Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Technology and Organisations

2,708 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Technology and Organisations

  1. 1. Technology Dr. Joe O’Mahoney 2007 Questions: 07906133649
  2. 2. The Agenda <ul><li>What is Technology? </li></ul><ul><li>The Magic Bullet Theory (Determinism) </li></ul><ul><li>The Failure of the Bullet </li></ul><ul><li>Other Stories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Determinism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marxist Approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Construction </li></ul></ul>Questions: 07906133649 Agenda
  3. 3. What is Technology? <ul><li>Technolgy: a way of doing something </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achitecture, Facebook, Recipes, Printers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constrains and enables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organisational Implementations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No ‘neutral’ effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disrupts power relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintended consequences </li></ul></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  4. 4. The Magic Bullet Questions: 07906133649
  5. 5. <ul><li>Planned </li></ul><ul><li>Rational </li></ul><ul><li>Good </li></ul><ul><li>Determinist </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  6. 6. The Battle of Tours, A.D. 732 Saracens vs. Germans Questions: 07906133649 Questions: 07906133649
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Stirrup </li></ul>Triumph of Technology Questions: 07906133649
  8. 8. Philosophy of Determinism <ul><li>Technology strategy as rational and planned </li></ul><ul><li>Clear investment decision </li></ul><ul><li>Technology determines outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t account for social ‘translation’ </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t account for structural context </li></ul><ul><li>Preece, 1999; McLoughlin and Harris 1997 </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  9. 9. Rational, planned, strategic….. Source : Preece, D.A. Organisations and Technical Change: Strategy, Objectives and Involvement , Routledge/ITBP (1995), p.7.
  10. 10. The Failure of Rational Views? Questions: 07906133649
  11. 11. Failure of Magic Bullets <ul><li>Failures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>25% projects don’t meet requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31% projects cancelled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>53% over-run on costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>80% don’t meet objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NHS // 3G // Passport Service // Boo.com </li></ul></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  12. 12. Utility of the ‘Rational’ <ul><li>“ The telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communications. The device has no value.” Western Union 1876 </li></ul><ul><li>“ I see no reason to suppose that these machines will ever force themselves into general use.&quot; Duke of Wellington (1852) Referring to steam locomotives. </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.” Ken Olsen, President of DCE, 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>“ I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.” Thomas Watson, Chairman of IBM, 1943 </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  13. 13. Bigger failures? Questions: 07906133649
  14. 14. Different Views? Questions: 07906133649
  15. 15. A. Social Determinism? Questions: 07906133649
  16. 16. Social determinism? <ul><li>SRBs </li></ul><ul><li>Trains </li></ul><ul><li>Chariots </li></ul><ul><li>The Horse’s Arse </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  17. 17. Racist Architecture? <ul><li>Robert Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Low bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Social exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Winner, L. ‘Do Artefacts Have Politics?’ Daedelus 109 (1980) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Social Shaping of Technology (SST) <ul><li>Reflecting and affecting society </li></ul><ul><li>Technology as a political tool </li></ul><ul><li>Historical and material contraints </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  19. 19. B. Marxist
  20. 20. Control & Deskilling in Ford <ul><li>Skilled workers have more power, so…. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Automation of tasks </li></ul><ul><li>= Redundant, deskilled, weak workerforce </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. McDonaldization (Ritzer) </li></ul><ul><li>But… little evidence ( Nelson, D.1992 ‘Scientific management in retrospect’ in A mental revolution: Scientific management since Taylor ) </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  21. 21. Surveillence & Invisible Control <ul><li>The panopticon </li></ul><ul><li>You never know when you’re being watched </li></ul><ul><li>Self-disciplining </li></ul><ul><li>Prisons, asylums, car plants, the internet </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  22. 22. Technology as Capitalist Control <ul><li>Use by those managers to control & re-present workers </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial rhetoric of ‘modern’, ‘flexible’, “hi-tech” </li></ul><ul><li>Fit with capitalist consumerism of new things….. </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  23. 23. C. Social Constructivism Questions: 07906133649
  24. 24. A Matter of Interpretation? <ul><li>US hi-tech weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Hi-jacked with knives </li></ul><ul><li>Boeing 767 became a missile </li></ul><ul><li>Technology as a social product </li></ul>Questions: 07906133649
  25. 25. Bikes…. <ul><li>To Men </li></ul><ul><li>To Women </li></ul><ul><li>To Manufacturers </li></ul>Bijker, W. (1995): Of Bicycles, Bakelites, and Bulbs Questions: 07906133649
  26. 26. <ul><li>A range of options championed by different groups </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns are cultural, moral and political, not just technical </li></ul><ul><li>Change occurs through power struggles / consensus </li></ul>Social Constructivism Questions: 07906133649
  27. 27. Conclusions Questions: 07906133649
  28. 28. Sociological <ul><li>Social Determinist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology reflecting society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material and social constraints to new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marxist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees technology as ‘deskilling’ workers (Braverman, 1974) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology for surveillance & control (Sewell, 1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Constructivist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different groups seeing technology differently (Zuboff, 1988) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human aspects ignored (Walton & McKersie, 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Domination of technologists (Bailey, 1993; Preece, 1999) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Case Questions: 07906133649
  30. 30. Case Questions <ul><li>What are the costs and benefits of the introduction of the snowmobile for the Lapplanders? </li></ul><ul><li>Could the introduction of new technology have been better managed? How? </li></ul><ul><li>What different perspectives can be applied to help understand the effects of this technology? </li></ul>

×