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Introduction to Special Education

Chapter 1 ppt slides that accompany SED 351 textvbook

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Introduction to Special Education

  1. 1. Chapter 1 1-1 The Purpose and Promise of Special Education William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Who Are Exceptional Children? <ul><li>Exceptional children differ from the norm (either below or above) to such an extent that they require an individualized program of special education </li></ul><ul><li>Four key terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impairment - The loss or reduced function of a body part or organ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability - Exists when an impairment limits the ability to perform certain tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handicap - A problem encountered when interacting with the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not all children with a disability are handicapped </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At risk - Children who have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability </li></ul></ul>1-2 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  3. 3. How Many Exceptional Children Are There? <ul><li>It is impossible to state the precise number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different criteria used for identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventive services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprecise nature of assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The child may be eligible at one point in time and not eligible at another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children in special education represent about 9% of the school age population </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 75% of students with disabilities receive at least part of their education in regular classrooms </li></ul>1-3 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional Children? <ul><li>Possible benefits of labeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing differences in learning and behavior is the first step to responding responsibly to those differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May lead to more acceptance of atypical behavior by peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps professionals communicate and disseminate research findings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding and resources are often based on categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps advocacy groups promote more awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes special needs more visible </li></ul></ul>1-4 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional Children? <ul><li>Possible disadvantages of labeling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on what students cannot do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May stigmatize the child and lead to peer rejection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May negatively affect self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause others to have low expectations for the student </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disproportionate number of culturally diverse groups are labeled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May take the role of fictional explanatory constructs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes away from the child’s individuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggest that there is something wrong with the child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labels have permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for keeping children out of the regular classroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires great expenditure that might be better spent on planning and delivering instruction </li></ul></ul>1-5 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Why Are Laws Governing the Education of Exceptional Children Necessary? <ul><li>An Exclusionary Past </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children who are different have often been denied full and fair access to educational opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Separate Is Not Equal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special education was strongly influenced by social developments and court decisions in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g., Brown v. Board of Education) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Equal Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All children are entitled to a free, appropriate public education </li></ul></ul>1-6 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  7. 7. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act <ul><li>Six Major Principles of IDEA </li></ul><ul><li>Zero Reject: Schools must educate all children with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation: Schools must used nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Free, Appropriate Public Education: An IEP must be developed for each child </li></ul><ul><li>Least Restrictive Environment: Must be educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Due Process Safeguards: Parents’ and children’s rights protected </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Decision Making: Schools must collaborate with parents </li></ul>1-7 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Related Legislation <ul><li>Gifted and Talented Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Gifted and Talented Children’s Education Act of 1978 provides financial incentives for states to develop programs for students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends civil rights to people with disabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends civil rights protection to private sector employment, all public services, public accommodation, and transportation </li></ul></ul>1-8 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  9. 9. What Is Special Education? <ul><li>Special education as intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventive: Designed to keep minor problems from becoming a disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remedial: Attempt to eliminate the effects of a disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensatory: Enable successful functioning in spite of the disability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special education as instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individually planned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-directed </li></ul></ul>1-9 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Current and Future Challenges <ul><li>Bridge the research-to-practice gap </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the availability and intensity of early intervention and prevention programs </li></ul><ul><li>Improve students’ transition from school to adult life </li></ul><ul><li>Improve the special education—general education partnership </li></ul>1-10 William L. Heward Exceptional Children: An Introduction to Special Education , 8e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

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