Philosophy 101


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Philosophy 101

  1. 1. Intro to Philosophy University of New Orleans
  2. 2. What is Philosophy • Bertrand Russell Philosophy is an intermediary of theology and Science • Philosophy is not a world view • Etymology of the Word “Love of Wisdom”
  3. 3. What is Philosophy • Definition of the Word Investigating underlying reasons for reality Understanding based on logical reasoning rather than empirical methods • Analogy Psychology is a science that studies mental processes and behaviors Philosophy comes from reason Just like psychology, philosophy has subfields
  4. 4. What is Philosophy • Philosophical Questions Fundamental, open questions that cannot be solved through experience What must or mustn’t be the case based on preconceptions What is mind vs Nature of the Mind Not Philosophical Philosophical • Conflict between ideas creates fundamental questions View that mind is different than brain View that mind is brain View that mind is controlled by brain Which is most reasonable to believe
  5. 5. What is Philosophy • Must use reason to resolve Scientific evidence can be used, but answer must be based on reason Critical Reasoning • Need to communicate on equitable terms Philosophy is finding the truth Must use common meanings • Philosophy is settled through argument • Two Parts of Every Argument Claim  Anyone can make Supporting Evidence  Difficult E.g. God is not perfect because his creation is imperfect Claim Evidence
  6. 6. Subfields of Psychology • History of Psychology Study of the emergence of Psychology Compare and Contrast Plato vs Descartes, importance of dualism, etc… • Philosophy of Religion Nature of God What is God • Epistemology Epi- Has to do with knowledge Nature and origin of knowledge Knowledge is special Different than belief How to acquire, innate knowledge, rationalists, empiricists, etc…
  7. 7. Subfields of Psychology • Metaphysics Questions about existance Does God exist? Reasons for and against Essence of the Mind What makes a person a person What makes a person the same person over time If different, is it just to punish you for something you did yesterday? • Socio-Political Philosophy Justice, Order, and Authority Idealist How it ought to be
  8. 8. Subfields of Psychology • Philosophy of the mind Different than psychology Predates • Philosophy of Language Nature of language Syntax is necessary Organization Syntax refers to the form, semantics the content Can we have thoughts without language • Philosophy of Science Assumptions of the limitations of Science • Aesthetics Principles of Art forms Purpose and importance of Art What is Art?
  9. 9. Subfields of Psychology • Logic Good Reasoning vs. Bad Reasoning What makes an assumption dubious • Ethics Study for what we should do morally Concepts and permissions for what is morally permissible, impermissible, and obligatory • Normative Disciplines Logic and Ethics What we should do to get a desired result • Descriptive Discipline How to do/Why All other subfields of Psychology
  10. 10. Misconceptions of Philosophy • You have to be wise to be a philosopher Philosophy is reason, not spewing witticisms • Assertion makes you a philosopher • Everyone’s opinion is equal to another's An experts opinion is worth more than yours • You will always get the truth Truth is aim, but it may boil down to an educated guess • It is critical Philosophy is critical of Views, not people
  11. 11. Reasons for Philosophy • Independent thinking and tolerance increases • Awareness of ambiguities and fallacies in arguments • Compels to take a reason for what others believe is self-evident • Compels to think, rather than memorizing definitions
  12. 12. Arguments • Main use for reason is arguments Logic is devoted to the art of arguments • Arguments are everywhere • Formal Language No artificial language or symbols • Informal Language Powerful
  13. 13. What is an Argument • What someone offers through language to show truth • Consists of a claim supported by evidence • Standard Form Argument Explicitly number Conclusion at the bottom next to therefore symbol Line separating evidence from claim Easy to evaluate, reveals logical structure • Prose More difficult to recognize
  14. 14. How to Recognize an Argument • Indicators Claims Therefore, accordingly, so, hence, etc… Evidence Because, first, from, since, etc…
  15. 15. Useful Generalizations About Arguments • May occur anywhere in a passage • Evidence and Claims are relative terms Depends on role in an argument • Every premise/evidence is an assumption Don’t explain evidence Truth is presupposed Implicit Assumption Hidden assumption Explicit Assumption Shown Assumptions Dubious Assumption Wrong assumption
  16. 16. Assumptions • Because no academy award winning actor has ever won a Noble Prize, Kevin Spacey has never won an academy award Underlined is explicit Implicit assumptions Kevin Spacey has won a noble prize It is possible to win a noble prize Noble Prize exists • Cats Love Tuna Implicit assumptions Cats exist Cats eat tuna
  17. 17. Assumptions • Some conclusions can be assumed All cheaters are dishonest, and you are a cheater Conclusion is that you are dishonest • Rhetorical Questions Questions can never be conclusions, because they can never be true or false They have no truth value Avoid when offering evidence
  18. 18. Background Information • Not every statement has to be evidence or a conclusion Background information can be used The iPhone, which was created by Apple, introduced the concept of a multi-touch interface, completely revolutionizing the phone industry.
