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Dr Anita Sharma
Assistant Professor, Entomology
 AGROCHEMICALS ; A chemicals which is used increase
the agriculture production such crop Protectors and Soil
supplements are called as “Agrochemicals”
 Agrochemicals were introduced to protect crops from pests
and enhance crop yields
 An optimum nutrient level is essential for
productive agriculture. Nutrients can be supplied
either by natural sources or in the form of synthetic
chemical fertilizers. However, the use of both
natural and chemical fertilizers may result in an
excess of nutrients, which can cause problems in
water bodies and to health. This excess use of
various fertilizers may pollute food crops and
groundwater; this process is commonly called
agrochemical pollution
Agrochemical
Crop protectors Soil supplements
Crop
protectors
Pesticides
Insecticide
s
Herbicides
Fungicides
Algacides
Nematicid
es
Soil
supplements
Fertilizer
Hormones
Growth
agents
liming and
acidifying
Agent
 Pesticides: Pesticide is a chemical or a substance used to
destroy or control some types of plants or organisms also
known as pests, which are harmful to cultivated plants or
to animals.
 Insecticides: It is used to destroy insects. Insecticides can
be ovicides that kill eggs, larvicides to kill larvae.
Pesticides examples: Organochlorines, organophosphates,
carbamates, and pyrethroids.
 Herbicides: It is used to control or kill weeds and herbs.
Herbicides examples: Gramoxone and glyphosate.
 Algaecides: used for controlling algae. Also known as
algicides.
 Fertiliser: This are chemical compounds used for
promoting plant growth.
 Fertiliser can be categorized into two categories:
Organic
And Inorganic fertilisers.
 Organic fertilisers are naturally existing substances
prepared through natural processes.
 Inorganic fertilisers, also referred to as synthetic fertilizers
are manufactured artificially using chemical processes by
utilizing natural deposits, which are altered chemically.
 HORMONES/GROWTH AGENTS :
 Are of Endogenous origin and are synthesised by plants.
 These are Growth regulators performing function in
overall development of the plant
 Liming and acidifying agents:
Soils sometimes can be too acidic or too alkaline for proper
growth of crops. In these cases, liming and acidifying
products are added to soil to adjust its pH. When the soil is
too acidic, calcite on the form of powdered limestone is
added primarily, whereas for more alkaline soil sulfur
compounds are added to neutralize.
1. Effects on soil:
 May kill beneficial bacteria
 Increase nitrate level in soils
 Alter the pH of the soil
 Residual effect
 Kill soil organisms
 Toxicity and reduction in soil quality
2. Effects on water:
 Water becomes unfit for consumption
 Can promote the growth of algae
 Leads to eutrophication due to excessive
chemicals
 Affect aquatic animals due to water pollution
3. Effects on air:
 Residues and particles of these chemicals can
lead to air pollution.
 Pesticides drift happens when air carries
agrochemicals particles from one place to
other.
 More amount of spray evaporation may
happen due to low relative humidity and
higher temperatures.
 Effect surrounding organisms’ health due to
inhalation of polluted air.
4. Effects on human health:
 It causes variety of health effects, from
simple skin and eyes irritation.
 It also effects the nervous system, causes
cancer and also reproductive problems.
 Can cause nerve damage, infertility,
hormones disorders and neurotoxicity.
 AIR POLLUTION:
 The pesticides/ herbicides/ insecticides which
are suspended in the air contribute to air
pollution, when they are carried away to other
areas due to wind.
 The phenomenon is also known as pesticide drift.
 WATER POLLUTION:
 It refers to pollution of water bodies such as
ponds, lakes or rivers due to unintended mix up of
synthetic herbicides/ fungicides/ pesticides
 SOIL POLLUTION:
 It generally occurs when many of the pesticides/
insecticides/ herbicides is used for a prolonged period
of time which adversely affects the soil quality and
therefore polluting it.
Merits and demerits of Agrochemicals

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Ento-322, Agrochemicals for agriculture usee

  • 1. Dr Anita Sharma Assistant Professor, Entomology
  • 2.  AGROCHEMICALS ; A chemicals which is used increase the agriculture production such crop Protectors and Soil supplements are called as “Agrochemicals”  Agrochemicals were introduced to protect crops from pests and enhance crop yields
  • 3.  An optimum nutrient level is essential for productive agriculture. Nutrients can be supplied either by natural sources or in the form of synthetic chemical fertilizers. However, the use of both natural and chemical fertilizers may result in an excess of nutrients, which can cause problems in water bodies and to health. This excess use of various fertilizers may pollute food crops and groundwater; this process is commonly called agrochemical pollution
  • 6.  Pesticides: Pesticide is a chemical or a substance used to destroy or control some types of plants or organisms also known as pests, which are harmful to cultivated plants or to animals.  Insecticides: It is used to destroy insects. Insecticides can be ovicides that kill eggs, larvicides to kill larvae. Pesticides examples: Organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyrethroids.  Herbicides: It is used to control or kill weeds and herbs. Herbicides examples: Gramoxone and glyphosate.  Algaecides: used for controlling algae. Also known as algicides.
  • 7.  Fertiliser: This are chemical compounds used for promoting plant growth.  Fertiliser can be categorized into two categories: Organic And Inorganic fertilisers.  Organic fertilisers are naturally existing substances prepared through natural processes.  Inorganic fertilisers, also referred to as synthetic fertilizers are manufactured artificially using chemical processes by utilizing natural deposits, which are altered chemically.
  • 8.  HORMONES/GROWTH AGENTS :  Are of Endogenous origin and are synthesised by plants.  These are Growth regulators performing function in overall development of the plant  Liming and acidifying agents: Soils sometimes can be too acidic or too alkaline for proper growth of crops. In these cases, liming and acidifying products are added to soil to adjust its pH. When the soil is too acidic, calcite on the form of powdered limestone is added primarily, whereas for more alkaline soil sulfur compounds are added to neutralize.
  • 9. 1. Effects on soil:  May kill beneficial bacteria  Increase nitrate level in soils  Alter the pH of the soil  Residual effect  Kill soil organisms  Toxicity and reduction in soil quality
  • 10. 2. Effects on water:  Water becomes unfit for consumption  Can promote the growth of algae  Leads to eutrophication due to excessive chemicals  Affect aquatic animals due to water pollution
  • 11. 3. Effects on air:  Residues and particles of these chemicals can lead to air pollution.  Pesticides drift happens when air carries agrochemicals particles from one place to other.  More amount of spray evaporation may happen due to low relative humidity and higher temperatures.  Effect surrounding organisms’ health due to inhalation of polluted air.
  • 12. 4. Effects on human health:  It causes variety of health effects, from simple skin and eyes irritation.  It also effects the nervous system, causes cancer and also reproductive problems.  Can cause nerve damage, infertility, hormones disorders and neurotoxicity.
  • 13.  AIR POLLUTION:  The pesticides/ herbicides/ insecticides which are suspended in the air contribute to air pollution, when they are carried away to other areas due to wind.  The phenomenon is also known as pesticide drift.
  • 14.  WATER POLLUTION:  It refers to pollution of water bodies such as ponds, lakes or rivers due to unintended mix up of synthetic herbicides/ fungicides/ pesticides  SOIL POLLUTION:  It generally occurs when many of the pesticides/ insecticides/ herbicides is used for a prolonged period of time which adversely affects the soil quality and therefore polluting it.
  • 15. Merits and demerits of Agrochemicals