Have a print-out of this one in your slides or make sure the audience has the slide deck What this represents are the value measures that go with each of our objectives (you can see these nested with their sub-functions and objectives). To meet each objective, we asked certain “value questions” (Parnell et al, 2010). The answers to these helped us develop the scales by which we would rate the sample messages. Many of these scales come from the literature (i.e. XX source says best to have a url to more information, XX source says to have a graphic, etc) but in this case, values were subjectively assigned. In later research, we hope to work with more experts in the field to refine these point values so that they reflect a more accurate measure. The scale/values column shows each of the answers to the value question and corresponding point value that a message will receive if it answers the value question that way.
Iowa HS Presentation (Freberg)
Karen Freberg, Ph.D.
Introduction Karen Freberg, Ph.D. – University of Louisville Education: Ph.D., Communications (University of Tennessee) MA, Strategic Public Relations (University of Southern California) BS, Public Relations (University of Florida) Interests: Social media, Crisis Communications, and PR Social Media: FB, LinkedIn, Twitter (@kfreberg), and Pinterest Blog: www.karenfreberg.com/blog
So, what exactly is socialmedia?Social media combines “a widerange of online, word-of-mouth forumsincluding blogs, company sponsoreddiscussion boards and chat rooms,consumer-to-consumer e-mail, consumerproduct or service ratings websites andforums, Internet discussion boards andforums, microblogs” (Mangold & Faulds,2009, p.358). Social media integrates technology & social interaction with pictures, videos, words, and audio. Allows people to share different perspectives and sharing information / stories / experiences among online communities.
Social Media Stats for (2012) viaPR Daily & RaganCommunications The average Facebook user has 130 friends. 750 tweets per second are shared on Twitter. If Twitter was a country, itd be the 12th largest in the world. 3 million new blogs come online every month. 60 percent of bloggers are between 25 to 44 years old. 20 percent of bloggers have been blogging for more than six years. More than 5 million images are uploaded every day on Instagram.
Social Media & Crisis Practices “If communities depend on information for their survival in times of crisis, then communication technologies are their lifelines,” (“New technologies in emergencies and conflicts report,” 2010, p. 4). Emerging technologies have allowed people to feel they have more control over the crisis as well as more connection to the community (Shklovski, Burke, Kiesler, & Kraut, 2010). The speed of information sharing and the organic creation of viral key terms and hashtags create new challenges for risk and crisis communicators handling uncertainty and credibility issues in reputation
Examples of Social Media Crises Domino’s & YouTube Crisis (#disgustingdominos) Chile Mining Rescue (2010) – Statistics CDC & H1N1 Crisis (2009) Japanese Tsunami (2011) In 2012 alone Costa Concordia Penn State Henryville Tornadoes Aurora Colorado Shootings London 2012 Olympics (several cases)
Crises emerging w/research Penn State Crisis #Aurora Shootings in Colorado Hurricane Sandy
Social media platforms forcrisis Traditional Emerging• Blogs • Pinterest• Facebook • Instagram• Flickr • Social Games• Twitter • Augmented Reality• YouTube • Apps
Research Projects 1. Mobile Technologies and Crisis Communications; 2. Intention to Comply with Food Safety Messages via Social Media; 3. Quantitative and Qualitative Value Model based on Social Media Updates during Hurricane Irene to determine “good” crisis message;
Overview Mobile devices (ex. smart phones and tablets) equipped with social media applications allow crisis communicators the opportunity to create, curate, and disseminate information to impacted stakeholders in a crisis. Information can be shared via visual (photos and videos), textual (press releases and statements) or geolocation applications (updates and crowdsourcing capabilities) to reduce levels of uncertainty among risk bearers. Traditional social media outlets for crisis situations include Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. New emerging platforms and specializations
1. Mobile Technologies & CrisisCommunications (Palenchar & Freberg,2012) 1. Key Role for Social 2. Institutional and 3. Build Trust over Time Media during a Crisis Community through CommunityEvent – Leverage Social Infrastructural Barriers Outreach and Media Content of New Media Collaborative Decision Generators Technology Making 4. Internal and External 5. Transparency Environmental Scanning
2. Intention to Comply with Food Safety Messages via Social Media (Freberg, 2012)“The systematic study of effective [food] recall communications is in its infancy,” - Hallman & Cuite, 2010, p. 24 To remedy gaps in our understanding of social media and food safety crisis communications, consumer intent to comply with a food safety message was evaluated within the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991a, 1991b) through a 2x2 experimental design with four scenarios (message source x reliability).
RESULTS Influence of Message Source Intention to comply with the food safety message was greater when the message came from a professional source than from a user-generated source, which is consistent with the existing literature Message Reliability Confirmed and unconfirmed food safety messages had equivalent effects on the intention to comply with a food safety message. The reality that unconfirmed information carries the same weight as official, confirmed information leaves organizations vulnerable to rumor and misunderstanding. Theory of Planned Behavior
3. Value Modeling for Social Media Updatesduring Hurricane Irene (Freberg, Saling,Vidoloff, & Eosco, 2012) Measures are phrased in the form of objectives with a maximum or minimum value assigned to them that indicates the optimal result (Parnell et al., 2011). A good qualitative value model is one that is “collectively exhaustive and mutually exclusive,” meaning that it is as complete as possible without introducing redundancy. Figure displays the overall functional hierarchy of the system with function, subfunctions, and qualitative value measures.
