03 Problems of Cardiovascular Disease and Relation to Smoking


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03 Problems of Cardiovascular Disease and Relation to Smoking

  1. 1. Problems of cardiovascular disease and relation to smoking ALBIO9700/2006JK
  2. 2. Factor EffectAge Risk increases with increasing age: About 80% of people who die of coronary heart diseases are 65 or olderGender Men are more at risk than women: Protection is given by oestrogen which occurs either naturally or by hormone replacement therapy (HRT)Heredity Children of parents with heart disease are at greater risk than others: Genes are involved in developing high blood cholesterol concentrations, high blood pressure and diabetes mellitusBody mass Being overweight of obese increases risk: Excess weight puts a strain on the heart and blood pressure risesDiet Intake of saturated fat and salt: Development of atherosclerosis and high blood pressure Risk decrease with high intake of antioxidants (vit E and C) and soluble fibres and moderate intake of unsaturated fatsBlood cholesterol Direct relationship between concentration of cholesterol in the blood and risk of coronary heart disease: Above 250mg cholesterol per 100cm3 of blood is considered highHigh blood pressure Risk increases with increasing blood pressureSmoking Combines with all other risk factors to multiply the chances of developing coronary heart diseaseExercise Risk decreases as more exercise is taken: Aerobic activity helps control blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus and obesity and lowers blood pressureDiabetes Increased riskAlcohol Risk increase with high intake: Blood pressure rises and atherosclerosis is more likely Risk may decrease with moderate intakeSocial class Risk increase with poverty
  3. 3. Global distribution of coronary heart disease Commonly associated with affluence As it is a degenerative disease, it may be high only because people live longer Deaths due to infectious disease decrease, deaths due to coronary heart disease increase ALBIO9700/2006JK
  4. 4.  Incidence of coronary heart disease highest:  In certain parts of the world  Among the poorer people  Among certain ethnic groups including south Asians  Among men ALBIO9700/2006JK
  5. 5. Prevention and cure of coronary heart disease More exercise Avoid/give up smoking Decreasing intake of animal fat Drugs to lower blood pressure, decrease risk of blood clotting, prevent abnormal heart rhythms, reduce retention of fluids and decrease cholesterol concentration in the blood Coronary artery by-pass Heart transplant ALBIO9700/2006JK
  6. 6. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  7. 7.  Maternal nutrition:  Higher birth weight is associated with lower blood pressure in middle age  High weight at one year of age is associated with a lower risk of diabetes and a low level in the blood of low density lipoproteins ALBIO9700/2006JK