  19. 19. Evaluating Arguments • For an argument to be good, it must not violate the principles of good reasoning • Cogent Argument Good argument • Fallacious Argument Bad argument
  20. 20. The RIFUT Rule • For an argument to be cogent, it must be: Relevant Independent of the Conclusion Free of Dubious Assumptions Unambiguous True and Consistent
  21. 21. Truth and Consistency of Argument • Can’t know anything if it is untrue • Definite refutation if evidence is proven false • Consistency Set of statements that can all be proven true Inconsistent if all cannot be simultaneously true Definite refutation Killing is immoral, killing in selfdefense is moral
  22. 22. Independence of Argument • Cannot show claim is true by assuming claim is true • Cannot restate claim as evidence God created the world, and therefore he exists Circular Argument • Not all valid arguments are good arguments • Never assume the truth of conclusion when providing evidence
  23. 23. Free of Dubious Assumptions • Fallacy of presumption Assume something unproven and unreasonable is a truth • Fallacy of Composition Because part of ___ has ___, all of ___ has ___ Assumes what’s true of part is true of the whole • Fallacy of Division Assumes what’s true of whole is true of parts Cannot go from whole to part or visa-versa • False Dilemma/Black and White Fallacy Oversimplifies complex issue by stating fewer sides than there are and demanding a decision “If you don’t support gay rights, you are a homophobe”
  24. 24. Relevance • Fallacy of Relevance Does an argument commit a non-sequitur Claim does not follow from evidence • Ad Hominem Person A attacks Person B to discredit argument “Don’t attack the messenger” • Ad Populum Appeal to people to win support for claims Do something because other people do Evoke emotions • Appeal to Ignorance Claim true because hasn’t been proven false, or visa-versa • Appeal to Inappropriate Authority Appeal to expert regarding something other than area of expertise Michael Jordan wears these sneakers, so you should too
  25. 25. Relevance • Genetic Fallacy Attribute validity on basis of origin “Planned parenthood was founded by a racist, so the organization is racist”
  26. 26. Other Fallacies • Straw Man Exaggerate/Misrepresent than attack the exaggerated version • Slippery Slope Fallacy Distorts view and claims one thing will lead to undesired consequences, therefore it is invalid • Irrelevent Conclusion Fallacy Catch-all “Sophie is a cat who likes tuna, so the full moon eats people” • Red Herring Fallacy Where something unrelated to the topic at hand is used to divert from it “I don’t want to go to school, the gas price is too high and driving there would be expensive”
  27. 27. History of Philosophy • Four periods of Western Philosophy Ancient Period Medieval Period Modern Period Contemporary Period
  28. 28. Ancient Philosophy (6th century B.C.) • Begins in Greece • Presocratics Philosophers before Socrates First people to give non-religious answers to fundamental questions in Western Philosophy Malaysians Dealt with Cosmological Questions about the nature of the universe Pythagoras Coined the term Philosopher Xenophanes Created Epistemology, Rational Theology Anaxagoras Charged with impiety
  29. 29. Ancient Philosophy (6th century B.C.) • Sophists Itinerant teachers who taught common people how to argue • Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
  30. 30. Medieval Period (11th-14th century) • Dominated by Catholic Church • St. Anselm, St. Thomas Aquinas • Jewish and Muslim philosophers reintroduce Roman culture to the world • Achem’s Razor Simpler of two arguments, with all else being equal, will more likely be correct • St. Francis Bacon Designs Scientific Method • Thomas Hobbes Leviathan explains how society emerges from nature Socio-Political Philosopher
  31. 31. Modern Period (16th-18th Century) • Rene Descartes Father of Modern Philosophy • Major philosophies of the time were Rationalism and Empiricism • Baruch Spinoza Key Rationalist • John Locke Key Empiricist • Immanuel Kant Moral Theory; based on duty
  32. 32. Contemporary Period (19th centuryModern Times) • Continental Philosophy Existentialism, Socialism, Feminism, etc… Marx, Heidegger, Nietzsche, etc… Mainly on European Continent • Anglo-American Philosophy Analytic Philosophy Utilitarianism, Pragmatism William James, Bertrand Russell, Camus Mainly England and America
  33. 33. Socrates (469-399 B.C.) • Wrote Nothing • Against empirical knowledge • Associated with justice, morals, ethics • Socratic Method Question and answer method • Taught Plato, who taught Aristotle
  34. 34. Plato • Father of idealism, rationalism, socio-political philosophy • The Republic Dialogue concerning ideal state • Founded the Academy Prototype of all Western Universities Included Mathematics Lasted 900 years
  35. 35. Plato’s Apology • One of Plato’s many dialogues Socrates is main character • Athens trial in 399 Athens was true Democracy, all citizen participate fully • Accusers Meletus , Antius bring charges Corrupting youth, impiety Socrates criticizers Many people slander him
  36. 36. Socrates’ Defense • Claims he doesn’t deal with physical matters • Claims he is not a teacher He knows nothing, does not travel, does not take money • Origin of trouble Asked Oracle if anyone was wiser than he Oracle says no Sets out on religious quest to find someone wiser than him Goes to people who claim to have wisdom Through Socratic Method, embarrasses them Politicians, Poets, Artisans
