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Ri milan presentation (freberg et al)


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This presentation was for the RI Conference in Milan, Italy. The purpose of this presentation was to examine what makes a "good" crisis message via social media.

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Ri milan presentation (freberg et al)

  1. 1. Karen  Freberg,  Kris-n  C.  Graham,  Kathleen  G.  Vidoloff,  &  Gina  Eosco    
  2. 2. Researchers for Research Study •  Karen Freberg, Ph.D. – University of Louisville •  Major Kristin C. Graham – United States Military Academy at West Point •  Kathleen G. Vidoloff, Ph.D. – Oregon Health Authority •  Gina Eosco – Cornell University & American Meteorological Society (AMS)
  3. 3. OVERVIEW•  Advances in social media have opened a world of opportunities for crisis communication and reputation management professionals.•  Emerging technology communication platforms are transforming how risk and crisis communicators reach their audiences and partner agencies in emergencies and disasters.•  Practitioners and reputation managers can develop and disseminate timely and consistent crisis messages across multiple social media platforms.
  4. 4. Social Media within Reputation & Crisis Management Practices “If communities depend on information for their survival in times of crisis, then communication technologies are their lifelines,” (“New technologies in emergencies and conflicts report,” 2010, p. 4).•  Emerging technologies have allowed people to feel they have more control over the crisis as well as more connection to the community (Shklovski, Burke, Kiesler, & Kraut, 2010).•  The speed of information sharing and the organic creation of viral key terms and hashtags create new challenges for risk and crisis communicators handling uncertainty and credibility issues in reputation management practices.
  5. 5. Purpose of Research"I cannot stress this highly enough: If you are in the projected path of this hurricane, take precautions now. The federal government has spent the better part of last week working … to see to it that were prepared. All indications point to this being a historic hurricane."  -­‐  President  Barack  Obama,  August  26,  2011  •  Focuses on the social media analysis and modeling of Hurricane Irene, which impacted most of the East Coast of the United States in August 2011.•  Determine what constitutes to have a “good” crisis message during a disaster or crisis situation, such as a natural disaster.
  6. 6. Justification of Research•  Previous research within social media and crisis communications has yet to delve into what constitutes a “good” crisis messages. •  For example, do emergency messages need to have a hashtag and a photo? •  What if an emergency message only has a link? •  How effective are emergency messages that have a personal touch(e.g., use of text, voice, or video).RQ1: What are the main attributes constitutes what a “good” crisismessage appearing on social media?RQ2: What are the best practices to effectively communicate viasocial media in a crisis situation?
  7. 7. Method •  A total of 2,157 updates were collected from August 22 to September 1, 2011 from the social media monitoring site Social Mention during the time Hurricane Irene hit the East Coast of the United States. –  Data was collected and downloaded into CSV files for analysis twice a day at 8 am and 8 pm EST. •  Scale items were incorporated into model based on previous crisis communication and social media literature •  Integration of qualitative and quantitative value modeling techniques –  A set of best practices and propose a simple baseline model for what comprises a “good” crisis message, using the collected Hurricane Irene data as a proof-of-concept model. Review  of  the   Formulate  Scale   Qualita-ve  Value   Quan-ta-ve  Value   Best  Academic  Literature   Items   Model   Model   Prac-ces  
  8. 8. Qualitative Value Model•  Objectives are phrased in the form of a goal with a maximum or minimum value assigned to them that indicates the optimal result (Parnell et al., 2011).•  A good qualitative value model is one that is “collectively exhaustive and mutually exclusive,” meaning that it is as complete as possible without introducing redundancy.•  Figure displays the overall functional hierarchy of the system with function, subfunctions, and qualitative value measures.
