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Man as Machine Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007 07906133649
Learning Objectives <ul><li>To understand the metaphor of humans as machines </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the limits of...
The Agenda <ul><li>Man as machine </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process Reengineering </li></ul><ul><li>The Limits of the Met...
Man as Machine 07906133649
The History <ul><li>Ancient tradition valuing rationality and cool logic above emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Hephaestus creati...
The History <ul><li>Ancient tradition valuing rationality and cool logic above emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Hephaestus creati...
Scientific Management <ul><li>1800+: science over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Applying scientific principles </li></ul><ul><l...
Taylorist Worker <ul><li>Schmidt </li></ul><ul><li>Obedient </li></ul><ul><li>Stupid </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by money ...
BPR 07906133649
The Traditional Evolution of Companies <ul><li>Evolution of Functional Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of systems, proce...
Unanswered Questions <ul><li>How long does it take to process an order? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does it cost to handle ...
BPR Emerging <ul><li>Hammer - former MIT computer science professor turned management consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Problem...
Re-engineering Processes <ul><li>e2e processes </li></ul><ul><li>Radical </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental </li></ul>079061336...
Definitions of BPR <ul><li>“ Re-engineering is the fundamental re-thinking and radical re-design of business processes to ...
Making a cup of tea…. 86 sec 07906133649 Get mug Put Tea in Mug Fill Kettle Boil Kettle Put O2 in Mug Remove Tea Put Milk ...
Making a cup of tea….BPI’d 07906133649 Get mug Put Tea in Mug Fill Kettle Boil Kettle Put O2 in Mug Remove Tea Put Milk in...
Making a cup of tea BPR’d 07906133649
Designing the system 07906133649
Assumptions <ul><li>Workers are Stupid and Replaceable </li></ul><ul><li>Managers are Omnipotent and Omniscient </li></ul>...
4. Critiquing the Machine 07906133649
Managerial Critiques <ul><li>One size fits all ? </li></ul><ul><li>High failure rates: soft BPR </li></ul><ul><li>Resistan...
BPR Failure or Fad? <ul><li>No single IT application - however sophisticated and state of the art it may be - could delive...
Moral Critiques <ul><li>Braverman: Deskilling </li></ul><ul><li>Increased surveillence & control </li></ul><ul><li>Automat...
Conclusions…. <ul><li>What the Tin Man needs…. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing evidence of machines as humans </li></ul><ul><...
Questions?
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Man As Machine: BPR and Taylor

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Man As Machine: BPR and Taylor