  37. 37. Socrates’ Defense • Meletus Represents poets Claims everyone besides Socrates elevates youth; and eventually that Socrates intentionally harms youth Socrates says no one intentionally harms himself, so why would he harm children if it would hurt him by association If Meletus truly cared about the youth, he would’ve tried stopping Socrates before Claims Socrates was an atheist Socrates says Oracle’s mission was God’s command
  38. 38. The Vote • 31 vote margin makes Socrates guilty • Over 500 jurors • Accusers recommend death penalty Socrates recommends no punishment, full room and board at a luxurious job “Concedes” to 1 mina fine, then eventually 30 mina Condemned to death after his recommendation by an over 100 vote margin
  39. 39. Philosophy of Religion • Study of the nature of religion • Many types of Religion • Does God Exist? Monotheistic God of Islam, Judaism, Christianity • How is belief in God justified Appeal to faith Belief independent of evidence and thought
  40. 40. Theology • Study of God and attributes in relation to the world • Natural Theology Can be established by reason • Revealed Theology Revelation • Theists, Agnostics, Atheists
  41. 41. Definition of God • A person with divine attributes Not necessarily a human Person Basic concept in ethics Responsibilities, rights, free will A rational, autonomous, moralistic being • A perfect person Infallible Divine Attributes Omniscient, omnipotent, immutable, omnitemporal, omnibenevolent
  42. 42. Problem of Evil • How can evil exist with an all good God • Arguments Nothing can be intrinsically evil Done for greater good Doesn’t allow arguments to the contrary Circular Definition • Appeal to free will God doesn’t cause evil Comes from people, who are autonomous Are natural disasters evil? Evil can only arise through choice Is eternal damnation evil If God is omniscient, how can we have free will God knows but doesn’t intervene?
  43. 43. Arguments for God • Called Proofs • A posteriori Proofs Proofs known through experience only • A priori Proofs Isn’t justified though experience
  44. 44. Cosmological Arguments • A posteriori proof • Prove God’s existence using commonly known facts of the universe • St. Thomas Aquinas The Five Ways Second way; Argument from Efficient Cause to First Cause
  45. 45. Argument from Efficient Cause to First Cause • Cosmological Argument • Things are caused • Things cannot come from themselves • There cannot be an infinite regress of causes • There must be an uncaused first cause • God is the uncaused first cause • Therefore God exists • Refutation Inconsistency Fallacy; #2, 5 #5 does not show God still exists
  46. 46. Teleological Argument • A posteriori proof • Argument from end product of nature to prove intelligent design • William Paley Watch Argument Given complexity and purpose, assume creator
  47. 47. Watch Argument • Human artifacts represent intelligent design • Universe resembles artifacts • Therefore universe resembles intelligent design • Universe is complex • Therefore, must be powerful designer • Refutation Inductive Argument Certain degree of probability, doesn’t prove Doesn’t prove God exists today Indirectly circular (#1) Does purpose follow from design? Is complexity proof of intelligent design David Hume Strength of inductive argument is dependent on its relevance; most things don’t have a strong relevance
  48. 48. Ontological Argument • A priori proof • God’s existence follows from the idea of God • St. Anselm Scholasticism What was taught concerning universals based on St. Thomas Aquinas Faith and reasoning, etc… Is life a trait? We don’t use it as such
  49. 49. Anselm’s Argument • God is something which nothing greater be conceived • Nonbeliever knows what God is They understand something which nothing greater be conceived • If it existed in the mind alone it wouldn’t be something from which nothing greater can be conceived, because existence in reality is greater than existence in the mind • Therefore, God exists by virtue of his definition • Refutation Reductio ad absurdum Deduce contradiction from opposite of what must be true; e.g. rocks must have weight otherwise they’d float Immanuel Kant The idea alone is different than actually having it Guanillo Same logic can be applied to an island; so there must be a hidden island
  50. 50. Brain In A Vat • If our brain was removed and placed in a vat where it was controlled, and we experienced life as if we had a body, did it happen? • How do we know if this is all real • Can we rely on our senses? • Epistemological and Metaphysical conundrum • Rene Descartes laid foundation for this • Objectivity vs. Subjectivity; which is more reliable
  51. 51. Epistemology • Anybody can believe something; knowledge, however, is something special The philosophical study of knowledge is Epistemology • Two types of knowledge Performative Knowledge How to; I know how to _____ Propositional Knowledge That; I know that_____
  52. 52. Propositional Knowledge • A Priori Knowledge Can be justified by reason alone E.g. 2 is greater than 1 • A Posteriori Knowledge Can be justified by experience alone • S(omeone) Knows that P(ropositional Knowledge) Way to remember Propositional Knowledge E.g. I know that I am human • Three conditions for Propositional Knowledge S has to believe P S has to be justified in that belief P must be true