  9. 9. Quantitative Value ModelFunc;ons:   Value  ques;on   Scale/Values:  F01   Communicate  Quickly   Max  comm  speed   VM01_1   Quick  and  honest  response?   High  quality  and  quick   10  Medium  quality  and  quick   5  Low  quality  and  quick   2  High  quality  and  slow   Max  value  of  comm   VM01_2   Reporter  present  on  ground  during  crisis?   On  site   10  At  agency   8  Not  local   5  Func;ons:   Value  ques;on  F02   Be  Credible   Max  credibility  scale   VM02_1   Internal  or  external  crisis  origin?   Internal  origin   10  External  origin   8   VM02_2   ATribu;on  of  crisis  responsibility?   Good  crisis  responsibility  response   10  Medium  crisis  resp.  response   5  Bad  crisis  responsibility  response   0   VM02_3   History  of  similar  crises?   No  history   10  One  event   8  Two  events   6  Three  or  more  events   VM02_4   Level  of  consistency?   High  ra;ng   10  Medium  ra;ng   5  Low  ra;ng   0   VM02_5   Tradi;onal  media  outlet?   News  personality   7  News  agency   8  Government  agency   10  Other  Func;ons:   Value  ques;on  F03   Be  Accurate   Max  accuracy  scale   VM03_1   Presence  of  topical  keywords?   10+  words  with  references  (hashtag)   10  5-­‐9  words  with  references   8  1-­‐4  words  with  references   5  No  references   VM03_2   Real  ;me  monitoring  links,  graphics  etc?   Link  to  updates  +  good  graphic   10  Link  to  updates  +  graphic   8  Link  to  sta;c  info  +  good  graphic   7  Link  only  Func;ons:   Value  ques;on  F04   Be  Simple   Max  value  of  comm   VM04_1   Conversa;onal/"real"  voice?   High  conversa;onal  ra;ng   10  Medium  conversa;onal  ra;ng   5  Low  conversa;onal  ra;ng   0  Func;ons:   Value  ques;on  F05   Be  Complete   Max  #  of  resources   VM05_1   Info  about  safety  given?   Good  info  +  link  to  updates   10  Info  only   7  No  info   0   VM05_2   Info  about  sources  of  relief?   Good  info  +  link  to  updates   10  Info  only   7  No  info   0   Link  to  facebook   VM05_3   Secondary  messages  in  different  medium?   Link  to  video   8  Link  to  website   10  Link  to  TwiTer  account   8  account   VM05_4   Relevant  response  and  rescue  user  data?   High  relevance   10  Medium  relevance   5  Low  relevance   0  Func;ons:   Value  ques;on  F06   Communicate  Broadly   Max  follow/RT   VM06_1   Presence  of  hashtag?   Yes   10  No   0   VM06_2   Presence  of  URL?   Yes   10  No   0   VM06_3   Ability  to  forward  message  during  crisis?   TwiTer  Retweet  op;on   10  Facebook  share  op;on   10  
  10. 10. Descriptive Statistics•  Researchers took first 480 updates from Social Mention sample to analyze initial coding of the crisis messages.•  The top expert mentions via Twitter included the following Twitter accounts: @breakingnews (N=39), @cfnews13 (N=37), and @atlanticwatch (N=43).•  Other statistics –  209 had embedded URLs –  262 had graphics –  22 had @ twitter references –  9 had hashtangs (#keyword)
  11. 11. Best Messages
  12. 12. ResultsRQ1: What are the main attributes constituteswhat a “good” crisis message appearing on socialmedia?•  Several of the updates had hashtags associated with them that was related to the Hurricane Irene crisis•  Majority had links associated with update (ex. photos, news articles, videos, etc)•  Link that was most popular was to YouTube videos.•  Messages concerning safety, confirmed information, and including credible Twitter usernames in crisis (ex. Weather Channel)
  13. 13. •  RQ2: What are the best practices to effectively communicate via social media in a crisis situation? –  Integrating multimedia and links into updates. –  Proper use of hashtags and tagged keywords. –  Coordinating efforts with relative parties and agencies in crisis with social media messages and hashtags. –  Focus messages on self efficacy, safety, and provide additional resources of information –  Communicate in a transparent manner and have a “real voice.” –  Balance between official and conversational updates in crisis. –  Provide updates educating how followers and others should communicate needs and questions to authorities (ex. Project EPIC and Tweak the Tweet application)
  14. 14. Discussion•  Social media offers many benefits for organizations, including daily monitoring and crisis management both of which impact reputation management and issues management (Heath & Palenchar, 2009).•  Inconsistency across agencies and news regarding the use of hashtags.•  Use of Twitter and YouTube as primary references to crisis messages. –  Breaking news and Visual components necessary for effective crisis messages•  Understanding what constitutes as being a “good” crisis message•  Further research needs to explore this across different platforms
  15. 15. Future Recommendations for Research &Practice•  Implications for this research include guidelines for effective crisis communication and reputation management monitoring through social media platform.•  Implications to tiers & sub categories for key terms within social media•  Convergence of social media and mobile technologies in communicating during crisis.•  Real-time implications for brand, individual, and corporate reputation via social media.
  16. 16. Questions or Comments? Thank you very much.Karen  Freberg,  Ph.D.   Email:    Assistant  Professor     Website:  University  of  Louisville   Blog:   TwiYer:  @kfreberg  Louisville,  KY  40292