Soil pollution is –
Contamination of soil by heavy metals, inorganic
compounds, chemicals, salts.
It has an adverse effect on plant growth and
Substances causing soil pollution like coal, sewage,
fertilizers, pesticides, etc.
Agriculture chemicals includes-
Pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides,
Used to correct soil deficiencies.
Necessary nutrients like nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, calcium,
magnesium and many more are
obtained from fertilizers.
Made from plant,
Compost , manure,
Readily dissolved in
Made from decomposed plant matter
such as vegetable peels, egg shells.
Comes from livestock animals such as
cattle, chickens, horses and sheep.
Manure products are one of the most common natural fertilizers
Accumulation of soil
acidity in soil which
availability and hence
Nitrogen fertilizer can be
converted by soil
bacteria to nitrogen
oxide, a greenhouse gas
which also causes acid
Remain longer in soil
Release nutrients slowly
Less likely to burn roots of plants
Enhance soil health
Nurture soil microbes
To kill, destroy pests.
Imp. Pesticides are DDT,
organophosphates, aldrin, furodan.
Pesticides get absorbed by soil particles.
Decrease fertility of soil
Toxic effect on human
Derived from natural material like plants,
Canola oil, baking soda
Reduces soil life from 2 to 16 years.
Reach a destination other than their
target species when sprayed.
Reduces nitrogen fixation
Pests develop resistance to pesticides,
necessitating new pesticides.
Destroys habitats, threatens species
Contamination of ground water.
Parasites, predators to kill pests.
Bacteria can be also used to kill pests.
Restriction on the importation of plant and
animals that could contain pests.
The alternate row of planting can provide a
habitat for predators of pests to the other
Used to kill unwanted plants.
Less effective than synthetic herbicides
Do not damage crops as naturally
Chemical compounds used to kill fungi.
Fungi can cause serious damage in
Result in critical loss of yield, quality and
Dangerous to human health.
Eg- Neem oil, Tea tree oil, etc.
US Environmental Protection Agency
(EPA)- reports that over 1 billion tons of
pesticides are used in the US every year.
. Agricultural use accounted for 80% of
pesticide use in the US.
. The US Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) -responsible for monitoring
pesticide levels on fruits and vegetables.
Between the years of 2004-05 and 2009-10,
the total consumption of fertilizer has
increased by 43% .
. Consumption of potash increased
by merely 15 kg/ha during last 27 years from
less than 2 kg in 1971-72 to 17.1 kg in 2008-
The Fertilizer consumption (% of fertilizer
production) in India was 166.29 in 2009,
according to a World Bank report,
published in 2010.