  53. 53. The Truth Condition • Truth must be consistent People used to “know” that the earth was flat In retrospect, they didn’t know that, they just believed that • Truth is a property • Subjectivist Theory of Truth Everyone has their own truth • Relativist Theory of Truth Truth varies by the beliefs of the time • Objectivist Theory of Truth Truth is objective and a property; either it’s true or it’s not
  54. 54. The Truth Condition • Bertrand Russell Stated that truth can only be applied to beliefs and statements Requirements for a Theory of Truth Allows Falsehood Truth can be a property of beliefs Wholly dependent on connection to outside world • Coherence Theory Belief is true when it coheres with our other beliefs There can be more than one true set of beliefs Rebuttal Presupposes Law of Noncontradiction Just because it coheres with our other beliefs doesn’t mean it’s true
  55. 55. The Truth Condition • Correspondence Theory Our beliefs must correspond with the world and facts People believe facts are dubious entries; truth is a necessary condition for knowledge We must look outside our beliefs to know something
  56. 56. Epistemological Theories • Modern Period begins with Rene Descartes Period rises from skepticism • Rationalism Reason is a fundamental means of acquiring knowledge Requires certainties for knowledge Innate Knowledge Based on mathematical thinking, deduction • Empiricism Experience is a fundamental means of gaining knowledge No innate knowledge Tabla Rosa; blank slate Based on Scientific thinking
  57. 57. Rene Descartes • Renaissance Man • Wrote The Meditations Six in all First Meditation is on doubt Attacks the senses Claim they deceive him, and that it is not prudent to follow wholly that which has previously deceived us
  58. 58. Meditation 1 • Descartes determines all of his prior beliefs are wrong, and is in search for a new foundation for knowledge Wants to discover one thing that is impossible to doubt Can deduce other things from this which are indubitable • Cartesian Doubt To doubt all belief to find something impossible to doubt • Senses cannot be indubitable, according to Descartes Applies reason only
  59. 59. Meditation 2 • Discovers something impossible to doubt I think, therefore I am Foundation for Descartes philosophy Even if he were deceived by some malevolent being, something must exist to be deceived Doesn’t know who he is or what he is, but knows that he is He deduces that he is a thing that thinks • Foundation for Dualism Believes in two different substances, corporal (body) and mind (Immaterial)
  60. 60. John Locke • Empiricist, Academic, Government Official • Major work was An Essay Concerning Human Understanding • Hugely influential on colonies in America
  61. 61. An Essay… • Systematically identifies the origin of human knowledge • We need ideas Gives us knowledge How do we obtain ideas? • Believes we should not try to question things to certainty because you cannot know everything • Principle of Identity Things are themselves • Shuns the idea of innate knowledge Just because everyone believes something doesn’t mean it’s innate Cannot find one belief that is commonly held by everyone • What is an Idea Whatever the mind perceives in itself Basic Building Blocks of Knowledge Sensation Reflection; when the mind considers itself
  62. 62. An Essay… • How are simple ideas produced (Colors, Sounds, etc…) We don’t obtain them prior to experience Obtain through qualities in bodies Primary Qualities-In the things themselves Shape, etc… Secondary Qualities-Sensible Qualities Feel, taste, etc… Tertiary Qualities-Qualities that change primary qualities Melting, etc… • Nothing can exist without ideas Words, actions, etc…
  63. 63. An Essay… • Intuitive Knowledge Must perceive two different ideas without any outside influence Highest, most sure knowledge • Demonstrative Knowledge Mind employs intermediary ideas Less certain E.g. Humans are mortal, Socrates was human, therefore Socrates was mortal • Sensitive Knowledge Mind perceives external objects Most limited type of knowledge Comes from senses
  64. 64. Philosophy of Mind • Personal Identity • Fundamental Questions about the mind • What is a person An autonomous, rational, moral agent Has rights, responsibilities What makes a person the same person over time The soul? The brain? Traits? Sameness is more powerful than similarity
  65. 65. What Makes a Person a Person • A person is a bearer of rights and responsibilities • Needs to be rational • Needs to be autonomous • Needs to be a moral agent Capable of Inflicting Harm • A person doesn’t have to be a human being • A human being isn’t always a person
  66. 66. Does a Soul Make a Person the Same Person Over Time? • As long as the soul exists, we exist, hypothetically Soul exists post mortem • Sameness of Soul Criterion As long as you have the same soul, you will be the same person • Criteria for a Soul A soul must be immaterial Doesn’t abide by the laws of mechanics Everlasting Cannot be quantified Is not the body
  67. 67. Cartesian Dualism • There are two things that make a human being The mind (Immaterial) and corporal substance (Material) • Consistent with most theories of human life (Like religion) Something about beliefs is immaterial and unexplainable Something like vision requires an awareness of what exists • Metaphysical View Second Meditation; I think therefore I am What am I? Not primarily a corporal substance The essence of the body is extension Occupies space, can be perceived, quantifiable If you melt wax is it still the same wax? Descartes believes it is You don’t get awareness from a body
