Anatomy And Physiology Of The Nervous System Ch12


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Anatomy And Physiology Of The Nervous System Ch12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 The Nervous System By: Norma Gongora
  2. 2. Organs of the Nervous System <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Cord </li></ul>
  3. 4. The Brain <ul><li>It is one of the largest organs in the body, and coordinates most body activities. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the center for all thought, memory, judgment, and emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Each part of the brain is responsible for controlling different body functions, such as temperature regulation and breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 sections to the brain: cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon and brain stem. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Cerebrum <ul><li>It is the largest section of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>It is located in the upper portion of the brain and is the area that processes thoughts, judgment, memory, problem solving, and language. </li></ul><ul><li>The outer layer of the cerebrum is the cerebral cortex, which is composed of folds of gray matter. </li></ul><ul><li>The cerebrum is subdivided into the left and right halves called cerebral hemispheres. Each hemisphere has 4 lobes. </li></ul>
  5. 7. Lobes of the Cerebrum <ul><li>1. Frontal lobe : Most anterior portion of the cerebrum, controls motor function, personality, and speech </li></ul><ul><li>2. Parietal lobe : The most superior portion of the cerebrum, receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors and interprets language. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Occipital lobe : The most posterior portion of the cerebrum, controls vision. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Temporal lobe : The left and right lateral portion of the cerebrum, controls hearing and smell </li></ul>
  6. 8. The Cerebellum <ul><li>Second largest portion of the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Located beneath the posterior part of the cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Aids in coordinating voluntary body movements and maintaining balance and equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Refines the muscular movement that is initiated in the cerebrum </li></ul>
  7. 9. Brain Stem <ul><li>Midbrain — acts as a pathway for impulses to be conducted between the brain and the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Pons means bridge—connects the cerebellum to the rest of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata — most inferior positioned portion of the brain; it connects the brain to the spinal cord. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Spinal Cord <ul><li>Protected by cerebrospinal fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>Inner core of the spinal cord contains gray matter. </li></ul><ul><li>The outer portion of the spinal cord is myelinated white matter. </li></ul>
  9. 12. Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Includes both the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and the 31 pairs of spinal nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>A nerve is a group or bundle of axon fibers located outside the central nervous system that carries messages between the CNS and the various parts of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether a nerve is cranial or spinal is determined by where the nerve originates. </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial nerves arise from the brain, mainly at the medulla oblongata. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Involved with the control of involuntary or unconscious bodily functions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is divided into two branches: sympathetic branch and parasympathetic branch. </li></ul><ul><li>The sympathetic nerves stimulate the body in times of stress and crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>The parasympathetic nerves serve as a counterbalance for the sympathetic nerves. </li></ul>
  11. 14. Somatic Nerves <ul><li>Serve the skin and skeletal muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>These are also the nerves that carry motor commands to skeletal muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Large variety of sensory receptors found in the dermis layer of the skin use somatic nerves to send their information, such as touch, temperature, pressure, and pain, to the brain. </li></ul>