Revision econ world]


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Revision econ world]

  1. 1. Geography GCSE Revision Edexcel Specification A
  2. 3. Sectors of Industry Most of this section is examined on paper 3H/1F <ul><li>What are they? </li></ul><ul><li>How do employment patterns differ between countries? </li></ul><ul><li>How do employment patterns change over time? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you display all of this graphically? </li></ul>
  3. 4. Key Q’s: Farming systems have different characteristics (What are they?) All farming systems have been experiencing change (What are they?) Economic World PRIMARY ACTIVITY Farming as a System <ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall / water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Land / soil </li></ul><ul><li>Labour (workforce) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital (money) </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds / fertiliser / pesticides </li></ul><ul><li>animals </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivation of crops </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. ploughing, </li></ul><ul><li>irrigation </li></ul><ul><li>Rearing of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Crops </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Animal products </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. milk / meat </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs: </li></ul><ul><li>To sell </li></ul><ul><li>Farmer’s own use </li></ul>Feedback <ul><li>Factors Affecting Farming </li></ul><ul><li>Social & Economic Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Capital (money </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Relief </li></ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul>Do you know your case studies? Intensive Wet Rice Farming Philippines EU Changes in the UK (CAP) <ul><li>Types of Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>1. Enterprise: </li></ul><ul><li>Arable </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul><ul><li>2. Intensity of Production: </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive </li></ul><ul><li>3. Subsistence/Commercial </li></ul>CAP – Make sure you know what is this and what changes it brought: Diversification Set-aside Quotas List examples of other primary activities.
  4. 5. Types of Farming – Global General Knowledge Specialisation Arable Pastoral Mixed Economic Status: Commercial farming Subsistence farming Intensity of Land Use: Extensive Intensive Political Organic What do all of these produce? Sugar cane in Brazil Plantation agriculture Sahara Desert Unsuitable Nile Valley, California Irrigation Southern Italy Mediterranean agriculture Netherlands Mixed farming Canadian Prairies Cereal cultivation Beef on the Pampas Livestock ranching (commercial pastoral) Rice farming in the Ganges Delta Intensive subsistence agriculture Amerindians in Amazonia Shifting cultivation Maasai in Kenya Nomadic herding Aborigines, Australia Nomadic Hunting Example Type of Farming
  5. 6. Factors Affecting Farming Human Factors Government aid Fertiliser Mechanisation Marketing Size of farm Competition for land Relief Temperature Physical Factors Soils Rainfall
  6. 7. Wet Rice Farming <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Maximo Casiendo’s farm at Barangay Bay </li></ul><ul><li>The Flora Community </li></ul>
  7. 8. Case Study: Changes affecting Farming Systems in the EU <ul><li>Home Farm, West Midlands But where is this??? </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep worth less than crisps! </li></ul><ul><li>Set aside: </li></ul><ul><li>EU funded scheme to reduce surpluses </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers are paid not to grow anything for 5 years (left fallow) </li></ul><ul><li>Payment = up to £300 per year! </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification to Caravans and B&B </li></ul><ul><li>Renting land out for Grazing </li></ul><ul><li>BUT – Think about what has happened in 2008 to farming and food </li></ul>
  8. 9. Common Agricultural Policy <ul><li>Created in 1962 </li></ul><ul><li>Aims: </li></ul><ul><li>To protect farmers’ incomes </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure reasonable and steady prices for consumers </li></ul><ul><li>To increase production to provide sufficient food supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Grants and subsidies – money for farmers who farm in difficult areas </li></ul><ul><li>Price support – a guaranteed minimum price for agricultural produce (may cause surpluses </li></ul><ul><li>Not sustainable – big changes in current news articles look them up. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Case Study: How is Farming Changing? <ul><li>Diversification: </li></ul><ul><li>This is when farmers develop business initiatives other than farming </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Barns converted in to holiday cottages, garden centres and farm shops </li></ul><ul><li>Tea shops </li></ul><ul><li>Agribusinesses: </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale, highly efficient farms </li></ul><ul><li>Organised on scientific and business principles </li></ul><ul><li>Includes a chain of suppliers and retailers </li></ul><ul><li>Belongs to a group of other farms </li></ul><ul><li>Able to reduce cost of inputs – economies of scale </li></ul>
