A6 herbergerk

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A6 herbergerk

  1. 1. Course Project: Analysis of a Special Education Issue Katherine Herberger Walden University EDUC-6720P-3 Special Educator as Instructional Leader
  2. 2. Collaboration Between Special and General Educators: The Importance of Common Planning and Professional Development Time for Cooperative Teachers
  3. 3. What is Cooperative Teaching? <ul><li>Cooperative or co-teaching is an instructional delivery approach in which a classroom teacher and a special education teacher (or other special services professional) share responsibility for planning, delivering, and evaluating instruction for a group of students, some of which have exceptional needs. </li></ul><ul><li>*Successful implementation of the Co-Teaching model requires </li></ul><ul><li>careful implementation planning and oversight as well as training </li></ul><ul><li>with follow-up support for the educators involved. </li></ul>(Bond, 2011)
  4. 4. Importance of Cooperative Planning <ul><li>Cooperative planning is where co-teachers develop: </li></ul><ul><li>* Lessons that address unique academic or behavioral needs for English language learners or students with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>* Accommodations and modifications to ensure specific students‘ needs are met in the co-taught setting. </li></ul><ul><li>In order for collaboration to be effective, a specific time to plan needs to be designated during the school day. If there is not time set aside to discuss plans, review upcoming tests, consider modifications, accommodations, and implementation of I.E.P. goals, it will be extremely difficult to have a successful inclusive classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>(Murawski, 2004) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problem <ul><li>Making time for collaboration is essential and I believe that the High School I teach at must: </li></ul><ul><li>1.) Make mandatory changes to include a common planning time period within co- teachers’ schedules. </li></ul><ul><li> 2.) Provide professional development opportunities about co-teaching practices within the school district. </li></ul>As a special educator and teacher leader I have been asked to sacrifice planning time for other duties!
  6. 6. Structural, Political, and Cultural Context Why Co-Teach? <ul><li>Federal Legislation that influenced the issue of co-planning time: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997): </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for the inclusion of students with disabilities in rigorous academic and general education curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>2. No Child Left Behind (2001): </li></ul><ul><li>Calls for instruction to be delivered by a teacher who is highly qualified in their content area and for all students to be held to the same high academic standards. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Amendment to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004): </li></ul><ul><li>According to the IDEA’s least restrictive environment or mainstreaming policy, school districts are required to educate students with disabilities in regular classrooms with their non-disabled peers so they have access to the general education curriculum, to the highest extent appropriate (Jimenez & Graf, 2008). </li></ul>
  7. 7. School Culture <ul><li>The more time spent with one’s co-teaching partner, the more positive school culture, morale, and communication will be. </li></ul><ul><li>(Villa, 2004) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Analysis of Data <ul><li>1. Schools that contain four to five common planning periods for co-teachers each </li></ul><ul><li>week show significant progress in the teaching and learning practice (Hines, 2008). </li></ul>3. Teachers that tend to meet on a regular basis to common plan are more positive in their interactions than teachers with low levels of common planning time (Danielson, 2006). 2. The greater the occurrence and extent of common planning time, the greater students achieve (Hines, 2008) 4. Co-teachers that meet more frequently have a higher level of communication (Bond, 2011).
  9. 9. Effective Co-Teaching <ul><li>Requires: </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughtful planning time. </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative support. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-planning - where the alignment of special and general education occurs, this time should be as focused as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 1 weekly scheduled co-planning time. </li></ul><ul><li> (Murawski, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Weekly Scheduled Co </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Time: </li></ul><ul><li>Co-teaching teams should have at least one scheduling/planning period (45–60 minutes) per week. </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced teams should spend  10 minutes to plan each lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>(Walther -Thomas, 1997) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Solution – Common Planning Time Reform <ul><li>The reform would require: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Co-teachers to have at least one prep period off together for co-planning and professional development opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A proficient increase in teacher professional development opportunities, which will ensure that special educators and content area teachers are ready for what will be a considerable increase in co-planning time. </li></ul><ul><li>3. A substitute or administrator to cover classes once per week for special education teachers who co-teach with more than one partner or a release from teaching duties so co-teachers can have a period to plan. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Administrators to schedule students with disabilities first. Once schedules are developed, then the special educators, working collaboratively, create their own schedules designed to best meet the needs of students and ensure plan time with their co-teaching partners. </li></ul>After discussing this issue with the Principal and Supervisor of Special Education of the high School where I am employed, they have committed to designing and implementing a common planning time reform initiative to be in affect for the 2012-2013 school year.
