04 Phenotype Change Mutation and Environment

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04 Phenotype Change Mutation and Environment

  1. 1. Phenotype affected by mutations• Mutation – an unpredictable change in the genetic material of an organism• Gene mutation – change in the structure of a DNA molecule, producing a different allele of a gene• Chromosome mutation – changes in the structure or number of whole chromosomes in a cell ALBIO9700/2006JK
  2. 2. Mutation factors (mutagen):• Ionising radiation (alpha, beta and gamma radiation)• Ultraviolet radiation• Chemicals (mustard gas) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  3. 3. Types of mutations• Base substitution Silent mutation eg. CCT GAG GAG to CCT GTG GAG• Base addition eg. CCT GAG GAG to CCA TGA GGA G Frame shift• Base deletion eg. CCT GAG GAG to CCG AGG AG ALBIO9700/2006JK
  4. 4. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  5. 5. Examples of phenotype change caused by mutation• Sickle cell anaemia• Phenylketonuria ALBIO9700/2006JK
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  7. 7. Phenotype affected by environment• Genotype of the organism does not always affect its phenotype in the same way• Eg. i) Human height ii) Dark tips to ears, nose, paws and tail in the Himalayan colouring in rabbits iii) lac operon in Escherichia coli ALBIO9700/2006JK
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