Changing industrial location

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Changing industrial location

  1. 1. Changing Industrial Location Key Idea: Changes in the importance of some locational factors can often lead to a new distribution of an industry. British Iron and Steel industry
  2. 2. How Iron + Steel is made <ul><li>Raw materials – iron ore + coke for heating furnaces (coke comes from coal) </li></ul><ul><li>Iron ore is heated in a blast furnace => pig iron </li></ul><ul><li>Pig iron + scrap metal are heated in a steel furnace => molten steel </li></ul><ul><li>Molten steel is rolled in a mill =>steel plate </li></ul>
  3. 3. Change over time British Iron + Steel industry <ul><li>3 phases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 th century (pre industrial stage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>19 th century (Industrial Revolution stage) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 th century (Modern stage) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 18 th century – Iron industry <ul><li>Resource based location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron ore mine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forests – wood for charcoal (for furnaces) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers/streams – water for power (water wheel) + transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example; Forest of Dean </li></ul><ul><li>When no trees left => relocate </li></ul>
  5. 5. 19 th century – Iron industry <ul><li>Coalfield location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam replaced water for power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coke replaced charcoal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal mine provided coke and power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canals transported raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example South Wales </li></ul><ul><li>When no coal left => relocate </li></ul>
  6. 6. 20 th century – Iron and Steel <ul><li>Coastal location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Import more and cheaper iron ore, scrap metal and coal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil/gas => electricity => power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat land </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example Port Talbot </li></ul><ul><li>Iron and steel processes came together => Integrated Steel works </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects of movement <ul><li>Inland sites closed down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment rose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional industries declined </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government Special Assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New industries attracted to area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment dropped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern industries thrive </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Geographical/Industrial Inertia <ul><li>“ When an industry remains in its original location, even when it is not economical to do so” </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Sheffield Steel Industry (remains inland) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machinery modernised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialises in high quality steel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skilled workforce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t subsidies </li></ul></ul>

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