  11. 11. Administrative Responsibilities <ul><li>The master schedule must be articulated according to common planning periods. Co-teachers need to be provided with opportunities to meet everyday. They must have compatable instructional philosophies. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick your teachers carefully! </li></ul><ul><li>1 good teacher + 1 good teacher = a great co-teaching pair. </li></ul><ul><li>1 good teacher + 1 bad teacher = a nightmare! </li></ul><ul><li>Understand that co-teaching is a fluid process and it deserves reflection and practice. The teachers deserve applause for taking risks. And when the risks don’t work, they need support. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide information and encourage proactive preparation from teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess level of collaboration currently in place. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to promote co-teaching, substantive information about this collaborative arrangement must be provided and teachers must be encouraged to proactively prepare for this change. </li></ul><ul><li>It is my goal along with the supervisor of special education to assist the principal in providing ample staff development opportunities and information regarding cooperative teaching. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Example: High School Schedule with Co-Planning Time Implemented Coordinate Peer Tutoring Program – Strategy Instruction Coordinate Peer Tutoring Program – Strategy Instruction Coordinate Peer Tutoring Program – Strategy Instruction Coordinate Peer Tutoring Program – Strategy Instruction Coordinate Peer Tutoring Program – Strategy Instruction 2:30-3:00 Chemistry* Biology Chemistry* Biology Chemistry** 1:00-2:30 Lunch/Team Planning Lunch/Team Planning Lunch/Team Planning Lunch/Team Planning Lunch/Team Planning 10:30-1:00 Biology/Integrated Science Integrated Science/Biology Biology/Integrated Science Integrated Science/Biology Biology/Integrated Science 9:00-10:30* Integrated Science Integrated Science Integrated Science Integrated Science Integrated Science 7:30-9:00 Friday Thursday Wednesday Tuesday Monday Time
  13. 13. Rational for Solution <ul><li>Time for co-planning and professional development will ensure that co-teachers create a classroom environment that meets the needs of all learners by giving them time to differentiate instruction, and apply the modifications and accommodations dictated by the IEP to the daily lesson plans. </li></ul><ul><li>Co-teachers require unencumbered time to plan classroom activities and coordinate instructional responsibilities. Without a co-planning time to collaborate, the students are missing out on optimum instruction and the best education possible (Fennick & Liddy, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Schools that contain four to five common planning periods for co-teachers each week show significant progress in the teaching and learning practice. Furthermore, the greater the occurrence and extent of common planning time, the greater students achieve (Fennick & Liddy, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers that tend to meet on a regular basis to common plan are more positive in their interactions than teachers with low levels of common planning time (Walther-Thomas, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Co-teachers that meet more frequently have a higher level of communication (Bond, 2011). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Implications the Solution Will Have for Administrators, Special and General Educators, Students, and Parents <ul><li>Administrators: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Must promote cooperative/collaborative teaching arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Are responsible for providing staff development opportunities that encourage teachers and administrators to participate in classes, workshops, seminars, and/or professional conferences on cooperative teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Must ensure that all resources will be available, including time, money, and professional assistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Special and General Educators: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Must collaborate and co-plan to have an effective co-teaching partnership. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Must develop a rapport with a future or present co-teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Are to plan appropriate lessons to ensure that student learning occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Students: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Will benefit from a successful cooperative teaching duo that will likely increase the learning outcomes for all students in the general education setting (Walther-Thomas, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Will be provided instruction by a content expert while receiving necessary modifications </li></ul><ul><li> and accommodations per their IEP. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Will become valued members of this collaborative team by designing and supporting the education program of their son or daughter, and sharing their dreams and aspirations for their children's futures. </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Bond, S. P. G., (2011) Effects of a co-teaching teaming program on the instructional practices of high school general and special education teachers [Abstract]. Retrieved fromhttp://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/11659/1/Bond_umd_0117E_12045.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Danielson, C. (2006). Teacher leadership that strengthens professional practice . Alexandria,VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Fennick, E. & Liddy, D. (2001) Responsibilities and preparation for collaborative teaching: co-teachers’ perspectives. Teacher Education and Special Education, 24(3), 229-240. </li></ul><ul><li>Hines, J. T., (2008) Making collaboration work in inclusive high school classrooms: recommendations for principals. Intervention in School Clinic , 43(5), 277-282. </li></ul><ul><li>Jimenez, T., & Graf, V. (2008). Education for all: Critical issues in the education of children and youth with disabilities. San Francisco: Jossey </li></ul><ul><li>Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Murawski, W. W. (2004). Tips and strategies for co-teaching at the secondary level. Teaching Exceptional Children, 36 (5), 52-58. </li></ul><ul><li>Villa, R. A., Thousand, J. Q., & Nevin, A. I. (2004). A guide to co-teaching. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Walther-Thomas K. S., (1997) Co-teaching experiences the benefits and problems that teachers and principals report over time. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(4), 395-407. </li></ul>

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