus cranialis VI • Fungsi: gerakan mata • Clinical test: lateral eye movement • Kerusakan : tidak mampu memutar bola mata ke samping; pada istirahat – mata rotadi ke arah medial karena aktivitas otot antagonis
  114. 114. Lesi nervus abducens
  115. 115. Nervus Facialis
  116. 116. CN VII: FACIALIS • Nervus cranialis VII • Fungsi: ekspresi wajah; perasa di lidah (sensorik) • Clinical test: motor functions – close eyes, smile, whistle, frown, raise eyebrows; taste • Efek kerusakan: ketidakmampuan mengontrol otot wajah; gangguan perasa di lidah
  117. 117. Nervus Vestibulocochlearis Vestibular ganglion(SSA) ↘ ↗ Vestibular nuclei Internal acoustic meatus Cochlear ganglion (SSA) ↗ ↘ Cochlear nuclei
  118. 118. CN VIII: VESTIBULOCOCHLEARIS • Nervus cranialis VIII • Fungsi: pendengaran dan equilibrium (keseimbangan) • Clinical tests: test hearing, balance, and ability to walk a straight line • Efek kerusakan: tuli, pusing, mual, kehilangan keseimbangan dan nystagmus
  119. 119. CN IX: GLOSSOPHARINGEUS • Nervus cranial IX • Fungsi: menelan, salivasi, muntah; sensasi nyeri, tekanan dan rasa di lidah; sensasi nyeri pada faring dan telinga eksterna • Clinical tests: gag reflex, swallowing, and coughing • Efek kerusakan: kesulitan menelan
  120. 120. CN X: VAGUS • Nervus cranialis X • Fungsi: menelan, merasakan makanan, berbicara, respirasi, cardiovaskuler, regulasi saluran gastrointestinal; sensai lapar, kenyag dan fungsi intestinal discomfort • Clinical tests: test with cranial nerve IX • Efek kerusakan: suara serak atau menghilang; gangguan menelan dan motilitas pencernaan
  121. 121. Superior laryngeal nerve External branch Internal branch NERVUS VAGUS
  122. 122. CN XI: ACCESSORIUS • Nervus cranialis XI • Fungsi: menelan; gerakan kepala, leher dan bahu • Clinical tests: rotate head and shrug shoulders against resistance • Efek kerusakan: gangguan gerak kepala, leher dan bahu; paralysis m. sternocleidomastoid
  123. 123. Nervus Hipoglossus Hypoglossal nerve
  124. 124. CN XII: HIPOGLOSSUS • Nervus cranialis XII • Fungsi: gerakan lidah ketika berbicara, manipulasi makanan, dan menelan • Clinical test: tongue function • Efek kerusakan: gangguan bicara dan menelan; atrofi lidah; lidah tidak bisa menjulur keluar (protrusi)
  125. 125. SISTEM INDERA
  126. 126. Eye Anatomy http://everlastingelephants.blogspot.com/2009/08/what-is-eye-cataract.html
  127. 127. Eye Anatomy • Conjunctiva (Conj): – Thin, clear layer of skin – Covering of the front of eye – Covers the sclera and the inside of the eyelids – Function: • Keeps bacteria and foreign material from getting behind eye http://www.images.missionforvisionusa.org/anatomy/2005/11/conjunctiva-answers.html
  128. 128. Eye Anatomy • Sclera (S): – “White of the eye” – Tough, opaque tissue that extends around the eye – Surrounds the eye and gives the eye its shape – The sclera is attached to the extraocular muscles http://www.thirdeyehealth.com/sclera.html
  129. 129. Eye Anatomy • Extraocular Muscles – 6 extraocular muscles that are attached to each eye – Help move the eye left, right, up, down and diagonally – These 6 muscles are: • Superior rectus • Inferior rectus • Medial rectus • Lateral rectus http://media.photobucket.com/image/introduction%20to%20eye%20anatomy/trimurtulu/Eye.jpg
  130. 130. Overview of the anatomy of the external ear, middle ear and internal ear
  131. 131. Gross Anatomy of the Middle Ear
  132. 132. Gross Anatomy of the Inner Ear
  133. 133. Anatomy of the Cochlea

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