Bacterial & Viral Meningitis

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Comparing and Contrasting Bacterial and Viral Meningitis. This was done for my Microbiology class.

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Bacterial & Viral Meningitis

  1. 2. What is Meningitis ? <ul><li>Meningitis is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, and involves an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, called the meninges. </li></ul><ul><li>This inflammation can be caused by bacterial infections or viral infections. </li></ul>
  2. 3. General Characteristic for Bacterial Meningitis <ul><li>Majority of cases caused by 2 types of bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Neisseria meningitidis ; Commonly known as Meningococcal meningitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus pneumoniae ; Commonly known as Pneumococcal Meningitis. </li></ul>
  3. 4. General Characteristics for Bacterial Meningitis <ul><li>Neisseria meningitidis </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology: Cocci </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement: usually pairs (diplococci) or sometimes chains </li></ul><ul><li>Gram negative </li></ul><ul><li>Streptococcus pneumoniae </li></ul><ul><li>Morphology: Cocci </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement: Usually chains, pairs, or even singles </li></ul><ul><li>Gram positive </li></ul>
  4. 5. General Characteristics for Viral Meningitis <ul><li>Most Commonly caused by enteroviruses. </li></ul><ul><li>Enteroviruses are small, non-enveloped, and single strand RNA. </li></ul><ul><li>Are heat and acid stable & can live on moist surfaces for hours. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Virulence Factors for Bacterial Meningitis <ul><li>Meningococci Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharide capsule inhibits osponophagocytosis, thus enhancing bacterial survival during invasion. </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete an IgA protease and produce factors that inhibit ciliary activity to escape host mucosal defenses . </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumococci Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Pneumolysin has been shown to damage endothelial cells and compromise the integrity of the blood-brain barrier </li></ul><ul><li>Glycosidase and hyaluronidase degrades components of the extracellular matrix and also facilitates development of meningitis. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Virulence Factors for Viral Meningitis
  7. 8. Signs & Symptoms <ul><li>fever </li></ul><ul><li>lethargy (decreased consciousness) </li></ul><ul><li>irritability </li></ul><ul><li>headache </li></ul><ul><li>photophobia (eye sensitivity to light) </li></ul><ul><li>stiff neck </li></ul><ul><li>skin rashes </li></ul><ul><li>seizures </li></ul>
  8. 9. Transmission <ul><li>Both viral meningitis and bacterial meningitis can be spread through contact with nose and throat secretions. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Sharing a glass, cup or eating utensil, coughing or sneezing into the face of another person, or sharing a cigarette. </li></ul><ul><li>Viral meningitis can also be transmitted by fecal contamination when an infected person sheds or excretes virus in his/her stool. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Treatment <ul><li>Treatment for bacterial meningitis usually involves intravenous antibiotics. The earlier the treatment is initiated, the better the outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment for viral meningitis is usually supportive (aimed at relieving symptoms). </li></ul><ul><li>There are no specific medications to treat the organisms that cause viral meningitis. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Prevention of Meningitis <ul><li># 1 way to prevent meningitis…. HANDWASHING !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Meningococcal conjugate vaccine </li></ul>
  11. 12. Why Be Concerned Meningitis? <ul><li>Approximately 100 to 125 cases of meningococcal meningitis occur on college campuses each year, and five to 15 students will die. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent neurological damage, including hearing loss, blindness, loss of speech, learning disabilities, behavior problems and brain damage, even paralysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Meningococcal meningitis strikes 1,400 to 3,000 Americans each year and is responsible for approximately 150 to 300 deaths. </li></ul>

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