Method A total of 2,157 updates were collected from August 22 to September 1, 2011 from the social media monitoring site Social Mention during the time Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States. Data was collected and downloaded into CSV files for analysis. Scale items were incorporated into model based on previous crisis communication and social media literature Integration of qualitative and quantitative value modeling techniques A set of best practices and propose a simple baseline model for what comprises a “good” crisis message, using the collected Hurricane Irene data as a proof-of-concept model.Review of the Formulate Scale Qualitative Value Quantitative Academic Best Items Model Value Model Practices Literature
Quantitative Value ModelFunctions: Value question Scale/Values:F01 Communicate Quickly Max comm speed VM01_1 Quick and honest response? High quality and quick 10 Medium quality and quick 5 Low quality and quick 2 High quality and slow Max value of comm VM01_2 Reporter present on ground during crisis? On site 10 At agency 8 Not local 5Functions: Value questionF02 Be Credible Max credibility scale VM02_1 Internal or external crisis origin? Internal origin 10 External origin 8 VM02_2 Attribution of crisis responsibility? Good crisis responsibility response 10 Medium crisis resp. response 5 Bad crisis responsibility response 0 VM02_3 History of similar crises? No history 10 One event 8 Two events 6 Three or more events VM02_4 Level of consistency? High rating 10 Medium rating 5 Low rating 0 VM02_5 Traditional media outlet? News personality 7 News agency 8 Government agency 10 OtherFunctions: Value questionF03 Be Accurate Max accuracy scale VM03_1 Presence of topical keywords? 10+ words with references (hashtag) 10 5-9 words with references 8 1-4 words with references 5 No references VM03_2 Real time monitoring links, graphics etc? Link to updates + good graphic 10 Link to updates + graphic 8 Link to static info + good graphic 7 Link onlyFunctions: Value questionF04 Be Simple Max value of comm VM04_1 Conversational/"real" voice? High conversational rating 10 Medium conversational rating 5 Low conversational rating 0Functions: Value questionF05 Be Complete Max # of resources VM05_1 Info about safety given? Good info + link to updates 10 Info only 7 No info 0 VM05_2 Info about sources of relief? Good info + link to updates 10 Info only 7 No info 0 Link to facebook VM05_3 Secondary messages in different medium? Link to video 8 Link to website 10 Link to Twitter account 8 account VM05_4 Relevant response and rescue user data? High relevance 10 Medium relevance 5 Low relevance 0Functions: Value questionF06 Communicate Broadly Max follow/RT VM06_1 Presence of hashtag? Yes 10 No 0 VM06_2 Presence of URL? Yes 10 No 0 VM06_3 Ability to forward message during crisis? Twitter Retweet option 10 Facebook share option 10
What are the best practices to effectively communicate via social media in a crisis situation? Integrating multimedia and links into updates. Proper use of hashtags and tagged keywords. Coordinating efforts with relative parties and agencies in crisis with social media messages and hashtags. Focus messages on self efficacy, safety, and provide additional resources of information Communicate in a transparent manner and have a “real voice.” Balance between official and conversational updates in crisis.
Provide updates educating how followers and others should communicate needs and questions to authorities (ex. Project EPIC and Tweak the Tweet application) Several of the updates had hashtags associated with them that was related to the Hurricane Irene crisis Majority had links associated with update (ex. photos, news articles, videos, etc) Link that was most popular was to YouTube videos. Messages concerning safety, confirmed information, and including credible Twitter usernames in crisis (ex. Weather Channel)
Best Practices with SocialMedia Integrate social media practices as part of the daily routine – like checking what is going on in the news or email. Connecting with people online (establishing relationships) BEFORE a crisis occurs. Creating an engaging dialogue through an online channel. Opportunity to share experiences, stories, and real- time information relevant to audiences. Being consistent with content across all social media platforms as well in traditional media outlets. Social media is not for the short term – it is a long-term process and investment. Educate your organization & community about social media.
Monitor and evaluate conversations across social media platforms. Prepare a an evolving social media policy for training, education, and run scenarios / simulations in real-time. Manage relationships proactively - Be helpful and bring value to the conversation and relationship. Have proactive online reputation management practices. Integrate conversations across platforms and understand emerging trends. Information during crises has to be consistent across media channels and formatted to be presented though
Resources for Social Media & Crisis Social Media Sites Mashable: http://www.mashable.com Social Media Influence: http://www.socialmediainfluence.com Gerald Baron (Crisis): http://ww2.crisisblogger.com/ Melissa Agnes: http://www.melissaagnes.com Kim Stephens: www.idisaster.wordpress.com Government Social Media Resources Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Social Media: http://www.cdc.gov/socialmedia/ Department of Defense Social Media Guides: http://socialmedia.defense.gov/learning- and-resources/training/social-media-guides/ US Navy Social Media Handbook: http://www.slideshare.net/USNavySocialMedia/navy- command-social-media-handbook-web US Navy Social Media Guidebook: http://www.slideshare.net/Harbingyr/navy-social- media-guide New Media & the Air Force: www.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-090406-036.pdf Red Cross Social Media & Disasters online surveycommunications-in-social-media- are-you-ready.html