  68. 68. Cartesian Dualism • Descartes believes we are primarily thinking substances A thing that thinks, feels, and argues A mind, a soul Properties Immaterial Essence of minds is thought Makes us who we are • Machines and animals can’t think because it is the soul that thinks Animals are automatons, machines with soft tissue • Absolute separation of the mind from the body Descartes’ Analogy We are the pilot of a ship that we are strongly linked to
  69. 69. Cartesian Dualism • Problems with Dualism Using doubt for property divergence I cannot doubt I have a mind, I can doubt I have a body, therefore Body and Mind aren’t the same thing Mind/Body Problem (The Problem of Causation) How can the mind affect the body and visa-versa so intimately if they are different Drinking alcohol can impair the mind, even though it is physical Where is the locus of interaction Descartes believes the pineal gland The “Third Eye,” likely controls sleep cycle and dreaming
  70. 70. Monism • Belief that only one type of substance makes everything up • Subjective Idealism Everything made has the qualities of mind; all we have is ideas of things Nothing is corporal • Pantheism Everything that exists is part of God • Materialism Denies the existence of thinking substance Refined version is Physicalism Everything can be reduced to something studied by Science, such as energy, etc…
  71. 71. Identity Theory • A form of Physicalism • Reductionist View All mental states are identical/reducible to physical states E.g. pain IS the firing of C-Fibers • Token Identity Tokens are a particular event States are identical, but not directly Everyone experiences a token differently; if they experienced it the same way, they’d be the same person • Type Identity Types are a a broad categorization of tokens (E.g. pain can be anything from being punched to falling down) All pain produces the same state All mental types are physical types; reduces everything to physics • Token vs Type in linguistics; saying “Flower flower flower flower” has one type of word, four tokens (individual instances) of the word
  72. 72. Identity Theory • Refutation Hilary Putnam says it is too narrow-minded If an alien with a completely different chemical makeup feels pain, how would it feel pain if it has a different brain? Putnam states when thinking of something like pain, we should think more of the psychological state than the physical state The output is what matters, not the input Eventually leads to Multiple Realizability and Funtionalism
  73. 73. Gilbert Ryle • Wrote The Concept of Mind Attacks Cartesian Dualism “The Ghost in the Machine” Mind and body are polar opposites, every being is both, mind is the pilot of the ship • Believes Descartes commits a category mistake Fallacy when you confuse something that’s part of one logical category and put it into another category E.g. going to a university, looking at the individual buildings, then asking where the university is States Descartes applies physical words to something unobservable
  74. 74. Sameness of Body Criterion • We are the same person over time because of our body • Brain is part of the body Therefore, as long as we have the same brain, we have the same person
  75. 75. Embodiment of Self • Body identifies the person As long as you have the same body, you will be the same self • David Hume Believes there is no constant immutable belief Denies the idea of a self The closest thing to a self is a stream of ideas “The self is nothing but a bundle or collection of different perceptions which succeed each other with inconceivable rapidity and are in perpetual flux” We are constantly improving and changing
  76. 76. Phineas Gage • Foreman in railway construction company Many positive qualities, efficient, hardworking, etc… Had an accident where a pole destroyed part of his brain, but survived retaining all of his memories After accident, many of his traits changed, so much so that he was called “No Longer Gage” Indifferent, capricious, irreverent, etc…
  77. 77. Transorbital Lobotomies • Dr. Egas Moniz Portuguese Doctor who invented the lobotomy • Dr. Walter Freedman Invented Icepick Lobotomies in U.S. Used hammers to drive an icepick into someone’s brain through their eyelids Performed all over the U.S. • In a Transorbital Lobotomy, a part of the frontal lobe is destroyed to make people behave in socially acceptable ways Really made them zombies
  78. 78. Continuity of Memories Criterion • Are we the person we are because of memories • Need some or most memories to be the person • John Locke What makes a person a person? Thinking being, consciousness separate from thinking, awareness of who we are, sameness of rational being • Under this, we can be multiple people in the same life Gallant Officer Objection If A=B and B=C then C=A; identity should be transitive Someone steals an apple at five years old 50 years later, he wins the medal of honor, but still remembers the apple 20 years later, he remembers winning the medal of honor, but forgets the apple In this case, A=B and B=C but A=/=C
  79. 79. Psychological Continuity Criterion • We are the same person because our bundle of traits, desires, beliefs, qualities, etc… • Conditions A=B if A is psychologically continuous with B, and A isn’t psychologically continuous with anyone else • What if we were cloned, and our real body died Would our clone still be us? What if we survived, and the clone and individual went their separate ways If they met again 20 years later, would they be the same person?