  10. 11. Quick Quiz <ul><li>1. Make a list of all the factors that affect farming – you mind find it easier to split them into physical and human factors. </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are: </li></ul><ul><li>Arable farms </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoral farms </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed farms? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Explain what is meant by the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive farms </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive farms </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence farms </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial farms </li></ul><ul><li>4. What does CAP stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>5. What is diversification? </li></ul>
  11. 12. Factors affecting the location of secondary industries What is needed? Land Raw materials Energy Transport/communications (links) Labour Market Environment Capital
  12. 13. Economic Activities : 1. The location of manufacturing industries 2. The location of distribution industries The Economic World – SECONDARY ACTIVITIES ©C Dunne 2005 Industry as a System <ul><li>Inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><li>Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Power </li></ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul><ul><li>Capital (money) </li></ul><ul><li>Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Making the goods </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Finished product for the consumer or to other industries </li></ul><ul><li>Waste products </li></ul>Profit or Loss Profit Reinvested Uganda UK Employment Structure – label and explain. The first ‘chunk’ is primary, the second secondary and the last tertiary. What other types of economic activity are there? Location of Industry Where? Why? Case Studies : Heavy industry e.g. iron & steel Industry Footloose Industry e.g. Hi-tech industry Distribution Industry e.g. Argos, Stafford Can you interpret a Triangular Graph?
  13. 14. High-Tech Industries Bracknell Computer Development <ul><li>Why have they located here? (Where is it exactly?) </li></ul><ul><li>The following may give you a few clues but make sure you have re-read the case study. </li></ul><ul><li>These may be described as ‘footloose’ because they are not really restricted by the location factors of raw materials e.g. pc factories </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to opt for locations near major route ways e.g. M4 / M11 corridors You must mention the roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Also locate near university sites (Which Ones?)– research facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Would prefer sites that area aesthetically pleasing for their workers, Like what? Where? </li></ul>YOU NEED TO KNOW THIS CASE STUDY!
  14. 15. Formal and Informal sectors <ul><li>What are the differences? </li></ul><ul><li>What characterises an informal sector job? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the advantage of a formal sector job? </li></ul>
  15. 16. Some industries are classed as Heavy Industry e.g. Iron and steel <ul><li>South Wales – e.g. Ebbw Vale, Merthyr Tydfil </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Coalfields </li></ul><ul><li>Limestone </li></ul><ul><li>Iron ore </li></ul><ul><li>Flat site (of Valley) </li></ul><ul><li>River (Rhonda) – cooling finished product </li></ul><ul><li>Local settlements – work force </li></ul><ul><li>Port (gateway to the British Empire – market) </li></ul><ul><li>These areas are where industry used to be but then it moved for several reasons. </li></ul>
  16. 17. How did location factors change? <ul><li>Empire countries gained independence – more competition; market not as strong </li></ul><ul><li>Coal and iron ore reserves were becoming exhausted (running out!); seams were too thin to mine or inaccessible (making it more expensive to mine) </li></ul><ul><li>Original valley site not big enough for modern factories </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal areas were better as they were the areas where relatively cheap imported materials were coming in </li></ul><ul><li>There were better places in the world to make things that were cheaper – Place like Britain got rid of lots of their industries to countries like Brazil. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Brazil - Fiat <ul><li>What is a Trans National Company (TNC) </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Fiat move from Italy to Brazil? </li></ul><ul><li>Why did Fiat expand in Brazil? </li></ul>
  18. 19. Quick Quiz <ul><li>Name the 4 types of industry </li></ul><ul><li>How does this classification help when talking about the employment structure and development of a country? </li></ul><ul><li>Briefly define/explain the term system </li></ul><ul><li>List the important factors when considering the location of industry </li></ul><ul><li>What is heavy industry? </li></ul><ul><li>Which case study? Where? Why? What happened? </li></ul><ul><li>What is a footloose industry? </li></ul>