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  1. 1. Meningitis By: Joe Martin
  2. 2. What is Meningitis? <ul><li>Meningitis is the inflammation of the lining around the brain and spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Infection by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites </li></ul><ul><li>Haemophilus Influenza Organism </li></ul>
  3. 4. Meninges of the Brain <ul><li>These are the structures involved in meningitis, an inflammation of the meninges, which, if severe, may become encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Meninges of the Spine <ul><li>These are the structures involved in meningitis, an inflammation of the meninges, which, if severe, may become encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Statistics <ul><li>There are nearly 3,000 cases every year in the U.S.  </li></ul><ul><li>Between 10-12 percent of the cases are fatal (about 300 to 360).  </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 20 percent who survive suffer long-term consequences, such as brain damage, kidney disease, hearing loss or limb amputations. </li></ul>
  6. 8. Who is at Risk? <ul><li>Adolescents and young adults have an increased incidence of meningococcal disease compared to the general population. </li></ul>The disease is especially significant among college students, since studies show freshmen living in dorms are particularly vulnerable to meningococcal disease.  Other risk groups include infants and young children, refugees, household contacts of case patients and military personnel.
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  8. 11. Is it Contagious? <ul><li>Yes </li></ul><ul><li>The disease is transmitted through air droplets and direct contact with infected persons (e.g., coughing, kissing or sharing utensils, drinking glasses, cigarettes, etc.).  </li></ul>
  9. 12. Symptoms <ul><li>Early symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden onset of fever </li></ul><ul><li>headache and stiff neck.  </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting, </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to light, altered mental status </li></ul><ul><li>Seizures </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated </li></ul><ul><li>Shock, death </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing loss, brain damage </li></ul><ul><li>Kidney disease </li></ul><ul><li>Limb amputations </li></ul>
  10. 14. Treatment <ul><li>It is treated with heavy doses of antibiotics. </li></ul><ul><li>Early treatment is essential to reduce the risk of death. </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics also should be given to those in close contact with a person who is diagnosed with meningitis. </li></ul>
  11. 15. Viral or Bacterial? <ul><li>Viral (caused by a virus) </li></ul><ul><li>Viral meningitis has similar symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>No vaccine protection against viral meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>Bacterial (caused by strains of bacteria residing in the throat or nasal passages).   </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-moving </li></ul><ul><li>The most potential for being fatal.   </li></ul>
  12. 16. Bacterial Causes <ul><li>Germs that cause bacterial meningitis are common and live naturally in the back of the nose and throat. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in a few people the bacteria overcome the body’s immune defences and pass through the lining of the nose and throat into the bloodstream. </li></ul>
  13. 17. Viral Causes <ul><li>Viral meningitis can develop as a result of infection with many different viruses such as : herpes simplex, chickenpox, measles, mumps or polio. </li></ul><ul><li>Viral meningitis can be spread between people sneezing or coughing, or even through poor hygiene. </li></ul>
  14. 18. Septicaemia <ul><li>More Life threatening form of the disease </li></ul><ul><li>It is a posioning of the blood </li></ul>
  15. 19. Diagnosis <ul><li>A lumbar puncture, or spinal tap, is a procedure to collect cerebrospinal fluid to check for the presence of disease or injury. </li></ul>
  16. 20. Diagnosis <ul><li>One of the physically demonstrable symptoms of meningitis is Brudzinski's sign. Severe neck stiffness causes a patient's hips and knees to flex when the neck is flexed. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Prevention <ul><li>There are vaccines that protect against some forms of meningitis </li></ul><ul><li>A meningococcal conjugate vaccine for use among persons aged 11 to 55 years.  </li></ul><ul><li>Also practice good hygiene </li></ul>