  80. 80. Nature of the Mind • Can something nonhuman have a mind? • Mind/Body Problem • How do we know something has a mind? • Cognitive Sciences Study of the Mind and Intenlligence Intelligence System Something that can potentially be intelligent
  81. 81. Bertrand Russell • Analogy Argument We look within ourselves and know what causes us to behave how we do When we see others behaving similarly to us, we put our reasoning behind them • We assume higher intelligence has the same experiences as us E.g. Tigers feel pleasure, dogs feel pain, etc… • Machines don’t think, but have the ability to do things that require thought for us Russell says that machines are missing purpose
  82. 82. Functionalism • What are functions? Two senses Purpose of a thing Equivalencies y=2x and 2y=4x are different functions, but with the same purpose and are equivalent • Functional Description vs. Physical Description What is purpose vs. the architecture of it An example would be is an artificial heart a legitimate heart, because even though it is made differently, it serves the same purpose? • Anything that satisfies a function is a computer In the mind of a functionalist, our minds are computers • Is Cognition computation? If so, there is nothing biological about thinking
  83. 83. Functionalism • Theory of Mind • Mental States are explained in purely functional ways Defined by input/outputs Follow a rule to go from one thing to another • Gives rise to computer metaphor Mind is to man what software is to computer • Multiple Realizability Multiple different types of architecture can realize the same function • Functions are inherently equivalent • Nothing biological about the mind
  84. 84. Functionalism • Simulation vs. Emulation Are they equal • Can a Machine think? • Learning Change in behavior that rises from experience Do machines Learn and evolve? • Machines must follow rules. Machines must be rational and are incapable of irrationality
  85. 85. Alan Turing • Founding father of computer sciences • Enigma Project Decoded German Cyphers • Created the Turing Test
  86. 86. The Imitation Game • Three Participants Male, Female, and Interrogator Interrogator must determine which is which All are in different rooms and communicate in writing Either the male or the female must imitate what the other would say stereotypically
  87. 87. Turing Test • Same concept as imitation game, but rather than a male and a female, it is played between a machine and a human Interrogator must determine which is the machine Machine tries to be human • Tests whether or not a machine is intelligent Is fluency in language equivalent to intelligence?
  88. 88. What is a Machine • Three parts Memory Central Processing Unit (CPU); carries out orders Control; Order is obeyed • All digital computers are equal in the same sense all humans are equal All computers can implement any algorithm
  89. 89. Turing’s Prediction • By 2000, machines will be indistinguishable from humans and there will be a gigabyte of storage in machines We aren’t close to making machines indistinguishable from humans 1 gb is next to nothing today
  90. 90. John Searle • American Philosopher and Teacher at Berkley • Chinese Thought Experiment While Searle believes in weak AI, he doesn’t believe in Strong AI; AI with a mind If given instructions on how to transcribe Chinese letters, after ten years of practice, will he know Chinese? He can do it, but won’t understand it • Cognitivism Take the analogy “Mind is to Human what software is to machine” literally • Searle believes the key to the mind is understanding Producing the right behavior is not equal to knowing the right behavior • Conclusions As long as programs are defined as operations, they cannot comprehend Has Syntax but no Semantics
  91. 91. John Searle • Robot Reply If a computer is in a robot, and it did something similar to perceive its environment rather than perform operations, can it think? If equipped with video camera and storage, and it sees a pig, can it understand the pig it sees? • Searle believes that a machine can simulate a human, but cannot emulate a human With no meaning, it won’t do anything but produce sequences
  92. 92. John Searle • Reductionism Belief we can reduce higher level stuff to lower level stuff Mental states reduce to physical states • Consciousness is defined by Searle as the subjective character of experience Problem is we only have access to our own minds We cannot understand what others perceive Believes we cannot explain consciousness through biology E.g. Bats have echolocation We understand how it works, but we don’t understand what it’s like to have
  93. 93. Ethics • Study of morally permissible, impermissible, and obligatory What we should do, shouldn’t do, and must do • Normative discipline How it ought to be rather than how it is • Ethical issues Gay rights, abortion, etc… Always at least one big ethical issue in the media