  1. 2. Man as Machine Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007 07906133649
  2. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>To understand the metaphor of humans as machines </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the limits of the metaphor </li></ul><ul><li>To learn the similarities of BPR and Taylorism </li></ul>07906133649
  3. 4. The Agenda <ul><li>Man as machine </li></ul><ul><li>Business Process Reengineering </li></ul><ul><li>The Limits of the Metaphor </li></ul>07906133649
  4. 5. Man as Machine 07906133649
  5. 6. The History <ul><li>Ancient tradition valuing rationality and cool logic above emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Hephaestus creating mecahnical servants </li></ul>07906133649
  6. 7. The History <ul><li>Ancient tradition valuing rationality and cool logic above emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Hephaestus creating mecahnical servants </li></ul><ul><li>Post-enlightenment ideal of a clock-work world </li></ul><ul><li>1900+ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap immigrant labour </li></ul></ul>07906133649
  7. 8. Scientific Management <ul><li>1800+: science over nature </li></ul><ul><li>Applying scientific principles </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected division in society </li></ul>07906133649
  8. 9. Taylorist Worker <ul><li>Schmidt </li></ul><ul><li>Obedient </li></ul><ul><li>Stupid </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated by money </li></ul><ul><li>“ This seems to be rather rough talk. And indeed it would be if applied to an educated mechanic….With a man of the mentally sluggish type of Schmidt it is appropriate”…. </li></ul>07906133649
  9. 10. BPR 07906133649
  10. 11. The Traditional Evolution of Companies <ul><li>Evolution of Functional Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Mix of systems, procedures, manual v automated etc….. </li></ul>07906133649 FINANCE HR SALES ORDERING OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Slow turn around time Inconsistent data Duplicated tasks No “Process” view
  11. 12. Unanswered Questions <ul><li>How long does it take to process an order? </li></ul><ul><li>How much does it cost to handle a customer complaint? </li></ul><ul><li>What data do we have on Customer X? </li></ul><ul><li>What does it cost to introduce a new line? </li></ul>07906133649
  12. 13. BPR Emerging <ul><li>Hammer - former MIT computer science professor turned management consultant </li></ul><ul><li>Problems facing companies not based on organisational structures but process structures (echoes of value chain) </li></ul><ul><li>Process structures are legacy structures developed incrementally and hence patched </li></ul><ul><li>Re-engineering vs. CQI/kaizen, TQM </li></ul><ul><li>Involves re-design & implementation - start with a clean sheet </li></ul>07906133649
  13. 14. Re-engineering Processes <ul><li>e2e processes </li></ul><ul><li>Radical </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental </li></ul>07906133649 FINANCE HR SALES ORDERING OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT MANAGING COMPLAINTS PROCESSING ORDERS RECRUITING STAFF MANAGEMENT
  14. 15. Definitions of BPR <ul><li>“ Re-engineering is the fundamental re-thinking and radical re-design of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service and speed” BPR Re-engineering the Corporation Michael Hammer & James Champey 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>“ the fat is not waiting around on top to be cut. It’s marbled in, and the only way you get it out is by grinding it up and frying it out.” (Hammer as quoted in Byrne, 1992) </li></ul>07906133649
  15. 16. Making a cup of tea…. 86 sec 07906133649 Get mug Put Tea in Mug Fill Kettle Boil Kettle Put O2 in Mug Remove Tea Put Milk in Mug Throw Tea Stir Drink (WAIT) 1 SEC 2 SEC 5 SEC 60 SEC 5 SEC 3 SEC 3 SEC 3 SEC 1 SEC Get Milk 3 SEC
  16. 17. Making a cup of tea….BPI’d 07906133649 Get mug Put Tea in Mug Fill Kettle Boil Kettle Put O2 in Mug Remove Tea Put Milk in Mug Throw Tea Stir Drink (WAIT) Get Milk 1 SEC 5 SEC 60 SEC 5 SEC 1 SEC 3 SEC 3 SEC 3 SEC 3 SEC 1 SEC 80 sec
  17. 18. Making a cup of tea BPR’d 07906133649
  18. 19. Designing the system 07906133649
  19. 20. Assumptions <ul><li>Workers are Stupid and Replaceable </li></ul><ul><li>Managers are Omnipotent and Omniscient </li></ul><ul><li>The organisation is perfect </li></ul><ul><li>Based on Taylorism? </li></ul>07906133649
  20. 21. 4. Critiquing the Machine 07906133649
  21. 22. Managerial Critiques <ul><li>One size fits all ? </li></ul><ul><li>High failure rates: soft BPR </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance from unions </li></ul><ul><li>The Production of Electronic Concrete </li></ul>07906133649
  22. 23. BPR Failure or Fad? <ul><li>No single IT application - however sophisticated and state of the art it may be - could deliver a sustained competitive advantage. Rather, advantage is obtained through the capability of an organization to exploit IT functionality on a continuous basis. </li></ul>07906133649 16% 39% 45% Fully satisfied Dissatisfied Partially satisfied Executive Satisfaction with Business Re-engineering Projects Arthur D. Little, 1993
  23. 24. Moral Critiques <ul><li>Braverman: Deskilling </li></ul><ul><li>Increased surveillence & control </li></ul><ul><li>Automation & Redundancies </li></ul><ul><li>Alienating workers </li></ul>07906133649
  24. 25. Conclusions…. <ul><li>What the Tin Man needs…. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing evidence of machines as humans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telemetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyborgs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Question of what we want in life </li></ul>07906133649
  25. 26. Questions?

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