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  • Motivation

    1. 2. Motivation & Stress Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007 07906133649
    2. 3. Learning objectives <ul><li>To understand content and process theories of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>To know how organisations attempt to manage employee motivation </li></ul><ul><li>To critique the theories, assumptions and practice of motivation literature </li></ul>07906133649
    3. 4. The Agenda <ul><li>What is Motivation? </li></ul><ul><li>Theories of Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Critiquing Motivation </li></ul>07906133649
    4. 5. What is Motivation? 07906133649
    5. 6. What is motivation? 07906133649 <ul><li>I am motivated (internal drive) </li></ul><ul><li>What am I motivated to do? </li></ul><ul><li>What is my motivation? </li></ul>
    6. 7. What motivates you? <ul><li>Motivators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security (physical, food, psychological) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power (position, money, authority) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social (peer-esteem, love, belonging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression (creativity, achievement, identity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why does it matter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you’re not motivated you’re dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour vs. Labour Power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost & inadequacy of supervision </li></ul></ul>I was saying &quot;I'm the greatest” long before I believed it. It's not that I'm so smart, it's just that I stay with problems longer.
    7. 8. Theories of Motivation 07906133649
    8. 9. Needs / Content Theories <ul><li>Needs / Content Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maslow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hertzberg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alderfer </li></ul></ul>Maslow Herzberg Hygiene Motivators Factors Maslow 07906133649
    9. 10. Process Theories <ul><li>Decision-making processes </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Vroom, Porter and Lawler, Adams </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy Theory: M = E x I x V </li></ul><ul><li>But…overly rational? Too many variables? </li></ul>Expectancy Effort - Performance Link E=0 No matter how much effort you put in, probably not possible to memorise the text in 24 hours Instrumentality Performance - Rewards Link I=0 Your tutor does not look like someone who has £1 million Valence Rewards - Personal Goals Link V=1 There are a lot of wonderful things you could do with £1 million 07906133649
    10. 11. Motivated to do what? <ul><li>All cultures have…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchies……but of what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex……..but with what? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups….but of what? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov and Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement (punishment / reward) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer pressure </li></ul></ul>07906133649
    11. 12. Managing Worker’s Motivations: HRM <ul><li>Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security - pay, insurance, job security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social - team work, feedback, socialising, respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power - authority, autonomy, decision-making, status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression - achievement, challenge, innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process: goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal Setting / Management by Objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific, measurable, attainable goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation </li></ul></ul>07906133649
    12. 13. Critique of Motivation 07906133649
    13. 14. The failure of organisational motivation? <ul><li>Failure? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most efforts = short-term improvements (Herzberg, 1968) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little evidence in most jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern programs do more harm than good e.g. portfolio careers, deregulation, flexiblity, temporary contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance motivators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stories and identities (Frese, 1982) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demotivated workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often have highly motivated lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience higher rates of mental illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redefine and lower their goals </li></ul></ul>07906133649
    14. 15. The social construction of motivation? <ul><li>Social Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism vs. religion, class, community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The American Dream </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The media rhetoric </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X-Factor, Dragon’s Den, The Apprentice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winners and losers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The mundane reality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stuck in middle management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routine and boredom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term successes </li></ul></ul>07906133649
    15. 16. When Motivation Succeeds…. <ul><li>Success? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>24 hour jobs (WFH, Mobiles, Laptops) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devolving responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enlarged jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When motivation does not equal achievement = inadequacy </li></ul><ul><li>Identity control tied up in high performance (e.g. TQM) </li></ul>07906133649
    16. 17. Stress <ul><li>Over-motivation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest motivated are the most stressed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workaholics: 1/3 of high-performers ‘addicted’ to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hours, stress and insecurity are increasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% of men exhausted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 of workers ‘extremely stressed’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4% days taken off sick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs £13bn / years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¾ executives report stress affects their health, happiness & home </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presented as a problem to be ‘managed’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress management techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counselling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You need stress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The ‘social construction’ of stress? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 20 th century phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary goal = to be happy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No more hygiene needs? </li></ul></ul>07906133649
    17. 18. <ul><li>Why ‘motivation’ and not ‘persuasion’? </li></ul>
    18. 19. Questions?