Ch. 3, section 1 Seasons and Weather

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Ch. 3, section 1 Seasons and Weather

  1. 1. Seasons and Weather<br />Chapter 3, Section 1<br />
  2. 2. Seasons<br />Earth is tilted at a 23.5˚ angle<br />causes different areas to get direct sun rays for different amounts of time creating seasons<br />
  3. 3. Seasons<br />Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn are the farthest points north and south where the sun shines directly overhead at noon – solstice<br />beginning of winter or summer<br />
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  5. 5. Summer Solstice<br />
  6. 6. Winter Solstice<br />
  7. 7. Equinox<br />
  8. 8. Seasons<br />Equinox – twice a year when the days and nights are the same all over the world<br />beginning of spring and fall<br />
  9. 9. Weather - immediate condition of the atmosphere at a specific location and time<br />climate – general weather conditions over a long period of time<br />
  10. 10. What causes weather?<br />water vapor  causes precipitation<br />cloud cover  holds water vapor<br />
  11. 11. What causes weather?<br />landforms and bodies of water  water heats and cools slowly <br />land heats and cools quickly<br />
  12. 12. What causes weather?<br />elevation  higher elevation = thinner air (doesn’t hold moisture)<br />
  13. 13. What causes weather?<br />air movement  wind moves air and moisture causes rapid weather changes<br />
  14. 14. Precipitation<br />Warm air rises  air cools  clouds form  water vapor builds up  pressure releases and it rains <br />3 types<br />
  15. 15. Convectional<br />Hot, moist climate<br />Heat air in the morning, clouds form by afternoon and rain falls<br />
  16. 16. Orographic - mountains<br />Windward side (wet side) of mountain blocks air and forces it up<br />Leeward side (dry side) has a rain shadow (very little precipitation)<br />
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  22. 22. Frontal<br />Mid-latitude<br />Boundary between 2 air masses with different temperatures<br />Cold air pushes warm air up = precipitation<br />
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  24. 24. Weather Extremes<br />blizzards – heavy snowstorm with winds > 35 mph<br />drought – long period of time with little or no rain<br />Floods – water spreads over usually dry land<br />Flood plain – when water spills out of a river into surrounding area<br />Hurricanes<br />
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  31. 31. <ul><li>Hurricane winds also cause storm surges (water flooding in from the ocean) 15 feet or more.
  32. 32. This is what did the most damage to Galveston in the 1900 hurricane. The highest point on the island was only 8.5 feet. The storm surge was over 15 feet.
  33. 33. 6,000 to 12,000 people died and the clean up was horiffic.
  34. 34. To prevent such damage again, a 17 foot wall was built and the entire city was raised 17 feet</li></li></ul><li>
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  36. 36. Damage to Galveston after the 1900 hurricane<br />
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  49. 49. Galveston Seawall<br />
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  51. 51. Raising Galveston<br />
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  56. 56. <ul><li>They moved about 440 million cubic feet of sand into the city.</li></li></ul><li>
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  59. 59. <ul><li>Everything was raised between a few inches to 17 feet, including the 6 million pound St. Patrick’s Church.</li></li></ul><li>
  60. 60. Galveston was known as the New York of the South. It was the largest, most developed, and most modern city in Texas. Houston was a backwater, a “country-bumpkin” town compared to Galveston. After the 1900 hurricane, though, development shifted to Houston and Galveston was forever left behind.<br />
  61. 61. Hurricane Rita<br />
  62. 62. Katrina<br />
  63. 63. IKE<br />
  64. 64. Blizzards<br /><ul><li>Massive snowstorm with high winds</li></ul>Drought<br /><ul><li>Long period with little or no rain
  65. 65. Damages crops, plants, and wildlife
  66. 66. Can also cause massive wind erosion, as in the Dust Bowl of the early 1930’s.</li></li></ul><li>Blizzards<br /><ul><li>Massive snowstorm with high winds</li></li></ul><li>
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  69. 69. In South Dakota<br />
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  74. 74. Floods<br /><ul><li>Lots of rain or runoff causes rivers and streams to overflow their banks</li></li></ul><li>

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