  94. 94. Anatomy of Moral Theories • Ethics is concerned with enabling us to know what we ought to do • Moral Principle Moral rule Articulates what makes it moral • Rational Principle What we can follow to make sure we follow the moral principle • Moral Objectivist Theories Some actions are always permissible, impermissible, obligatory No exceptions • Moral Nonobjectivist Theories No actions are black and white Case-by-case basis
  95. 95. Moral Objectivist Theories • Divine Command Theory God delivers morals Actions must accord with God’s will • Virtue Based Ethics A thing is right depending on the virtue We must used reason to find the virtuous thing to do Aristotle defines it as “The mean between the extremes” • Duty Based Ethics An action is only moral if it coincides with our duty
  96. 96. Moral Nonobjectivist Theories • Moral Subjectivism Relativism An action is right only if the person decides it is Varies person to person Moral Relativism Morals determined by society Varies society to society • Moral Nihilism There is no standard, everything is permissible • Consequentialism A thing is right only if the consequences are good End justifies the means Moral Egoism We do that which makes us happiest Utilitarianism We do that which makes society the best
  97. 97. Relativism • Cultural Relativism Some things are permissible in some cultures, impermissible in others Objective fact Has nothing to do with morality E.g. slavery was permissible in the antebellum south, eating certain foods is impermissible in some societies • Moral Relativism How it ought to be E.g. is female circumcision moral?
  98. 98. Ruth Benedict • Draws distinction between abnormal and normal behavior Should abide by normal behavior in a society Abnormal behavior falls outside of cultural norms How much is influenced by our culture Is it biological? • Concludes normality is culturally defined Most individuals are plastics who are molded by our society • Is there something more to a society than societal norms?
  99. 99. James Rachels • Claims the plasticity of society doesn’t determine morality • Cultural Differences Argument People claim there is no objective morality due to cultural relativism Rachels claims that this idea is not cogent and is unsound Some societies believed in a geocentric view, others in a heliocentric view; does this mean that there was no objective truth regarding the matter because there are disagreements? Moral relativists cannot defend that genocide is objectively wrong Reformers always advocate something immoral under this • Customs are not equal to values • Universal Values according to Rachels Protecting infants Truth Telling Valuing of Life No murder
  100. 100. Egoism • Ayn Rand’s Philosophy Objectivism, perception is reliable, we can obtain knowledge through senses, etc… Criticism is that the pursuit of happiness of ones own selfish desires is advocated Predicated on unabashed selfishness • There is both a descriptive and normative dimension of egoism
  101. 101. Psychological Egoism • Descriptive dimension of Egoism • Empirical view of why people act how they do People act selfishly • Is it true? Problem is we can spin anything to be selfish E.g. if someone jumps on a hand grenade to save his comrades, we can say he did it out of a desire to obtain honor
  102. 102. Moral Egoism • Normative dimension of Egoism • Individual Moral Egoism People must do what they do in order to make x happy X can be a family member, a friend, etc… Example would be the friend who has to control everything Everything centers around him Go to his movie, eat his food, play his game, etc… • Universal Moral Egoism People ought to do that which maximizes his/her own interest/pleasure
  103. 103. Plato’s Origin of Justice • From the Republic Glaucon and Socrates (Voice of Plato) are the main characters “The mean and compromise to do that which is the best of all (To do injustice and not be punished) and the worst of all (To suffer injustice without retaliation); justice, the middle, is tolerated” Defends using the Story of Gyges
  104. 104. The Story of Gyges • A warrior in a Greek City-State Discovers a ring that makes him invisible • Behavior personifies moral egoism Can do whatever he wants without punishment i.e. the best life • Conspires against king and kills him • Plato says no one would be able to resist this temptation
  105. 105. Hobbes’ Origin of Justice • From The Leviathan All men are equal at the core All men think of themselves as wise Delude themselves on the extent of their knowledge In nature, humans do that which make them happy Every man for himself, no standard for right and wrong “When there is no rule, there is no low; when there is no law, there is no justice” In order to achieve civility, two things are needed Social Contract Unrestrained freedom in the state of nature must be constrained by laws and mutual covenants Strong Authority To prevent violation of social contract
  106. 106. Lewis Pojman • Personal/Psychological Egoism Selfish by choice; descriptive view • Individual Moral Egoism Person who expects everyone to conform to his happiness • Universal Moral Egoism What makes me happy • Attempted refutations of Egoism Publicity Argument Self-defeating for the egoist to push an egotistical philosophical theory If everyone is an egoism, my individual happiness will suffer However, says an egoism can privately support egoism, but publicly condemn it Solipsistic Argument Egoism assumes I and only I exist Paradox of Egoism In order to reap the benefits of egoism, one must give up egoism and become altruistic
  107. 107. Richard Dawkins • Socio-Biologist Draws parallels from nature to human behavior • “Morality is a successful strategy for gene replication” Only occurs in society • Uses Bird Colony Example Suckers (Altruistic) Will groom any bird that presents itself for grooming Cheaters (Egoists) Bird that will present itself for grooming, but won’t groom Grudges (Reciprocal Altruists) Will only groom a bird that grooms it first In colonies of suckers, everyone thrives In colonies of cheaters, everyone loses In a mix, cheaters rely on the suckers Determines selfishness is not good for society
  108. 108. Aristotle • Tutored Alexander the Great • Believed in a hierarchy of knowledge ^ Metaphysics (Most contemplative) v Ethics (Most practical) • Unlike Plato and Socrates, had no disdain for empiricism • Wrote The Nichomachean Ethics What is our aim? Happiness What is Happiness? Masses “Do not give the same account as the wise”
  109. 109. Aristotle’s Definition of Happiness • Life of Pleasure (Happiness=Pleasure) Masses mostly subscribe to this (The “uneducated and vulgar”) Seek momentary, fleeting pleasures as happiness The sensual life • The Political Life (Honor/Status=Happiness) Pursuit of honor and wealth Upper classes • The Moral Life (Knowledge=Pleasure) The “Chief Good” Contemplative Life Knowledge and virtue Happiness is an end, not a means to an end Result of a compilation of activity of the soul and a complete life Happiness is not fleeting
  110. 110. How to Achieve Aristotle’s Happiness • We use reason to learn what we ought to do • External Things Need a moderate amount of material objects Required for happiness • Action Must practice a passion Must know actions are virtuous Right thing for the right reason Deliberately choose to do the right thing for its own sake “By performing brave acts we become brave” • Use of Reason • Virtue
  111. 111. Virtue • Intellectual Virtue Attained through learning/teaching • Moral Virtue Attained by doing virtuous things What you ought to do is the mean between the extremes Some actions have no mean Murder, adultery, etc… are always wrong Some do have a mean We use reason to find the mean Fear Courage(Virtue) Overconfidence
  112. 112. Immanuel Kant • Critique of Pure Reason Epistemology • Kant’s Ethics Deontelogical Ethics Based on Duty
  113. 113. Duty Based Ethics • What are duties Things we ought to do, but don’t have to do “You don’t get an ought from an is or an is from an ought” Ought to eat right, but not everyone does There is slavery, but isn’t right • Consequences are irrelevant The wrong thing for the right reasons are moral • How to determine our duties Can’t defer to authority or religion Use reason as a rational agent • Categorical Imperative Rule to discover our duties Act on an action if, hypothetically, it would be a good universal law Must allow everyone to do it Everyone should be obligated to do it • Duties must be autonomous, and there are no exceptions
  114. 114. Duty Based Ethics • Hypothetical Imperative Actions you perform for the sake of something else Not moral or immoral, since it’s for an end E.g. studying for a test, which is a means to the end of the duty of fulfilling one’s own potential • Problems Ignores consequences Duties vary person to person Absolutely binding
  115. 115. John Stuart Mill • Conventionalist (Nothing is ever true) • Did not invent utilitarianism, just pushed it His essay, Utilitarianism, gives a concise definition of utilitarianism
  116. 116. Utilitarianism • Greatest Happiness Principle What is moral is what causes the greatest amount of happiness • What is Utilitarian Happiness? Maximizing pleasure while minimizing pain • Consequentialism Weight consequences and choose best option • Commonly attributed to the sensual life Mill states this is a misconception • Definition of Greatest Happiness Principle Not happiness for the agent, but greatest happiness altogether Individuals happiness is irrelevant Some pleasures are greater than others “Better to be a human dissatisfied than a pig satisfied” Uses Aristotle’s hierarchy Sensual pleasures are lowest, knowledge is greatest
  117. 117. Utilitarianism • Act Utilitarianism Mill’s Utilitarianism Weigh each cost individually Consequences of A vs. B, do that which maximizes happiness Issues is that it is very time-consuming What if the time for action passes while contemplating Is the Greatest Happiness simply a majority? E.g. if 51% of people are against Gay Marriage, does that mean it should be illegal? What if the majority is wrong? • Rule Utilitarianism Act on rule of that which maximizes greatest happiness Create conceptions of rules ahead of time • Issue with utilitarianism is that it is argumentum ad populum